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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. African American Vernacular English
  2. American and British English differences
  3. American and British English pronunciation differences
  4. American English
  5. Americanism
  6. American National Corpus
  7. Appalachian English
  8. Baby mama
  9. Baltimorese
  10. Boston accent
  11. Boston Brahmin accent
  12. Boston slang
  13. British and American keyboards
  14. Buffalo English
  15. California English
  16. Central Pennsylvania accent
  17. Century Dictionary
  18. Chinook Jargon use by English Language speakers
  19. Dictionary of American Regional English
  20. English-language vowel changes before historic l
  21. General American
  22. Harkers Island%2C North Carolina
  23. Inland Northern American English
  24. Intervocalic alveolar flapping
  25. List of British idioms
  26. List of British words not widely used in the United States
  27. L-vocalization
  28. Maine-New Hampshire English
  29. Names of numbers in English
  30. New Jersey English
  31. New York dialect
  32. New York Latino English
  33. Nigga
  34. North American English
  35. North American regional phonology
  36. North Central American English
  37. Northeast Pennsylvania English
  38. Northern cities vowel shift
  39. Ozark Southern English
  40. Pacific Northwest English
  41. Pennsylvania Dutch English
  42. Philadelphia accent
  43. Phonological history of English low back vowels
  44. Phonological history of English short A
  45. Pittsburgh English
  46. Pronunciation respelling for English
  47. Regional vocabularies of American English
  48. Rhotic and non-rhotic accents
  49. Southern American English
  50. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
  51. The American Language
  52. Tidewater accent
  53. Utah English
  54. Vermont English
  55. Whilst
  56. Y'all
  57. Yat
  58. Yooper dialect

 

 
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AMERICAN ENGLISH
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Central_American_English

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

North Central American English

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

North Central American English is used to refer to two dialects spoken in the Midwest United States. A fuller explanation of key distinctions of the region's speech may be found in the appropriate section of American English regional differences.

A related accent, of an adjacent region to the east, is Inland Northern American English.

Michigan and Wisconsin

Main article: Yooper dialect

It refers to the dialect of the English language spoken most commonly in The Upper Peninsula of Michigan (UP), where it is commonly called Yooper. Although it is also spoken in parts of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, northern and central Wisconsin and southern Ontario, Canada, its use is most prevalent in the UP.

It is common in the Upper Peninsula and in Wisconsin to append the classic Canadian "eh" to statements-turned-questions, in place of the usual "isn't it?", "right?" or "hmmm?" (as in "You think so, eh?") — but this tendency does not extend to statements as is frequently heard in Canada. It is also common to put a superfluous "then" at the end of sentences, and it is common to use the expression "bye now". A related expression may be a contraction of "isn't it so" pronounced "in-so." This expression appears to be local to the region around Sheboygan County, Wisconsin.

The local dialect of the city of Milwaukee is heavily influenced by German features, resulting in certain unique constructions and phraseologies. For example, one goes "by" a destination, not "to", as in "I'm going by the store", a usage copied from the German preposition "bei". One notable (and absolutely unique) vocabulary item is "bubbler", meaning "drinking fountain". One explanation of its origin is from a child's remark at the ceremony opening of the first such public fountain in the city. However, the term "bubbler" most likely comes from the name of a water fountain design made by Kohler, the predominant maker of fountains in these areas. In the region, it is commonly used to the north in Sheboygan and in the west to Madison, although it is also found in parts of Eastern New England, including Rhode Island and Massachusetts.

Minnesota

The term also refers to a similar accent spoken in Minnesota, particularly in rural areas. The accent is perhaps most famous for its heavily emphasized use in the movie Fargo, although the depiction was not an entirely accurate one. (While the movie's title city is in fact located in North Dakota, it's set primarily in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area.) The popular radio host Garrison Keillor has also helped to make the accent well-known. The accent itself is known for its long, monophthongal 'O' vowels, as in the words "boat", "toast", "snow" or "ghost". The sound of "a" in "that" is pronounced long, and often with acute accent. Minnesotans are stereotypically known for using "Uff da" (Norwegian, pronounced "oofda"), "yah sure" and "you betcha" in everyday conversation, but these are only used infrequently except as a self-referential joke. Another common usage is "hot-dish" instead of "casserole" (possibly from the Swedish varmrätt).

These very similar accents were heavily influenced by 19th century immigrants from Scandinavia, Finland, Germany and Poland. Many people in Minnesota, particularly those who are older and live in rural portions of the state, have a melodic way of speaking that is reminiscent of Swedish and Norwegian.

In these accents, "yah" or "ya" is frequently used instead of "yeah" or "yes" (cf. Swedish, Norwegian, German, Danish, Dutch, "ja"). The Germanic trend of replacing /ð/ with /d/ and /θ/ with /t/ is sometimes heard, including "that" becoming "dat" and the Minneapolis Northeast district sometimes, often in jest, referred to as "Nordeast."

In addition, many Minnesotans use the word "borrow" to mean both "lend" and "borrow," as in, "I borrowed him the book." This usage may be traced to Swedish or German, where the word for "lend" and "borrow" are the same (låna).

Common features

These speakers tend to leave out the object of "to go with," "to come with," and similar constructions. "You wanna come with?" is considered correct, with an implied "me" or "us" at the end (cf. German "Kommst Du mit?", Swedish "Följer du med?", Dutch "Kom je mee?"). This descends from the Germanic separable prefix verbs, which heavily influences the speech in the area. (This phenomenon has also been recorded in French-speaking areas of Belgium and Switzerland: "Vas-tu avec?".)

See also

  • Inland Northern American English


 

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Central_American_English"