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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. African American Vernacular English
  2. American and British English differences
  3. American and British English pronunciation differences
  4. American English
  5. Americanism
  6. American National Corpus
  7. Appalachian English
  8. Baby mama
  9. Baltimorese
  10. Boston accent
  11. Boston Brahmin accent
  12. Boston slang
  13. British and American keyboards
  14. Buffalo English
  15. California English
  16. Central Pennsylvania accent
  17. Century Dictionary
  18. Chinook Jargon use by English Language speakers
  19. Dictionary of American Regional English
  20. English-language vowel changes before historic l
  21. General American
  22. Harkers Island%2C North Carolina
  23. Inland Northern American English
  24. Intervocalic alveolar flapping
  25. List of British idioms
  26. List of British words not widely used in the United States
  27. L-vocalization
  28. Maine-New Hampshire English
  29. Names of numbers in English
  30. New Jersey English
  31. New York dialect
  32. New York Latino English
  33. Nigga
  34. North American English
  35. North American regional phonology
  36. North Central American English
  37. Northeast Pennsylvania English
  38. Northern cities vowel shift
  39. Ozark Southern English
  40. Pacific Northwest English
  41. Pennsylvania Dutch English
  42. Philadelphia accent
  43. Phonological history of English low back vowels
  44. Phonological history of English short A
  45. Pittsburgh English
  46. Pronunciation respelling for English
  47. Regional vocabularies of American English
  48. Rhotic and non-rhotic accents
  49. Southern American English
  50. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
  51. The American Language
  52. Tidewater accent
  53. Utah English
  54. Vermont English
  55. Whilst
  56. Y'all
  57. Yat
  58. Yooper dialect

 

 
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AMERICAN ENGLISH
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Latino_English

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

New York Latino English

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

New York Latino English, sometimes called Nuyorican English, is a form of New York dialect. It originated with the post war Puerto Rican immigration to New York City and particularly the subsequent generations born in the New York dialect region who were native speakers of both English and Spanish. However, it is now the customary dialect of many Hispanic-Americans of diverse national heritages in the New York metropolitan area United States, including Sephardic Jews. Therefore, terms like Nuyorican English and the related term Puerto Rican English are now misnomers.

The dialect shows influence of New York European American English and African American Vernacular English and contact with Spanish. Importantly, this is a native variety of English, not learner English or interlanguage. It is sometimes spoken by people who know little or no Spanish. A few characteristics include:

  • /t/ and /d/ is realized as dental stops [t̪] and [d̪] rather than the standard American and AAVE alveolars [t] and [d]. Dentalization is also common in New York European American dialect.
  • Devoicing of voiced obstruent codas (e.g., characterize may be realized with a final [s])
  • Consonant cluster simplifications such as the loss of dental stops after nasals (e.g., bent) and fricatives, (e.g., left, test). this leads to a characteristic plural, in which words like tests are pronounced [t̪ɛst̪ɪs], sometimes written as testes. This feature is shared by African American Vernacular English.
  • /l/ onsets are clear, unlike those of most other New Yorkers, but, curiously, similar to those in some European American dialects in other parts of the US such as Philadelphia.
  • lack of inversion or do support particularly in first and second person questions (I can go to the bathroom?)
  • Calques and direct translations of Spanish expressions and words (e.g., owned by the devil, instead of possessed by the devil, closed meaning locked.
  • /u/ after coronals is not fronted as in New York European American varieties.
  • Pronunciation is predominantly non-rhotic. The vernacular tends to be non-rhotic, and cultivated forms rhotic, as in AAVE and some European American varieties.
  • Because Sephardic Jews speak a different variety of NYLE, many Ladino words are blended into this dialect.

It is possible to differentiate this variety from an interlanguage spoken by second language speakers in that NYLE does not contain:

  • There are no confusions of tense and lax vowels, outside contexts where other native speakers often vary usage. So sheep is never confused with ship, although really and ceiling may be pronounced with lax vowels, as in African American Vernacular English.
  • There is no addition of /ɛ/ before initial consonant clusters with /s/.
  • Speakers do not confuse of /dʒ/ with /j/, (e.g., Yale with jail).

Chicano English also shares some of the above features.

In some movies American street thugs, including non-Latino ones, may use NYLE features or other features of other Latino English varieties. As result, some people may inaccurately associate NYLE with delinquent street culture.

References

  • Slomanson, Peter & Michael Newman (2004) “Peer Group Identification and Variation in New York Latino English Laterals” English World-Wide, 25 (2) pp. 199-216 (http://www.benjamins.com/cgi-bin/t_seriesview.cgi?series=EWW)
  • Wolfram, Walt (1974) Sociolinguistic Aspects of Assimilation: Puerto Rican English in New York City Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics ISBN 0-87281-034-8
  • Wolfram, Walt & Natalie Schilling Estes (2005) American English 2nd edition Blackwell ISBN 1-4051-1265-4
  • Wolfram, Walt & Ben Ward (2005) American Voices: How Dialects Differ from Coast to Coast Blackwell ISBN 1-4051-2109-2

External links

  • The New York Latino English Project The site of the New York Latino English project, which studies the native English spoken by New York Latinos.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Latino_English"