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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
•••••••••

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
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- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
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THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teacher

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Teacher

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
See also: Teacher (Fullmetal Alchemist episode)
A teacher writes on a blackboard in an American college.
A teacher writes on a blackboard in an American college.

In education, teachers are those who help students or pupils learn, often in a school. The objective is typically a course of study, lesson plan, or a practical skill, including learning and thinking skills. The different ways to teach are often referred to as the teacher's pedagogy. When deciding what teaching method to use, a teacher will need to consider students' background knowledge, environment, and their learning goals as well as standardized curricula as determined by the relevant authority. The teacher should also be able to deal with students with different abilities and should also be able to deal with learning disabilities. Many times, teachers assist in learning outside of the classroom by accompanying students on field trips. They also supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, and serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities.

Teaching may occur face-to-face or via some other modality, e.g. through distance education or e-learning.

Related positions

  • A teacher who is positioned to help the student in a particular subject, is in some cultures called a "bang".
  • A teacher or trainer from whom a student learns a great deal may be called a "mentor". (this term is used, in this context, in the UK.)
  • An "educationalist" is an educational theorist, writer or researcher.
  • In traditional China, the model teacher, Confucius, is greatly revered. A Chinese term for teacher is shifu, (sifu) (teacher-father) or laoshi(old teacher).
  • Other terms are rabbi, guru, etc.

Primary and Secondary School Teachers

A teacher's room in a Japanese middle school, 2005.
A teacher's room in a Japanese middle school, 2005.

Perhaps the most significant difference between primary and secondary teaching in the UK is the relationship between teachers and children. In primary schools each class has a teacher who stays with them for most of the week and will teach them the whole curriculum. In secondary schools they will be taught by different subject specialists each session during the week and may have 10 or more different teachers. The relationship between children and their teachers tends to be closer in the primary school where they act as form tutor, specialist teacher and surrogate parent during the course of the day.

This is true throughout most of the United States as well. However, alternative approaches for primary education do exist. One of these, sometimes referred to as a "platoon" system, involves placing a group of students together in one class that moves from one specialist to another for every subject. The advantage here is that students learn from teachers who specialize in one subject and who tend to be more knowledgeable in that one area than a teacher who teaches many subjects. Students still derive a strong sense of security by staying with the same group of peers for all classes.

University teachers

Teachers in college are called instructors or lecturers. In the United States, the term "professor" is usually applied to college or University teachers who have received their Ph.D., while instructors or lecturers have received their Masters degree, and usually are pursuing their Ph.D. Professorial rankings from Assistant Professor through Full Professor that may be defined differently at various institutions. The rank of American university instructors depends in part on the amount of relevant and publishable research completed over time.

An "assistant professor" is typically required to have completed extensive research seminars at the post-graduate level and have written and defended the dissertation. The Ph.D. is almost always required. Assistant professors are similar to lecturers or readers in the United Kingdom. Their initial preparation for the profession takes between eight and twelve years.

An "associate professor" must typically have completed five or more years of additional research, published articles in national and international journals, developed syllabi for the teaching of various courses, provided services to the University (i.e., committee member, faculty senate member, etc.), and in most cases have published refereed books.

The "full professor" in the United States would be the equivalent of the "Professor" in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. It is not typical to achieve the title of "full professor" within the first fifteen to twenty years as an educator and researcher at a university in the United States. It requires dedication to the discipline and eminent, original scholarship, as shown through published works and a diverse curriculum vitae.

In the United Kingdom the title 'Professor' is restricted to university teachers who have been granted a 'chair'. Others are known as lecturers or readers and usually carry the title "Dr." by virtue of having a PhD. A very small number of lecturers, particularly on social science and arts fields, may be titled "Mr/Mrs" etc as they may only have a Masters degree.

Senior teachers

Teachers who look after the whole school are called head teachers, school principals, headmasters or headmistresses. The equivalent in colleges and universities is called the dean, principal or vice-chancellor. See also school leadership.
Teachers of this status rarely teach students. A teacher in a grammar or public school in Britain may also be a Head of House. Houses were also used in secondary and comprehensive schools.

As with most large organizations a school needs a hierarchical structure of command, allowing matters to be delegated to a specific department or the senior teachers of the school. In many cases there are deputy headteachers, heads of department (or subject, such as science or history) and heads of year. A head of year is in charge of the pastoral care of one year group.

Every school has a disciplinary procedure which dictates how punishments should be given to misbehaving students. One common method of coping with problems is the idea of escalation whereby the classroom teacher attempts to deal with the student(s) themselves before passing it on to a more senior teacher. Eventually, should the situation not be resolved, the headmaster becomes involved.

Replacement teachers

Main article: substitute teacher

A teacher may be replaced by another teacher if he or she is absent due to illness, death, or planned absence. In the United States and some parts of Canada, notably Saskatchewan, replacement teachers are known as substitute teachers (or more informally as "subs") and more recently "guest teachers". In Australia and New Zealand they are known as "casual" or "relief" teachers; in the UK and in other parts of Canada, notably Ontario, they are known as supply teachers. In British Columbia, Canada, they are called TOCs (teachers-on-call). Temporary, substitute teachers in universities are usually in forms of multiple guest lecturers.

These teachers often find it difficult to acclimatise to the new environment, often moving from one school to another week after week or day after day[citation needed]. They are often viewed badly by the students they are looking after with a "you're not a real teacher" joke attitude making behaviour management very difficult[citation needed]. Meanwhile, in some subjects, they may actually know less than their students.[citation needed]. In long term replacements, however, this often quickly subsides.

Teacher trade union groups have expressed resentment towards the continuous use of supply teachers (who may be paid a lower amount) to satisfy long-term shortages when school administrations have resisted creating a permanent teaching position[citation needed].

The United States observes a Substitute Educator's Day, which was instituted by the National Education Association (NEA). The purpose of this day is to highlight the role and importance of the substitute teacher by providing information about, advocating for, and helping to increase appreciation and respect for this unique professional. This day also focuses on the needs of substitutes, which include better wages and health benefits and continual professional development[citation needed]. Substitute Educator's Day is observed on the Friday during American Education Week. Other countries and jurisdictions have similar observances[citation needed].

Qualification and registration

Teachers are usually educated in a university or college. Often they must be certified by a government body before they can teach in a school.

Canada

Canadian teachers must receive certification from a provincial College of Teachers or the provincial department responsible for teacher certification in order to be able to teach in elementary and secondary schools. In Manitoba, for example, the responsibility for teacher certification lies with the Department of Education, Citizenship, and Youth - Professional Certification and Records Branch. Teachers need a Bachelor's degree in Education (B.Ed.), often on top of another recognized Bachelor's degree. This adds one or two more years to a university education. To earn a degree in secondary education, teachers must have a certain number of university credits in their subject field. This number varies from province to province, and in some provinces it varies from school to school. Most employers of teachers require that successful applicants complete criminal record checks, as well as verification that an employee is not listed in the Child Abuse Registry. These same requirements are, in addition to being a sound part of the hiring practice, a requirement of most provincial education legislation. Other requirements such as a tuberculosis test, and level of experience criteria may also be required.

The process for certification is somewhat different in all provinces, but there is no process for obtaining "inter-provincial" certification. Any teacher must obtain certification from the specific province they wish to teach in. In extreme circumstances, such as a lack of any suitable certifiable candidates for a specific teaching position, an employer may apply for temporary certification of a non-certified person. This temporary certification is usually valid for one calendar year after ministry approval, but must be requested by the school, not by a non-certified applicant for a teaching position.

England and Wales

Main article: Qualified Teacher Status

In England and Wales teachers in the maintained sector must have gained Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). There are many paths in which a person can work towards gaining their QTS, the most popular of which is to have completed a first degree program (such as a BA or BSc) and then a Post-Graduate Certificate of Education (PGCE). Other methods include a specific teaching degree (BEd) or on-the-job training at a school. All qualified teachers in England must serve, after training, a statutory one year induction period that must be passed in order to remain a registered teacher. In Wales this period lasts for two years. During this period a teacher is known as an NQT (Newly Qualified Teacher). Schools are obliged to provide guidance, support and training to facilitate the NQT's success during this year. Local education authorities are also obliged to provide professional development opportunities.

Teachers in independent schools are not statutorily required to hold QTS, although independent schools increasingly prefer teachers to hold this qualification unless they have already gained significant teaching experience. The post-experience PGCE at the University of Buckingham is designed for independent school teachers. Some specialist independent schools, such as those following Montessori principles, require teachers trained in that specific educational philosophy.

The Teach First scheme, aimed at recent graduates, was introduced in 2003 in London and more recently in Manchester and it allows trainees to teach in schools without the Post-Graduate Certificate of Education (PGCE). After an intense period of training in the summer following graduation, trainees are placed in secondary schools. Following the successful completion of the first year, trainee teachers gain QTS status and may then continue teaching for a minimum of one year.

Cover supervisors are responsible for covering scheduled and unscheduled teacher absence, but must adhere to rules regarding the assistance they give to pupils in the accomplishment of their assigned tasks for the lesson concerned. Employment as a cover supervisor requires no knowledge of the delivered subject or scheme of work other than given by the absent teacher (in theory)

For teachers qualified outside of Scotland an application must be made to the GTCS for exceptional registration.

United States

In the United States, each state determines the requirements for getting a license to teach. Normally, a bachelor's degree with a major in a certifiable area (languages, arts, sciences, etc.) is a minimum requirement, along with rigorous pedagogical methods, course work and practical field experiences as "student teachers." It is also required by all states that teachers pass standardised exams at the national and/or state levels both in the subjects they teach and the methods of teaching those subjects, and that they undergo constant evaluation by local, state, and sometimes even private organizations during their first years of teaching. Most states use graduated licensing programs (i.e., initial, Stage II, Rank I, professional, provisional, etc.). A license to teach in one state will usually facilitate the obtainment of a license in another state.

Until the 1960s, a person could not teach unless he or she had completed a year or more of specific teaching training at a normal school. In the past two decades, normal school courses have been made optional through the promotion of Alternate Route teacher certification. New Jersey was the first state to establish an Alternate Route program, doing so in 1984. Since then, most states have established their own programs.

Teachers in almost all states must have a Bachelor's degree with the appropriate teacher preparation course and complete a Master's degree within five years. Additionally, to be permanently certified, teachers must pass three state exams on pedagogy, general knowledge and knowledge of a content area. In order to work in a public school a candidate must be fingerprinted.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that there are 1.4 million elementary school teachers, 600,000 middle school teachers, and 1 million secondary school teachers employed in the U.S.

US News (2006) has ranked graduate programs in teacher education in the following order: Harvard University, Columbia University, UCLA, Stanford University, Vanderbilt University, University of California, Berkeley, University of Pennsylvania, University of Wisconsin, University of Michigan, Northwestern University and the University of Minnesota.

Teach for America and the Mississippi Teacher Corps are two highly competitive, alternate-route teaching programs, for college graduates who are not education majors.

Teaching as a profession

Teachers are considered professionals on par with doctors because they are often required to obtain specialized education and professional licensure.

In most cultures, teaching is referred to as a profession. Arguments for this include the respect that is felt for teachers in some cultures, the existence of a body of specialised professional knowledge, and codes of ethics. In Canada some provinces such as Ontario and British Columbia operate a 'College of Teachers' established by legislation to serve and protect the public interest through certifying, governing and enforcing the standards of practice for the teaching profession.

The College's functions include setting out clear standards of practice, providing for the ongoing education of teachers, investigating complaints involving members, conducting hearings into allegations of professional misconduct and taking appropriate disciplinary action and accrediting teacher education programs.

Teachers in publicly funded schools in these provinces must be members in good standing with the College. Many private schools also require their teachers to be College members.

World Teachers’ Day== UNESCO inaugurated World Teachers’ Day on 5 October 1994 to celebrate and commemorate the signing of the Recommendation Concerning the Status of Teachers on 5 October 1966. World Teachers’ Day also highlighted the Recommendation Concerning the Status of Higher Education Teaching Personnel adopted in 1997. Some countries or regions such as Taiwan also celebrate Teacher's Day as a national holiday. In Brazil and Chile, it is celebrated on October 15, while in India it is celebrated on the 5th of September. In Brunei, it is celebrated on September 23. In Turkey it is celebrated on 24th November since 1928. North Cyprus also celebrates this day.In Malaysia, it is celebrated on 16 May.

Salaries

Teachers' salaries vary from country to country: US teachers are paid on a graduated scale, starting at the low end and moving up on the pay scale with experience. According to the National Education Association (NEA), the average starting teacher's salary in the US is just over $31,000, while the average teacher makes just over $42,000. The amount an American teacher earns depends on education level, experience, and the school/district/state--the cost of living in certain areas heavily influences the amount of a teacher's salary. The pay for teachers varies greatly from state to state, with South Dakota paying the least. Salaries in the UK are largely dependent upon time in post (seniority) and any management responsibilities. From 2007, teachers outside the London area (which are paid higher due to higher living costs) can expect to start on around £21,000 (approx $41,500 USD) and rising by around £1,100 per year. Teachers of 'shortage' subjects eg Maths, Physics etc can expect a 'golden hello' taking them to around £26,000 ($51,200 USD) starting salary. However, the countries where teachers are paid the most are Germany, Switzerland and South Korea.

Religious Teacher

The term can also refer to any religious person who preached a religious dogma. The figure, Jesus of Nazareth, was ofter referred to as a teacher. This is true of other religious figures beside Christian advocates. Buddha and Confucius both were considered learned teachers as well as religious men. Often these teachers would have a group of followers that would travel and live with their teacher and leader. The Prophet Mohammad is often referred to as both a teacher and a warrior of the faith.

See also

Teaching for social justice

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teacher"