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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
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THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctorate

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Doctorate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Aquatint of a Doctor in Divinity at the University of Oxford, in the scarlet and black academic robes corresponding to his position. From Rudolph Ackermann's History of Oxford, 1814.
Aquatint of a Doctor in Divinity at the University of Oxford, in the scarlet and black academic robes corresponding to his position. From Rudolph Ackermann's History of Oxford, 1814.

A doctorate is an academic degree of the highest level. The term comes from the Latin doctor, meaning "teacher." It originated in Medieval Europe as a license to teach at a university. In this sense doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild. The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Masters of Arts," seven years, was the same as the term of apprenticeship for other occupations. Originally the terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master's degree.

The usage and meaning of the doctorate has changed over time, and it has also been subject to regional variations. For instance, until the early 20th century few faculty members in English-speaking universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in holy orders. After that time the German practice of requiring faculty candidates to have completed a "research doctorate" became widespread. Today such a doctorate is generally considered a requisite for pursuing an academic career, though only a small minority of those who receive research doctorates will become members of a university. The practice of certain professions, such as medicine, generally requires the completion of a "professional doctorate." Many universities also award "honorary doctorates" to individuals who have been deemed worthy of special recognition, either for scholarly work or for other contributions to the university or to society.

Explanation

There are three types of doctorates: research/terminal, (first) professional, and honorary.

Research doctorates are nearly always awarded in recognition of academic research that is of a publishable standard (even if not actually published) and that represents at least a modest contribution to human knowledge. The research is usually assessed by submission and defense of a doctoral thesis or dissertation, though in some cases a coherent body of published literature can be accepted instead.

Professional doctorates are awarded in certain fields where most holders of the degree are not engaged primarily in scholarly research and academic activities, but rather in a profession, such as law, medicine, music, or ministry.

Honorary doctorates are awarded for a substantial contribution to a field that need not be academic in character.

In the EU, UK, and in Australia as well as some other Commonwealth countries, a distinction is made among research doctorates, as doctorates (generally awarded after a course of 3-5 years postgraduate research and study and submission of a thesis), and higher doctorates — awarded on the basis of many years of outstanding research, judged through examination of a formally submitted collection of published research. These higher doctorates are often awarded honoris causa, but those awarded on the basis of academic research are not honorary.

The title of "Doctor" is often used both by and of those holding research doctorates or limited professional (usually medical) doctorates. In the UK and most Commonwealth countries this title has for many centuries also been accorded to holders of the degree of Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (equivalent to the degree of Doctor of Medicine in the US and elsewhere). However in the UK, for historical reasons, members of the surgical Royal Colleges are not addressed as "Doctor", but as Mister, Miss, etc.

In practice, the title of "Doctor" is not generally used by or of those holding only an honorary doctorate. While it is entirely legal and allowable to do so (since a university is empowered to grant a doctorate to anyone it chooses) it is generally regarded as bad form, although there are a number of notable figures (such as the Northern Irish politician Ian Paisley and comedian Stephen Colbert) who do not follow this convention. However, some consider it permissible to do so within the institution that granted the honorary doctorate.

In the past, in the United States a person with a research doctorate would use the title "doctor" in an academic or research/development setting, and in publication. However it is becoming more common to use the title if working in a corporate setting. This is the case in most continents. In some countries the term "doctor" may be used as a title of respect even if the person being addressed has no doctoral degree.

The earliest doctoral degrees (theology — Divinitatis Doctor (D. D.), philosophy — Doctor of philosophy (D. Phil or Ph.D.) and medicine — Medicinę Doctor (M. D. or D. M.)) reflected the historical separation of all University study into these three fields. Over time the Divinitatis Doctorate has gradually become less common, and studies outside of theology and medicine have become more common (such studies were then called "philosophy", but are now classified as sciences and humanities — however the phrase Doctor of philosophy degree remains in common usage).

Professional doctorate (United States)

In the United States, professional doctoral degrees (also called first professional degrees) are terminal degrees in certain fields, including audiology, chiropractic, dentistry, law, medicine, occupational therapy, optometry, osteopathy, pharmacy, physical therapy, podiatry, psychology, veterinary medicine, and many others. Although this degree may be both the initial and terminal degree in these fields, students seeking to enter degree programs for them must have already completed a bachelor's degree, usually in a related field. The licentiate is used instead in some countries as a professional degree; then, the doctorate is higher degree than licentiate, intended for research and professor duties, etc.

Terminal/professional doctoral degrees such as the M. D. and J. D. do not generally require completion of a thesis/dissertation, although some professional degree programs (such as many J. D. programs) require that the candidate perform original research and write a formal research paper. The minimum term for such a degree is 3 years past postsecondary education, the same minimum term required for a research doctorate. While these degrees are not research doctorates, they do entitle their holders to pursue academic careers on par with holders of academic degrees. Actual practice (and legal recognition) within the applicable professional field usually requires that the degree holder become licenced by the appropriate body (an organization not affiliated with the school granting the degree); a certain amount of work experience is sometimes required for licensure. The titles from these degrees are not equivalent to the same title conferred in other countries. For example, outside the United States (and countries that mimic the North American medical educational system), the title of M.D or D.M. may be conferred only as a research or a higher doctorate. This degree is in recognition of clinical or preclinical academic research many years after the original (professional or first) degree in medicine or veterinary medicine.

It should be noted that titling of first professional degrees in the above-named fields as a "doctorate" is a uniquely American convention that is not utilized in most other countries. In many other countries, the equivalent degree is usually a bachelor's degree (for example, Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery, Bachelor of Law). Many people outside of the United States consider the titling of the first professional degrees as a "doctorate" inappropriate and an attempt by Americans to inflate the "rank" of their degree.

Practitioner's doctorate

Other professional doctorates which are not 'first professional' as described above include post-Masters doctorates like the Doctor of Education (Ed. D.), the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) and the Professional Doctorate (ProfDoc). These generally require a Master degree in a relevant field ( such as a Master of Education or a Master of Business Administration) as an entry condition. These are also known as "practitioner's doctorates" due to their applied focus and target group of advanced practitioners of various professions.

A post-Masters dissertation of a comparable or slightly shorter length than that required for a PhD is usually a requirement for graduation. Additionally, post-Masters taught courses are a common feature. PhD programmes offered in countries like the UK, Australia and most commonwealth countries are typically solely based on the successful completion of an academically-focused dissertation. The distinction from practitioner's doctorates is that the latter allow candidates to learn more advanced topics through taught courses[citation needed].

The focus of a practitioner doctorate's dissertation is usually application, rather than creation, of theories. This focus appeals to non-academicians such as educators, teachers, business executives, leaders, civil servants and other practitioners who are more interested in the successful application of advanced theories in their respective professions rather than academic research into their field.

Generally, practitioner's doctorates, also known as professional doctorates, as such are considered to be equivalent in academic standing to the PhD, though the latter is usually preferred for academic positions.

Research doctorate

The most common type of research doctorate is a Ph.D. (Philosophię Doctor or Doctor of Philosophy), though there are many other designations, listed below. Some British universities, including Oxford and Sussex (and until recently York) refer to the Ph.D. degree as the D.Phil.

Minimum periods for research doctorates vary considerably: In the UK and USA the minimum time for completing a Ph.D. is usually three years following the completion of a master's degree, however there is an increasing trend for students obtaining 1st class honours degrees to progress straight into a Ph.D programme. Although completions within this period are possible, most candidates take considerably longer: anywhere from five to ten years. During the late 1990s, the UK research councils introduced penalties (in the form of a reduction of future funding) for departments whose students regularly failed to submit their thesis within four years (full time) from initial registration. Students in the physical sciences typically have shorter completion times than students in the arts due to their better access to funding sources. In the USA, the research doctorate normally requires two to three years of coursework and a minimum of three years of research. Coursework is increasingly becoming a required component in research doctorates around the world.

Although the Ph.D. is almost universally accepted as the standard qualification for an academic career, it is a relatively new invention. The older-style doctorates (now usually called "Higher Doctorates" in the United Kingdom) take much longer to complete, since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects. These doctorates are now becoming rare, and are usually only awarded as honorary degrees. In France, the higher doctorate is the doctorat d'État. The latter was replaced for academic recruitment purposes by the "habilitation to direct theses". The Habilitation is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU and is a research doctorate involving either a new long thesis (a second book) or a portfolio of research publications. The Habilitation demonstrates independent and thorough research, experience in teaching and lecturing, and, more recently, the ability to generate funding within the area of research. The "Habilitation" is regarded as a senior post-doctoral qualification, many years after the Ph.D., and is necessary for a Privatdozent position.

A similar system traditionally holds in Russia. Already in the Russian Empire the academic degree doctor of science (doctor nauki) marked the highest academic degree which can be achieved by an examination. This system was generally adopted by the USSR/Russia and many post-Soviet countries.

Under European law, holders of research doctorates from any EU country are recognised in others.

Types of Doctorates

Research Oriented Doctorates

While the Ph.D. is the most common doctoral degree, and even often (mis)understood to be synonymous with the term "doctorate", the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) recognize numerous doctoral degrees as equivalent, and do not discriminate among them.

  • Doctor of Applied Science (D. A. S.)
  • Doctor of Architecture (D. Arch.)
  • Doctor of Arts (D. A.)
  • Doctor of Business Administration (D. B. A.)
  • Doctor of Canon Law (J. C. D.)
  • Doctor of Chemistry (D. Chem.)
  • Doctor of Comparative Law/Doctor of Civil Law (D. C. L.)
  • Doctor of Computer Science (D. C. S.)
  • Doctor of Criminal Justice (D. C. J.)
  • Doctor of Criminology (D. Crim.)
  • Doctor of Design (Dr. DES.)
  • Doctor of Education (Ed. D. or D. Ed.)
  • Doctor of Engineering (D. Eng.)
  • Doctor of Engineering Science (D. E. Sc./Sc. D. E.)
  • Doctor of English
  • Doctor of Environmental Design (D. E. D.)
  • Doctor of Environmental Science and Engineering (D. Env.)
  • Doctor of Fine Arts (D.F.A.)
  • Doctor of Forestry (D. F.)
  • Doctor of Geological Science (D. G. S.)
  • Doctor of Health and Safety (D. H. S.)
  • Doctor of Hebrew Literature/Doctor of Hebrew Letters (D. H. L.)
  • Doctor of Hebrew Studies (D. H. S.)
  • Doctor of Humane Letters (D. Hum. Litt.)
  • Doctor of Industrial Technology (D. I. T.)
  • Doctor of Information Technology (D. I. T.)
  • Doctor of Juridical Science (S. J. D. or J. S. D.)
  • Doctor of Literature and Philosophy (D. Litt. et Phil.)
  • Doctor of Liberal Studies (D. L. S.)
  • Doctor of Library Science (D. L. S.)
  • Doctor of Management (D. M.)
  • Doctor of Medical Science (D. M. Sc.)
  • Doctor of Ministry (D. Min./D. M.)
  • Doctor of Modern Languages (D. M. L.)
  • Doctor of Music Ministry (D. M. M.)
  • Doctor of Music (D. Mus, Mus. Doc.)
  • Doctor of Musical Arts (D. M. A., A. Mus. D.)
  • Doctor of Musical Education (D. M. E.)
  • Doctor of Nursing Science (D. N. Sc.)
  • Doctor of Project Management (D. P. M.)
  • Doctor of Physical Education (D. P. E.)
  • Doctor of Public Administration (D. P. A.)
  • Doctor of Public Health (Dr. P. H.)
  • Doctor of Professional Studies (D. Prof./D. P. S.)
  • Doctor of Recreation (D. Rec./D. R.)
  • Doctor of Rehabilitation (Rh. D.)
  • Doctor of Religious Education (D. R. E.)
  • Doctor of Sacred Music (D. S. M.)
  • Doctor of Sacred Theology (S. T. D.)
  • Doctor of Science (D. Sc./Sc. D.)
  • Doctor of Science and Hygiene (D. Sc. H.)
  • Doctor of Science in Dentistry (D. Sc. D.)
  • Doctor of Science in Veterinary Medicine (D. Sc. V. M.)
  • Doctor of Social Science (D. S. Sc.)
  • Doctor of Social Work (D. S. W.)
  • Doctor of the Science of Law (L. Sc. D.)
  • Doctor of Theology (Th. D.)
  • Engineering Doctorate (Eng. D.)
  • Executive Doctor of Management (EDM)

Professional Doctorates (also called First Professional Degrees)

  • Doctor of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine (D. A. O. M.)
  • Doctor of Audiology (Au. D.)
  • Doctor of Chiropractic (D. C.)
  • Doctor of Dental Medicine (D. M. D.)
  • Doctor of Dental Surgery (D. D. S.)
  • Doctor of Human Sexuality (D. H. S.)
  • Juris Doctor/Doctor of Jurisprudence (J. D.)
  • Doctor Liberalium Artium (D. L. A.)
  • Doctor of Management (D. M.) (For example, in Organizational Leadership
  • Doctor of Medicine/Medicinę Doctor (M. D.)
  • Doctor of Physical Therapy (D. P. T.)
  • Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D. O.)
  • Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D.)
  • Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (D. P. M.)
  • Doctor of Professional Studies (DProf or D. P. S.)
  • Doctor of Nursing Practice (D. N. P.)
  • Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D. V. M.)
  • Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine (N. D. or less commonly D. N. M.) / Doctor of Naturopathy (N. D.) -- N. D. can also stand for the licensed professional title of Naturopathic Doctor (N. D.) conferred by licensing bodies.
  • Doctor of Natural Medicine (D. N. M.)
  • Doctor of Psychology (Psy. D.)
  • Doctor of Clinical Psychology (DCP)
  • Doctor of Optometry/Optometry Doctor (O. D.)
  • Doctor of Occupational Therapy (D. O. T.)

Higher Doctorates in the United Kingdom, Ireland and the Commonwealth

The notion of doctorates that are higher than the Ph.D. is one that is rare in the United States and Canada, but more established in the UK, Ireland and Commonwealth nations (other than Canada), where the Ph.D. is a relatively recent (early 20th century) introduction. Some universities (Oxford and Cambridge, for example) maintain a notional ranking of the seniority of different doctorates; typically Doctors of Divinity rank above all other doctors. However, the awarding of such higher doctorates is usually honorary, that is, given to individuals who have made extensive contributions to a particular field and not for specific academic accomplishments.

Higher doctorates include:

  • Doctor of Divinity/Divinitatis Doctor (D. D.)
  • Doctor of Canon Law (in the UK this degree did not survive the Protestant reformation)
  • Doctor of Civil Law (D. C. L.)
  • Doctor of Laws/Legum Doctor (LL. D.)
  • Doctor of Juridical Science (S. J. D., J. S. D.)
  • Doctor of Medicine/Medicinę Doctor (D. M. or M. D.)
  • Doctor of Letters/Litterarum Doctor (D. Litt. or Litt. D.)
  • Doctor of Science/Scientię Doctor (D. Sc. or Sc. D.)
  • Doctor of Music/Musicę Doctor (D. Mus. or Mus. D.)
  • Doctor of Technology (D. Tech.)
  • Doctor of Governance (DGov)
  • Doctor of the University (D. Univ.; usually honorary)

The degrees Doctor of Engineering (D. Eng. or Eng. D.) or Engineering Doctorate (Eng. D.) usually indicates a qualification comparable to a Ph.D.

Doctorates in The Netherlands

The traditional academic system of The Netherlands provides four basic academic diplomas and degrees: propaedeuse, candidate, doctorandus (drs.) and doctor (dr.). After successful completion of the first year of University, the student is awarded the propaedeutic diploma (not a degree). The candidate degree, which was all but abolished by 1989, used to be attained after three years of academic study, after which the student was allowed to begin work on his doctorandus' thesis. The successful completion of this thesis allows one to use the doctorandus title, attainment of which means one's initial studies are finished. Those who choose to, and are hired as promovendus (research assistant), perform extensive research and write a doctoral dissertation (usually over the course of four years). Upon completion, a doctor's degree is awarded. This is the highest academic degree one can attain. In addition to these 'general' degrees, a number of specific titles for certain subjects are available, each of which is equivalent to the doctorandus degree: for law: meester ('master') (mr.), and for engineering: ingenieur ('engineer')(ir.).

In the last few years, the Dutch have incorporated the Anglo-Saxon system of academic degrees into their own. The old candidate's degree has been revived as bachelor's degree, the doctorandus' by the master's degree. This development has led the Eindhoven University of Technology to award a Professional Doctorate degree in Engineering (PDEng), which replaced a post-master degree. Professional Doctorates are not commonly awarded by Dutch Universities.

Higher Doctorates in Scandinavia

In Denmark there are five levels of degrees: Bachelor's, Candidate's (may be compared to Master), Magister (similar to an MPhil in the United Kingdom system; a degree by research, higher than a Master's but lower than a Ph.D.), Ph.D., and finally Dr., which is the higher doctorate.

  • dr. med. - Medicine
  • dr. jur. - Law
  • dr. theol. - Theology
  • dr. phil. - Philosophy (humanities)
  • dr. polit. - Economics
  • dr. scient. - Science (natural sciences)
  • dr. techn. - Technology
  • dr. ling. merc. - Professional language

These degrees (and in addition dr. ing.) were also used in Norway, which traditionally used the same system as Denmark. Besides dr. philos, which is awarded to people who don't follow an organized degree program, new candidates are no longer awarded these degrees, but are instead awarded a Ph.D. The new Ph.D. degree was introduced in the early 2000s. The Ph.D. in Norway is not a lower-level research doctorate.

Doctorates in Germany

In Germany, all doctorates bear the same level of merit. There are no first-degree doctorates as lawyers; medical doctors do not necessarily hold a doctorate, although it is much easier for medical students to earn the degree (it is completed in about one year within their course) than for those studying other disciplines (where the doctorate usually takes at least three years to complete). Apart from that, Germany uses different titles, which are written in front of the first name for addresses (within texts, the abbreviation "Dr." is common) and accompany the person's name (unlike in German-speaking Switzerland). This is a list of the types of doctorates encountered most often. For each title the subject is indicated in which it is mostly awarded. (There are exceptions from this, depending on the rules and traditions of the degree-awarding university.). Some believe that in Germany the title "Dr." is part of a person's name and that these people have a right to be addressed with the title. This misunderstanding comes forth from the fact that "Dr." is the only academic degree that can be mentioned in one's identity card. But this does not make it part of the name. In Southern Germany and Austria it is more common to address somebody with the title than in the North. It can also depend on the occasion and of course of the individual person whether to use the title or not. The proper expression is "Herr Doktor" (male) or "Frau Doktor" (female). Doktors may not address other Doktors with the title, because that would give the impression that one were preferring, or even insisting on, being called Doktor oneself, which could be seen as slightly pathetic. When officially writing to a person with several titles, it would be proper to begin with the "highest" title and eventually name several Dr.-titles, e.g. Prof. Dr. Dr. Schmidt. The actual addressing begins with Sehr geehrter Herr Professor / Sehr geehrte Frau Professor. There are different opinions whether dropping the Herr or Frau in such occasions.

  • Dr. h.c. (Doctor honoris causa - honorary doctor), but: Dr.-Ing. E.h. (German: ehrenhalber)
  • Dr.-Ing. (Doktor Ingenieur - Engineering, sometimes Computer Science)
  • Dr. iur. (Doctor iuris - Law), also: Dr. jur. although this is not the correct spelling
  • Dr. iur. utr. (Doctor iuris utriusque - both Laws, secular and Canon Law, "Doktor beider Rechte" (weltliches und kanonisches Recht)
  • Dr. med. (Doctor medicinae - Medicine), also Dr. med. dent. for dentists and Dr. med. vet. for veterinarians
  • Dr. oec. pub. (Doctor oconomiae publicae - business administration ("Betriebswirtschaftslehre") or macro- and micro-economics ("Volkswirtschaftslehre")
  • Dr. theol. (Doctor theologiae - Theology)
  • Dr. paed. (Doctor paed. - education ("Doktor der Pädagogik"))
  • Dr. phil. (Doctor philosophiae - most of the humanities)
  • Dr. rer. medic. (Doctor rerum medicarum - "Doktor der Medizinwissenschaften")
  • Dr. rer. nat. (Doctor rerum naturalium - literally "Doctor of natural things" - all natural sciences, mathematics and computer science)
  • Dr. rer. soc. (Doctor rerum socialium. - Social Sciences ("Doktor der Sozialwissenschaften"))
  • Dr. rer. pol. (Doctor rerum politicarum - Economics, Business Administration, Sociology and related subjects)

Upon the completion of a second dissertation or Habilitationsschrift a senior doctorate (dr. habil.) is awarded. This senior doctorate is known as the Habilitation. It is not a degree, but an additional qualification. This or an equivalent professional experience is - traditionally - the necessary prerequisite for a position of Privatdozent and Professor. Now, with the BA/MA-modell and the Juniorprofessoren to be introduced, this has already changed partially.

Doctorates in Russia

The USSR and many post-Soviet countries, including Russian Federation, have two-stage research degree obtaining path, generally similar to the doctorate system in Europe. The first stage is named "Kandidat of <...> Sciences" (for instance, Kandidat of Medical Sciences, of Chemical Sciences, of Philological Sciences, and so on). The Kandidat of Sciences degree is usually recognised as equivalent of Philosophy Doctor (PhD) and require at least (and typically more than) three years of post-graduate research which finished by defence of a thesis. Additionally, a seeker of the degree has to pass three examinations (so-called "Kandidate's minimum"): in his/her special field, in one foreign language, and in philosophy. After an additional certification by the corresponding experts the Kandidat degree may be recognized internationally as an equivalent of Ph.D. (An unconditional Ph.D. equivalence has been recognized before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the additional certification in many countries has become required after the steep increase flow of post-Soviet emigration.)

The second stage, "Doctor of <...> Sciences", is equal to Professor Degree in Europe or North America. It requires many years of research experience and writing of a second dissertation. A position of Professor can be held only by a Doctor of Sciences.

The degrees of Kandidat and Doctor of Sciences are only awarded by the special governmental agency (Higher Attestation Commission); a university or a scientific institute where the thesis was defended can only recommend to award a seeker the sought degree.

Acceptance of Russian scientists holding the degree of Candidate into a research filed in North America created a confusing situation when Soviet Doctoral graduates are equalized in rights with their undersupervized.

Soviet scientists holding degree of Candidate take positions of Post doctoral fellows, Post doctoral research associates etc.

Doctorates in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

Professional doctorates

These degrees do not require completion of a thesis/dissertation.

  • Doctor of medicine (Medicinę universę doctor - MUDr.)
  • Doctor of dental medicine (Medicinę dentalis doctor - MDDr., only in the Czech Republic)
  • Doctor of veterinary medicine (Medicinę veterinarię doctor - MVDr.)
  • Doctor of pharmacy (Pharmacię doctor - PharmDr.)

First-degree doctorates (written before the name as "JUDr. Smith" or usually abbreviated "Dr. Smith")

These degrees require the viva-voce defense of a written thesis/dissertation.

  • Doctor of philosophy (Philosophię doctor - PhDr.)
  • Doctor of natural sciences (Rerum naturalium doctor - RNDr.)
  • Doctor of laws (Juris utrisque doctor - JUDr.)
  • Doctor of paedeutics (Paedagogię doctor - PaedDr., no longer used in the Czech Republic)
  • Doctor of theology (Theologię doctor - ThDr.)
  • Doctor of economy (Rerum commercialum doctor - RCDr., no longer used)
  • Doctor of social sciences (Rerum societarum doctor - RSDr., deprecated - used by communist regime)

Higher doctorates (written after the name, i.e. "Smith, PhD")

These degrees require the viva-voce defense of a written comprehensive thesis/dissertation.

  • Candidate of sciences (Candidatus scientarum - CSc., now being replaced by common PhD.)
  • Doctor of sciences (Doctor scientarum - DrSc.)
  • Doctor of arts (Artes doctor - ArtD.)

Doctorates in Poland

Polish system is similar to the one adopted in Germany, with Ph.D. as a first level doctorate and habilitation (habilitacja) as second. The award of the title of "doktor" (Ph.D.) is usually preceded by 4-5 years of doctoral study (a post-graduate study offered at most universities, with or without an obligation to teach some classes), but can also be obtained without a formal participation in the doctoral studies. In order to become a "doktor habilitowany" (i.e. being awarded second level doctorate) a candidate has to publish a dissertation, preceded with several years of deep field studies and have recognized research record. Only candidates with habilitation are eligible to become professors.

To become a doctor one needs to write a dissertation (varying in length), which then must be accepted by a panel of professors during a so-called "defence of the dissertation (obrona pracy doktorskiej)". There are several other requirements, like passing an exam in a foreign language and philosophy or economics (similar to the Russian system).

A prospective doctor must have also published some works (articles, books) beforehand, otherwise s/he would not be allowed to start the doctoral proceedings (przewód doktorski).

The title of a doctor is abbreviated as dr (without a full stop) before the surname of a person, e.g. dr Kowalski.

"Doctor" is also a common form of addressing a physician, but that does not indicate that the person actually holds a doctoral degree. Doctors of medicine have the abbreviation dr n. med. (doctor of medical studies) before or after their surname.

The title of dr inż. (doctor of engineering) is the only other specific doctoral titles. All other doctorates have no indications of their field. Dr n.hum. means doctor of humanities (incl. psychology and sociology) and is rarely used to differentiate from doctors of other fields.

Doctorates in Portugal

  • Doutor (Doctor)

Note: In Portugal and in the African Countries of Portuguese Official Language it is common to use the title "Dr." (supposedly the abbreviation of "Doutor") in reference to people with "Licenciatura" degrees (a "Licenciatura" is something between a Bachelor and a Master Degree in most countries, and currently (Jan 2006) represents 4 or 5 years of graduate studies; except in the following Licenciaturas: Pharmaceutical Sciences, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Dental Medicine, which are 6-year long and the degree is equivalent to DPharm, DM/MD, etc. After the Bologna Process reform takes place in Portugal, it will have 3 to 4 years and be equivalent to any Bachelor degree in the E. U. countries that adopt this process). Some professionals have, however, different titles. For example: "Eng." (Engenheiro, Engineer), "Arq." (Arquitecto, Architect). The term "Doctor" in Portugal is used for those with a PhD and, instead of the title "Dr.", use "Doutor" (the extended form) or "Professor Doutor" (because, usually, PhD's are university professors).

Doctorates in Finland

Finland requires 45 weeks (1800 hours) of study for older students. This requirement has been removed during the Bologna process leaving the decision to individual students and their professors, but some fields recommend a requirement 70 course credits (1866,67 hours). Receiving the doctorate also requires a written thesis. Thesis can either be a monograph or it can be edited from a collection of 3 to 7 journal articles, including an introduction tying the individual parts.

Doctorates in Brazil

Doctoral programs are available in most Brazilian public universities. The candidate is normally required to have received first a Master's degree in a related field prior to getting a Doctor's degree. In a few cases however, some institutions may admit candidates who do not hold a Master's degree, based on their individual academic merit. A second and a third foreign language are also common requirements for those wishing to enroll in a doctoral program in Brazil. The process of admission varies by institution. Some require candidates to take several tests prior to admission to the program and others base admissions on a research proposal application and interview. However, in this second instance, the applicant must have a supervisor who will coordinate his or her research during the doctorate.

The requirements for the Doctor's degree usually include satisfactory performance in a minimum number of advanced graduate courses, passing an oral qualifying exam, and submitting a doctoral thesis that must represent an original and relevant contribution to existing knowledge in the field of study to which the thesis topic is related. The thesis is examined in a final public oral exam administered by a panel of at least five faculty members, two of whom must be necessarily external examiners. After completion of the program, which normally lasts from 3 to 6 years, the candidate is commonly awarded the degree of Doutor (Doctor) followed by the name of the main area of specialization in which his/her research was conducted, e.g. Doutor em Direito (Doctor of Laws), Doutor em Ciźncias da Computaēćo (Doctor of Computer Sciences), Doutor em Filosofia(Doctor of Philosophy), Doutor em Economia (Doctor of Economics), Doutor em Engenharia (Doctor of Engineering), Doutor em Medicina (Doctor of Medicine), and so on. The generic title of Doutor em Ciźncias (Doctor of Sciences) is normally used to refer collectively to doctorates in the natural sciences (i.e. Physics, Chemistry, Biological and Life Sciences, etc.)

All graduate programs in Brazilian public universities are free as public universities are not allowed under the Brazilian constitution to charge tuition fees from the students. On top of that, most gifted graduate students are also supported by individual or institutional scholarships granted by federal government agencies like CNPq and CAPES, or by the various FAP's at the state level (especially FAPESP in the state of Sćo Paulo). Competition for graduate financial aid is very intense though and most scholarships support at most 2 years of Master's studies and 4 years of doctoral studies. The normal monthly stipend for doctoral students in Brazil is between 500 and 1000 USD.

Doctorates in Spain

Doctoral programs are available in any university. According to the current plans, the doctorate has to pass three years. The first one he has to obtain 20 credits doing specific courses (200 hours aprox). During the second period he would be required to write and expose in public a small thesis project. If approved, he will get a title called "Diploma de Estudios Avanzados". The third period (usually more than one year) will consist in develop this thesis project into a whole thesis.

See also

  • Doctor of Philosophy
  • Doctor of Science
  • Bachelor's degree
  • Master's degree
  • C.Phil. (ABD)
  • Engineer's degree
  • Bologna process - EU harmonisation
  • Degrees of the University of Oxford
  • British degree abbreviations
  • Thesis committee
  • EURODOC - the European Council of doctoral candidates and junior researchers.
  • Dottorato di ricerca (doctorate in Italy)


 

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