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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
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THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_by_teaching

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Learning by teaching

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 
 

In professional education learning by teaching designates a method which centers on student voice, allowing pupils and students to prepare and teach lessons or parts of lessons. Learning by teaching should not be confused with presentations or lectures by students, as students do not only convey a certain content, but choose their own methodological and didactical approach in teaching their classmates a certain area of the respective subject. It should neither be confused with Tutoring or peer-teaching, because of the intensive control and supporting of the learning-process through the teacher by learning by teaching in contrast to the other methods.

Students teach each other in the classroom.
Students teach each other in the classroom.

History

Already Seneca told in his letters to Lucilius that we are learning if we teach (epistulae morales I, 7, 8): docendo discimus (lat.: "by teaching we are learning"). At all times in the school-history there have been phases where students were mobilized to teach their peers. Most of the time, it was in order to reduce the number of needed teachers, so one teacher could instruct 200 students. However, since the end of the 19th century, a number of didactic-pedagogic reasons for student teaching have been put forward.

Students as teachers in order to spare teachers

In 1795 the Scotsman Andrew Bell[1] wrote a book about the mutual teaching method that he observed and used himself in Madras. The Londoner Joseph Lancaster picked up this idea and implemented it in his schools. This method was introduced 1815 in France in the "écoles mutuelles", because of the increasing number of students who had to be trained and the lack of teachers. After the French revolution of 1830, 2,000 "écoles mutuelles" were registered in France. Due to a political change in the French administration, the number of écoles mutuelles shrank rapidly and these schools were marginalized. It is important to stress that the learning level in the Bell-Lancaster-schools was very low. In hindsight, the low level can probably be attributed to the fact that the teaching-process was delegated entirely to the tutors and that the teachers did not supervise and support the teaching process.
 

Students as teachers in order to improve the learning-process

The first attempts using the learning by teaching method in order to improve learning were started at the end of the 19th century.
Selective descriptions and researches
Accurate researches are starting in the middle of the 20th century, however just as selective descriptions. For instance Gartner 1971[2] in the US, in Germany Krüger 1975,[3] Wolfgang Steinig 1985,[4] Udo Kettwig 1986,[5] Theodor F. Klassen 1988,[6] Ursula Drews 1997[7] and A. Renkl 1997[8]
LdL as a comprehensive method
The method received broader recognition starting in the early eighties, when Jean-Pol Martin developed the concept systematically for the teaching of French as a foreign language and gave it a theoretical background in numerous publications.[9] 1987 he founded a network of more than a thousand teachers that employed learning by teaching (the specifical name: LdL = "Lernen durch Lehren") in many different subjects, documented its successes and approaches and presented their findings in various teacher training sessions.[10] From 2001 on LdL has gained more and more supporters as a result of educational reform movements started throughout Germany.

Learning by teaching by Martin (LdL)

LdL by Martin consists of two components: a general anthropological one and a subject-related one.

  • The anthropological basis of LdL is related to the pyramid or hierarchy of needs introduced by Abraham Maslow, which consists, from base to peak, of 1) physiological needs, 2) safety/security, 3) social/love/belonging, 4) esteem/self-confidence and 5) being/growth through self-actualization and self-transcendence. Personal growth moves upward through hierarchy, whereas regressive forces tend to push downward. The act of successful learning, preparation and teaching of others contributes to items 3 through 5 above. Facing the problems of our world today and in the future, it is essential to mobilize as many intellectual resources as possible, which happens in LdL lessons in a special way. Democratic skills are promoted through the communication and socialization necessary for this shared discovery and construction of knowledge.
  • The subject related component (in foreign language teaching) of LdL aims to negate the alleged contradiction between the three main components: automatization of speech-related behavior, teaching of cognitively internalized contents and authentic interaction/communication.

The LdL-Approach

After intensive preparation by the teacher, students become responsible for their own learning and teaching. The new material is divided into small units and student groups of not more than three people are formed. Each group familiarizes itself with a strictly defined area of new material and gets the assignment to teach the whole group in this area. One important aspect is that LdL should not be confused with a student-as-teacher-centered method. The material should be worked on didactically and methodologically (impulses, social forms, summarizing phases etc.). The teaching students have to make sure their audience has understood their message/topic/grammar points and therefore use different means to do so (e.g. short phases of group or partner exercises, comprehension questions, quizzes etc.)

Step by step: using human resources - the group as neural network

Martin made first steps in order to transfer the brain structure - especially the operating mode from neural networks - on the classroom-discourse [11]. The consequences regarding the lessons phases and the differences to the other methods will be sumed up in the following overview:


 

Most teachers using the method do not apply it in all their classes or all the time. They state the following advantages and disadvantages:

Advantages:

  • Student work is more motivated, efficient, active and intensive due to lowered inhibitions and an increased sense of purpose
  • By eliminating the class' division of authoritative teacher and passive audience, an emotive solidarity is obtained.
  • Students may perform many routine tasks, otherwise unnecessarily carried out by the instructor
  • Next to subject-related knowledge students gain important key qualifications like

- teamwork

- planning abilities

- reliability

- presentation and moderation skills

- self-confidence

Disadvantages

  • The introduction of the method requires a lot of time.
  • Students and teachers have to work more than usual.
  • There is a danger of simple duplication, repetition or monotony if the teacher does not provide periodic didactic impetus.

The Martin-reception

Martins Work has been largely received in teacher training and by practicing teachers: since 1985 more than 100 teacher students in all subjects wrote their ending thesis about LdL. Also the education administration received both the theory and the practice of LdL (vgl.Margret Ruep 1999[12]). In didactics handbooks LdL has been described ans as "extreme form of learner centred teaching"[13]). On the university level, LdL has been brigth disseminated by Joachim Grzega in Germany, Guido Oebel [14] in Japan and Alina Rachimova [15] in Russia.

Learning by teaching outside the LdL-context

Psychology of education

On the field of psychology of education in Germany A. Renkl did research about Learning by teaching almost without referring to Martin. In his publication 1997 he briefly quoted Martin but in his article from 2006 in the Handbook of psychology of education he just quoted English articles.[16] Eventually he comes to following judgment: "Regarding Learning by teaching the publications shows partly very euphoristic judgments about Learning by teaching (...). Considering the empirical researches this statements must be estimated with caution. Learning by teaching may but doesn't must work successfully." And further: "Thus further researches have to consider above all the utterly important practical and theortical question, which conditions have to be given in order to reach good results using Learning by teaching as teaching method."

Notes

  1. ^ Andrew Bell: Expériences sur l'éducation faite à l'école des garçons à Madras, 1798
  2. ^ Alan Gartner et al.: Children teach children. Learning by teaching. Harper & Row, New York 1971
  3. ^ Rudolf Krüger: Projekt „Lernen durch Lehren“. Schüler als Tutoren von Mitschülern'.' Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbronn 1975
  4. ^ Wolfgang Steinig: Schüler machen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Tübingen: Narr.1985
  5. ^ Udo Kettwig: Lernen durch Lehren, ein Plädoyer für lehrendes Lernen. In: Die deutsche Schule, Nr. 4 1986, 474-485
  6. ^ Theodor F. Klassen: Lernen durch Lehren, das Beispiel der Jenaplanschule Ulmbach. Zeitschrift Pädagogik, Nr. 11 1988, (S. 26-29)
  7. ^ Ursula Drews (Hrsg.): Themenheft: Schüler als Lehrende. PÄDAGOGIK. 11/49/1997. Beltz-Verlag, Weinheim
  8. ^ Alexander Renkl:Lernen durch Lehren. Zentrale Wirkmechanismen beim kooperativen Lernen. Deutscher Universitätsverlag: Wiesbaden, 1997.
  9. ^ Jean-Pol Martin:Zum Aufbau didaktischer Teilkompetenzen beim Schüler. Fremdsprachenunterricht auf der lerntheoretischen Basis des Informationsverarbeitungsansatzes. Dissertation. Tübingen: Narr. 1985; Jean-Pol Martin: Vorschlag eines anthropologisch fundierten Curriculums für den Fremdsprachenunterricht. Habilitation. Tübingen: Narr 1994. Jean-Pol Martin: Das Projekt „Lernen durch Lehren“ - eine vorläufige Bilanz. In: Henrici/Zöfgen (Hrsg.): Fremdsprachen Lehren und Lernen (FLuL). Themenschwerpunkt: Innovativ-alternative Methoden. 25. Jahrgang (1996). Tübingen: Narr, S. 70-86 (PDF; 0,2 MB), Jean-Pol Martin (2002a): Weltverbesserungskompetenz als Lernziel? In: Pädagogisches Handeln – Wissenschaft und Praxis im Dialog, 6. Jahrgang, 2002, Heft 1, S. 71-76 (PDF)
  10. ^ Jean-Pol Martin (1989): Kontaktnetz: ein Fortbildungskonzept, in: Eberhard Kleinschmidt,E.(Hrsg.), Fremdsprachenunterricht zwischen Fremdsprachenpolitik und Praxis: Festschrift für Herbert Christ zum 60. Geburtstag, Tübingen. 389-400, (PDF 62 KB)
  11. ^ Jean-Pol Martin (2004)in: Treibhäuser der Zukunft - Wie in Deutschland Schulen gelingen. Eine Dokumentation von Reinhard Kahl und der Deutschen Kinder- und Jugendstiftung. ISBN: 3-407-85830-2 (BELTZ), DVD 3
  12. ^ Margret Ruep(1999): Schule als Lernende Organisation - ein lebendiger Organismus, in: Margret Ruep (Hg.)(1999): Innere Schulentwicklung - Theoretische Grundlagen und praktische Beispiele. Donauwörth: Auer Verlag, S.17-81, insbesondere 32ff.
  13. ^ Andreas Nieweler (Hrsg.)(2006): Fachdidaktik Französisch - Tradition|Innovation|Praxis. Stuttgart: Klett, 2006. S.318
  14. ^ Guido Oebel: Lernen durch Lehren (LdL) im DaF-Unterricht. Eine „echte" Alternative zum traditionellen Frontalunterricht. In: Petra Balmus/Guido Oebel/Rudolf Reinelt (Hg.) Herausforderung und Chance. Krisenbewältigung im Fach Deutsch als Fremdsprache in Japan. 2005· ISBN 978-3-89129-404-8
  15. ^ Alina Rachimova (2007): Multimedia in der Ausbildung. 2007
  16. ^ Alexander Renkl: Lernen durch Lehren, in: Detlef Rost (Hrsg.)(2006): Handwörterbuch Pädagogische Psychologie. 3.Aufl. Weinheim: Beltz Verlag. 2006. S.416-420

External links

History

  • École mutuelle

LdL

  • Videoclip LdL in English
  • Learning by teaching - by Jody Skinner
  • LdL in theory and practice (University Münster 2005/2006)
  • Learning By Teaching: The Didactic Model LdL in University Classes - by Joachim Grzega
  • Students teach linterature (LdL) by Rosmarie Frick - 2005
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_by_teaching"