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  1. African American Vernacular English
  2. American and British English differences
  3. American and British English pronunciation differences
  4. American English
  5. Americanism
  6. American National Corpus
  7. Appalachian English
  8. Baby mama
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  17. Century Dictionary
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  19. Dictionary of American Regional English
  20. English-language vowel changes before historic l
  21. General American
  22. Harkers Island%2C North Carolina
  23. Inland Northern American English
  24. Intervocalic alveolar flapping
  25. List of British idioms
  26. List of British words not widely used in the United States
  27. L-vocalization
  28. Maine-New Hampshire English
  29. Names of numbers in English
  30. New Jersey English
  31. New York dialect
  32. New York Latino English
  33. Nigga
  34. North American English
  35. North American regional phonology
  36. North Central American English
  37. Northeast Pennsylvania English
  38. Northern cities vowel shift
  39. Ozark Southern English
  40. Pacific Northwest English
  41. Pennsylvania Dutch English
  42. Philadelphia accent
  43. Phonological history of English low back vowels
  44. Phonological history of English short A
  45. Pittsburgh English
  46. Pronunciation respelling for English
  47. Regional vocabularies of American English
  48. Rhotic and non-rhotic accents
  49. Southern American English
  50. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
  51. The American Language
  52. Tidewater accent
  53. Utah English
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  55. Whilst
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  58. Yooper dialect

 

 
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AMERICAN ENGLISH
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pronunciation_respelling_for_English

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Pronunciation respelling for English

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Many dictionaries and other language references give pronunciation guides for some or all words listed. Most British English dictionaries now use the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) for these, and represent Received Pronunciation (RP). However some British, and most American volumes, use respelling systems, which may be more intuitive for readers unfamiliar with IPA, and which may allow for a symbol to be interpreted differently by readers of different dialects.

Traditional respelling systems

The following chart matches the IPA symbols used to represent the sounds in the English language with the phonetic symbols used in several dictionaries and reference materials. The respelling systems on this page are mostly for American English, so the IPA symbols are those for the General American accent. This chart is not a comprehensive list of symbols found in pronunciation guides, and it is not a guide to the pronunciation systems found in these works; you will need to consult the individual works to learn the idiosyncratic conventions of each system.

The works referenced above adhere (for the most part) to the one-symbol-per-sound principle. Other works not included here, such as Webster's New Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language (unabridged, 2nd ed.), do not and thus have several different symbols for the same sound (partly to allow for different phonemic mergers and splits).

If viewing this in your browser as opposed to as a hard copy, you may hover over the abbreviations with your mouse to get the full titles.

Notes

  1. The following symbols have their IPA values in all the systems listed: b, d, f, g, k, l, m, n, p, s, t, v, w, z.
  2. The IPA symbol [ʍ] is sometimes encountered in place of [hw].
  3. The IPA symbol [ɹ] is usually written as [r] in English works.
  4. The older IPA symbols (ι, ɷ) are sometimes encountered for [ɪ] and [ʊ], respectively.
  5. Older editions of The Chambers Dictionary used o͞o for ŭ and o͞o for oo.
  6. Nasalized vowel, as in the French phrase un bon vin blanc (IPA: [œ̃ bɔ̃ vã blɑ̃]).
  7. Older editions of the Concise Oxford Dictionary used a mix of two systems: the "phonetic scheme" shown in the table above and a system "without respelling". The latter added diacritics to conventional spellings and accepted the following orthographic conventions:

Title abbreviations

  • IPA – International Phonetic Alphabet (for General American)
  • K&K - Kenyon, John S., Thomas A. Knott (1944/1953). A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster. ISBN 978-0-87779-047-1.
  • A – general Americanist phonetic notation (used primarily in linguistics literature in the USA)
  • AHD American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000). Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.[1]
  • MWCD – Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary
  • NOAD – New Oxford American Dictionary (2005, Apple Computer)
  • RHD – Random House Dictionary of the English Language (1966)
  • WBO – World Book Online (1998)
  • MECD – Microsoft Encarta College Dictionary
  • DPL – Dictionary of Pronunciation (authors: Abraham Lass & Betty Lass)
  • DPN – Dictionary of Pronunciation (author: Samuel Noory)
  • NBC – NBC Handbook of Pronunciation
  • MWO – Merriam-Webster Online (http://www.m-w.com/)
  • COD – E. McIntosh, ed. (1964 [1974]),The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 5th Edition. Oxford. (this notation was used up to the 7th edition—newer editions use IPA)
  • Cham - The Chambers Dictionary (2003)
  • AB - ARPABET, a commonly-used computerized encoding for English phonetics, as used by the Carnegie Mellon Pronouncing Dictionary (cmudict)

International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet is a standardized method of phonetic transcription developed by a group of English and French language teachers in 1888. In the beginning, only specialized pronunciation dictionaries for linguists used it, for example, the English Pronouncing Dictionary edited by Daniel Jones (EPD, 1917). The IPA was used by English teachers as well, and started to appear in popular dictionaries for learners of English as a foreign language, such as the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (1948), and Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (1978).

IPA is very flexible, allowing for a wide variety of transcriptions between broad phonemic transcriptions which describe the significant units of meaning in language, and phonetic transcriptions which indicate every nuance sound in detail.

The IPA pronunciation scheme used in the first twelve editions of the EPD was relatively simple, using a quantitative system indicating vowel length using a colon, and requiring the reader to infer other vowel qualities. Many phoneticians preferred a qualitative system, which used different symbols to indicate vowel timbre and colour. A.C. Gimson introduced a quantitative-qualitative IPA notation system when he took over editorship of the EPD (13th edition, 1967), and by the 1990s, the Gimson system had become a de facto standard for phonetic notation of British Received Pronunciation (RP).


 

The first native (not learner's) English dictionary using IPA may have been the Collins English Dictionary (1979), and others followed suit. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (OED2, 1989) used IPA, transcribed letter-for-letter from entries in the first edition, which had been noted in a scheme by the original editor, James Murray.

While IPA has not been adopted by popular dictionaries in the United States, there is a demand for learner's dictionaries which provide both British and American English pronunciation. Some dictionaries, such as the Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary and the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English provide a separate transcription for each.

British and American English dialects have a similar set of phonemes, but some are pronounced differently; in technical parlance, they consist of different phones. Although developed for RP, the Gimson system being phonemic, it is not far from much of General American pronunciation as well. A number of recent dictionaries, such as the Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner's English Dictionary, add a few non-phonemic symbols /r i u əl ən/ to represent both RP and General American pronunciation in a single IPA transcription.


 

Clive Upton updated the Gimson scheme, changing the symbols used for five vowels. He served as pronunciation consultant for the influential Concise Oxford English Dictionary, which adopted this scheme in its ninth edition (1995). Upton's reform is controversial: it reflects changing pronunciation, but critics say it represents a narrower regional accent, and abandons parallelism with American and Australian English.

The in-progress 3rd edition of the Oxford English Dictionary uses Upton's scheme for representing British pronunciations. For American pronunciations it uses an IPA-based scheme devised by Prof. William Kretzschmar of the University of Georgia.

References

  • Wells, John (2001). "IPA transcription systems for English", at University College London Department of Phonetics and Linguistics site. Retrieved 2006-08-16.
  • Antimoon.com. "Introduction to phonetic transcription", at Antimoon.com. Retrieved 2006-08-16.
  • Oxford English Dictionary. "Pronunciation", from the Preface to the Third Edition. Retrieved 2006-09-10.
  • Oxford English Dictionary. "Key for Second Edition Entries", from the OED website. Retrieved 2006-09-10.
  • Oxford English Dictionary. "Key to New Edition Entries", from the OED website. Retrieved 2006-09-10.

See also

  • IPA chart for English
  • Wikipedia:Manual of Style (pronunciation)
  • International Phonetic Alphabet for English
  • International Phonetic Alphabet
  • General American phonology
  • A Wikipedia pronunciation respelling key
  • English pronunciation of Greek letters

External links

  • The use of Phonetic and other Symbols in Dictionaries: A brief survey
  • List of pronunciation key
 
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