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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
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    ENGLISHGRATIS.COM è un sito personale di
    Roberto Casiraghi e Crystal Jones
    Tel. e SMS: 375-5186291 - Email:

    Roberto Casiraghi           
    INFORMATIVA SULLA PRIVACY              Crystal Jones


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THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ELML

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

eLML

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

The eLesson Markup Language (eLML) [1] is an open source XML framework for creating eLessons using XML. It is a "spin-off" from the GITTA project [2], a Swiss GIS eLearning project, and was launched in spring 2004. The eLML project is hosted at Sourceforge and offers all the regular tools (CVS, bugtracker, forum etc.) that you might already be familiar with when working with Sourceforge. The aim of eLML was to offer authors a tool that ensured conformity to pedagogical guidelines.

Pedagogical model behind eLML

The didactical fundament of eLML is the pedagogical model called ECLASS (Gerson, 2000 [3]). ECLASS is an abbreviation for the following elements:

  • Entry: Stands for the introduction into the lesson or a unit (the sub-category of a lesson)
  • Clarify: A clarify element is used to explain some theory, models, principles or facts
  • Look: Examples that help the student to understand the theory
  • Act: This elements animates the student to become act, try out a model or discuss issues
  • Self-Assessment: Check if the learning objectives of the lesson or unit were fulfilled
  • Summary: Provides a brief summary of either the whole lesson or an individual unit

The original ECLASS model was slightly modified and e.g. additional elements like glossary, bibliography and metadata were added to be able to create a self-contained e-learning course. Furthermore the three elements clarify, look and act together form a so-called "learning object" and these elements can be used in any sequence order and can even be used multiple times within one learning object. This allows that an author can start with an example (look) and then follow by explaining the theory (clarify) behind it or the other way round. Also the uncommon but sometimes very successful approach where the student starts with a short exercise (act) and only after having tried out some solutions can read the theory (clarify) behind it and see some real world examples (look). The ECLASS model is on one hand flexible enough to represent different learning scenarios and to meet all the requirements needed by the creators of the e-learning lessons but ensures on the other hand that the content complies with the defined didactical guidelines.

These didactical guidelines where then mapped into an XML structure that allowed a strict checking if the author has correctly used the pedagogical model or not. The details are explained in detail below.

The XML structure of eLML

The described pedagogical model ECLASS is mapped onto an XML structure using XML Schema, as shown in this illustration:

Image:Elml_schema_screenshot_en.png

An eLML lesson always starts with either the mandatory introduction (element entry) or a concise listing of the lesson’s learning objectives (element goals). The unit elements, described below, contain the actual content of a lesson. Following the units a lesson can have a summary and/or up to five self-assessments followed by an optional further reading and glossary section to list important resources and to describe terms used within the lesson. The XML Schema ensures that all glossary terms used in a lesson are defined in the glossary. The Harvard Referencing System or the APA style can be used for the bibliography. All citations, references, further readings etc., have to be listed within the bibliography section, otherwise the XML parser issues an error and the lesson will not be valid.

Through an amount of mandatory elements eLML ensures that at least the minimal metadata elements are filled out even though many authors do not like to fill in metadata information. The eLML metadata elements are a subset of the IMS Learning object metadata (LOM) that can be used to store data about the length of the lessons, the author(s), copyrights, the required knowledge to attempt this lesson and the basic technical requirements. The bibliography style elements and the metadata section are defined in a separate XML schema and thus can be replaced by other standards or definitions.

Within each unit a similar structure as on lesson level is employed. However, the elements glossary, bibliography and metadata are always defined for the whole lesson on lesson level. The actual content within a unit is stored in a number of so-called "learning objects" (not to be confused with the learning objectives – called "goals" within eLML). Each learning object describes a certain concept, model, equation, term, or process using all or some of the three elements clarify (theory), look (example) and act in free order. These three elements can have a special visual representation when transformed into a presentation format – e.g. a "gear" icon for act elements as used in GITTA to signalize the student that he or she has to "do" something – but their main purpose is to guide authors while creating content. Using the elements clarify, look and act, the author has to think about how a certain concept can be presented best to the student. Whether a learning object starts with some theory (clarify element) and continues with one or more examples (look elements) or, alternatively, the student first has to do something (act element) and then reads the theory afterwards (clarify element) is left to the author.

Transformation and Presentation of an eLML lesson

Thanks to the use of standards like XML, XSLT or SVG all eLML lessons can be transformed and viewed with any web-browser on any platform and are totally software-independent. The two main transformation files that are included in the eLML package can transform a lesson into an "online" (XHTML) and into a "print" (PDF) version (using XSL Formatting Objects) with one click. The both version can be customized offereing personalized layouts (see example below). More transformation files are planned and under construction (e. g. a "mobile" version of a lesson for PDAs etc.). Since eLML supports both the IMS Global "Content Package" and the SCORM standard, the content can also easily be imported into any modern Learning Management System (LMS) like WebCT or OLAT. Please refer to the eLML website [4] for more technical background information. The following illustration shows an eLML lesson transformed into many different layouts and formats:

Image:Elml_layout.png

Copyright and legal issues

eLML is an open source project and new users and community members are always welcome. The main communication between the community users goes via the Sourceforge website, specially via the eLML-Users Mailinglist (for general issues) and the RFE (Feature Request) Tracker (for discussions about new features). Please feel free to join eLML and be sure to subscribe the eLML-Newsletter (there is a box on the eLML website) for being informed about important updates, news etc. or the eLML-Users https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/elml-users mailing list if you plan to become an active eLML user.

The persons behind eLML

eLML was originally created by members of the GITTA e-learning project and the two main developers are:

  • Susanne Bleisch (University of Applied Sciences Nordwestschweiz): Responsible for the XML Schema and documentation
  • Joël Fisler (University of Zurich - GITTA project coordinator): Responsible for the XSLT and FO files, the website and the documentation

Since 2005 the Multimedia and e-Learning Center (MELS) at the University of Zurich uses eLML as their main development platform. The main developers are:

  • Michael Ziege (University of Zurich): Responsible for the SCORM and IMS Content Package standard and the LMS integration.
  • Andre Locher (University of Zurich): XSLT, XML
  • Thomas Comiotto (University of Zurich): Web-Frontent development (the planned "eLML GUI tool": an integration into the Apache Lenya-based UniCMS)
  • Timon Roth (University of Zurich): Server, CVS, automated transformation scripts

Other participating partners are the Federal Institutes of Technology Zurich (ETH) and Lausanne (EPFL), the University of Fribourg, the University of Applied Science Rapperswil (HSR) and others. Please refer to the Sourceforge website for an up-to-date list of active eLML users.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ELML"