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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
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THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schools_Interoperability_Framework

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Schools Interoperability Framework

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

The Schools Interoperability Framework, or SIF, is a data sharing open specification for academic institutions from kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). Its primary geographic scope has been the United States, but there is active work going on in the UK, Australia, and other places.

The specification is composed of two parts: an XML specification for modeling educational data, and a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) specification for sharing that data between institutions.

SIF is not a product, but an industry initiative that enables diverse applications to interact and share data seamlessly. As of February 2005, SIF is estimated to have been used in more than 40 states and 600 districts, comprising four million students[citation needed].

It is actively maintained by its specification body: the Schools Interoperability Framework Association.

History

Traditionally, the standalone applications used by public school districts have the limitation of data isolation; that is, it is difficult to access and share their data. This often results in redundant data entry, data integrity problems, and inefficient or incomplete reporting. In such cases, a student's information can appear in multiple places but may not be identical, for example, or decision makers may be working with incomplete or inaccurate information. Many district and site technology coordinators also experience an increase in technical support problems from maintaining numerous proprietary systems. SIF was created to solve these issues.[1]

The Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF) began as an initiative chiefly championed initially by Microsoft, to create "a blueprint for educational software interoperability and data access." It was designed to be an initiative drawing upon the strengths of the leading vendors in the K12 market to enable schools IT professionals to build, manage and upgrade their systems. It was endorsed by close to 20 leading K12 vendors of student information, library, transportation, food service applications and more. The first pilot sites began in the summer of 1999, and the first SIF-based products began to show up in 2000.[2]

In the beginning it was not clear what standard approach would become the national standard, but it was clear in 2000 that that would need to happen. [3]. In 2000 the National School Boards Association had a panel during its annual meeting because of how important it considered SIF at that point.[4]

Strengths and criticisms

Strengths of SIF

Some features of SIF that make it well-suited for data interoperability are:[5]

  • It is one of the few XML standards that exists today built entirely and specifically for the exchange of K-12 education-related information;
  • Case studies show significant dollar savings for schools and districts;
  • Many school districts require that K-12 data vendors use SIF, and some states are even legislating its use;
  • Many vendors in the K-12 space already have SIF agents and are capable of interacting with a SIF Zone, thus reducing the price of interoperability.

Criticisms of SIF

SIF has all the pains and challenges that come with any SOA specification and data model. When building specifications via consensus not every is always happy and sometimes the end product isn't perfect. Also given all the moving parts in modeling the entire k12's enterprise the specification has many points of possible failure. This is not particular to SIF but to any record-level, automated system moving standardized data from one source to another in a heterogeneous environment. The Board of Directors and the Technical Board of SIF have declared out-of-the-box interoperability and ease of use and implementation as tantamount concerns this year.

How SIF works

Rather than have each application vendor try to set up a separate connection to every other application, SIF has defined the set of rules and definitions to share data within a "SIF Zone"—a logical grouping of applications in which software application agents communicate with each other through a central communication point. Zones are managed by a piece of software called a Zone Integration Server (ZIS). A single ZIS can manage multiple Zones.

Data travels between applications as a series of standardized messages, queries, and events written in XML and sent using Internet protocols. The SIF specification defines such events and the "choreography" that allows data to move back and forth between the applications.

SIF Agents are pieces of software that exist either internal to an application or installed next to it. The SIF Agents function as extensions of each application and serve as the intermediary between the software application and the SIF Zone. The ZIS keeps track of the Agents registered in the Zone and manages transactions between Agents, enabling them to provide data and respond to requests. The ZIS controls all access, routing, and security within the system. Standardization of the behavior of the Agents and ZIS means that SIF can add standard functionality to a Zone by simply adding SIF-enabled applications over time.

Vertical interoperability

"Vertical interoperability" is a situation in which SIF agents at different levels of an organization communicate using a SIF Zone. Vertical interoperability involves data collection from multiple agents (upward) or publishing of information to multiple agents (downward). For example, a state department data warehouse may listen for changes in district level data warehouses and update its database on a regular basis. Or a state department may wish to publish teacher certification data to districts. The three pieces of the SIF specification that deal directly with vertical interoperability are the Student Locator object, the Vertical Reporting object, and the Data Warehouse object.

SIF in relation to other standards

SIF was designed before SOAP, namespaces, and web service standards were as mature as they are today. As a result it has a robust SOA that is far more vetted than the current SOAP specifications but does not use the SOAP or WS standards. The 2.0 SIF Web Services specification begins the process of joining these two worlds.

The 2.0 Web Services specification allows for more generalized XML messaging structures typically found in enterprise messaging systems that use the concept of an enterprise service bus. Web service standards are also designed to support secure public interfaces and XML appliances can make the setup and configuration easier. The SIF 2.0 Web Services specification allows for the use of Web Services to communicate in and out of the Zone.

SIFA is also working closely with the Post-Secondary Education Standards Council (PESC),[6] SCORM,[7] and other standards organizations.

Future versions of SIF may integrate more standards and multiple namespaces.

Versions of SIF

The version 2.0 specification is the latest version of SIF. It is expected that one will start seeing 2.0 application environments arise in the near future as vendors start designing, developing, and implementing 2.0 agents and states, districts, and schools start adopting them. Most of the SIF Zone Integration Server vendors are currently or will be putting 1.5r1 to 2.0 migration functionality in place for their clients.

References

  1. ^ Scholastic Article, January 2007
  2. ^ Historical references (has some brokenlinks)
  3. ^ eSchool News article, June 2000
  4. ^ NSBA Meeting Notes, October 2000
  5. ^ Scholastic Adminsitr@tor Article, January 2007
  6. ^ eSchool News article, December 2006
  7. ^ SCORM Watch, September 2006

See also

  • Metadata
  • Enterprise Application Integration
  • Open Knowledge Initiative
  • Web services

External links

  • Official website of SIFA
  • CPSI - ZIS, Agent, and Implementation vendor
  • Edustructures - ZIS, Agent, and Implementation vendor
  • Wyoming SIF Implementation Homepage
  • TinyZIS - Open source ZIS
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schools_Interoperability_Framework"