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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
•••••••••

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university
 



THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M-learning

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

M-learning

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

'M-learning' is the follow up of E-learning which for its part originates from D-learning (distance education). M-learning is the delivery of learning to students who are not keeping a fixed location or through the use of mobile or portable technology. The rapid growth of information and communication technologies (ICT) makes it possible to develop new forms of this education. (Georgiev, T., E.Georgieva, A.Smrikarov. M-Learning - A New Stage of E-Learning, http://ecet.ecs.ru.acad.bg/cst04/Docs/sIV/428.pdf)

Definition

mLearning (or "Mobile Learning") describes an array of ways that people learn, test or stay connected with knowledge needed for school, work or task accomplishment. Devices utilized include: Mobile Phones, PDAs (such as a Palm or Pocket PC) -- or the combination of the two in a Smart Phone -- and digital audio players such as an mp3 player. This can redefine "on the job" training for someone who accesses a lesson literally "just in time" while faced with a new challenge and they have to turn to their mobile device for instant answers. Field research can take a wealth of knowledge and data into the field with these devices and also send back new data instantly for others to use elsewhere. This is a form of eLearning where mobility matters and the connectedness while wandering away from a desktop or laptop plugged into a wired connection extends the usefulness and timeliness of the lesson and learning experience -- perhaps shared with other mobile learners.

Differences between M-Learning and E-Learning

If e-learning took learning away from the classroom or campus, then m-learning is taking learning away from a fixed point. Where e-learning is an alternative to classroom learning (actually eLearning should/can be complementary to classroom learning) - m-learning is a complementary activity to both e-learning and traditional learning. M-learning respects that a user would like to interact with educational resources whilst away from their normal place of learning - classroom or computer.

In one sense m-learning has been around for longer than e-learning, with the paperback book and other portable resources, but technology is what shapes today's usage of m-learning. Technology now allows us to carry vast resources in our pockets and access these wherever we find convenient. Technology also allows us to interact with our peers instantaneously and work together remotely in ways never before possible.

While the opportunities that m-learning devices present us with are new - the challenges are quite old, smaller screen sizes, limited processing power, reduced input capabilities. These challenges mean that adapting existing e-learning services and content to m-learning is not a trivial task.

m-Learning has been gaining appeal among younger generations who have grown up using portable video game devices and wireless technology. In this sense, mLearning appeals not only to those who need learning portable, but to those who have grown up with a cognitive disposition towards using mobile devices- whether or not they have the need for true portability in their learning.

Challenges with m-learning

The connectivity is one of the main differences if we compare a mobile device with the PC (the usual medium for delivering e-learning). Nowadays mobile devices might be connected to ‘The Net’ via many technologies – WAP, GPRS, UMTS, Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. Although it is predictable that in the future the ‘always on’ will be wide spread still it is not the case. Mobile devices often have periods of disconnection, either intentionally (when the connection is too expensive) or not (when no infrastructure is provided).

Devices’ hardware and software characteristics have a big impact on what content is possible and meaningful to be delivered. Usually the web content is designed for desktop PCs, thus unpleasant and even rarely useful from a small-screened device. Nowadays mobile phones are rapidly becoming increasingly powerful (both from hardware and software point of view) however their screens will remain comparatively small. Often also the navigation is hard. Equipped with a small phone-style keyboard or a touch-screen (for the PDAs) the users might lose more time in searching where on the page the information they need is than in reading it. We can imagine alternative ways of navigation, for example voice commands. The memory available on a mobile device is also relatively small. It is possible to use extension packs on some devices like PDAs, which reduces some of the restrictions.

Devices such as the Nintendo DS raise the bar even higher by providing collaborative gaming. The Nokia N-Gage brings an expandable platform of gaming and mobile communications to the forefront.

mp3 players and other portable media devices have also come into the forefront of the mLearning trend with companies using these devices to deploy education to their 'road warrior' sales teams through podcasts or videocasts.

Location is a new thing to be considered. Although up to now we are talking only about limitations confronting m-learning and e-learning, there are also advantages. The small size of the device and the wireless connections make them available anytime and anywhere. The mobility opens variety of new scenarios. Services involving location-discovery are, for example, receiving directions on how to get to a certain room, or alerts for seminars/lectures that can be triggered while taking into consideration the current place and the time to get to the needed destination; location-aware printing of the learning content, etc.

Source: Copied rather too directly from Trifonova A., Ronchetti M. (2004). "A General Architecture to Support Mobility in Learning". Proc. of ICALT 2004 [IEEE Computer Society Press 2004, ISBN 0-7695-2181-9]. pp. 26-30 [1]


 

Different communication methods

  • Text Message / SMS
  • WAP Wireless Application Protocol
  • GPRS
  • Bluetooth
  • WLAN / Wifi
  • IrDA
  • I-Phone

Different program languages

  • C++
  • Java (J2ME)
  • MDTS (mobile delivery and tracking system)
  • Flash Lite
  • .NET Framework
  • HTML
  • WAP (WML, XML)
  • Python
  • LMA (authoring and publishing tool)

References

  • B Sanregret, Hot Lava Software, Mobile Learning: A Reality, Arlington, VA, SALT Conference, 2006.
  • L Low & M O'Connell, Learner-Centric Design of Digital Mobile Learning, Queensland University of Technology, 2006.
  • Sharma, S., F.Kitchens. Web Services Architecture for M-Learning, Electronic Journal on e-Learning, Vol.2, Issue 1, 2004.
  • T Georgiev, E Georgieva, A Smrikarov - Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Computer Systems and Technologies - CompSysTech'2004. http://ecet.ecs.ru.acad.bg/cst04/Docs/sIV/428.pdf
  • A Trifonova, M Ronchetti. A General Architecture to Support Mobility in Learning. Proc. of the 4th IEEE ICALT 2004
  • B Sanregret, Hot Lava Software, MLearning Basics 2005
  • T Toth. Technology for Trainers, ASTD Press 2003
  • D. McPhee and N. Thomas, "Evaluating the effectiveness of m-Learning in the teaching of multi-media to first year university students”, iJET International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning" Vol 1. 2006

External links

  • EU project: Incorporating Mobile Learning Into Mainstream Education
  • EU project: Mobile Learning: The Next Generation Of Learning
  • Sample Content: Mobile Learning: Business Skills
  • Mobile Learning Tools
  • Zimbio's mLearning group Wiki
  • mLearning devices
  • M-learning : home
  • mLearning World
  • M-Learning News Latest developments in mobile learning
  • M-learning and video streaming
  • m-Learning project in Sweden- Academic
  • PocketEd M-learning program at Coastline College Associate Degree PocketEd Program for military personnel
  • Mobile Learning for Kids K-8 sample Standardized Test Prep Content
  • Portal de m-learning en Español
  • The Math4Mobile Project Mathematics for Mobile Phones
  • Mobile Education Center of Excellence Mobile Learning Project at the University of Hagen / Germany
  • Mobility and Mobile Learning EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative's focus session on Mobility and Mobile Learning (mLearning in Higher Education); Autumn 2006
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M-learning"


 

 
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