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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
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- Dances
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SCIENCE
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- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
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TRADITIONS
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NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
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THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independent_school

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Independent school

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and in some cases the investment yield of an endowment.

Though the terms independent school and private school are often synonyms in popular usage in the U.S. and in Canada, independent schools themselves have increasingly come to favor the former term. Independent schools may have a religious affiliation, but the more precise usage of the term excludes parochial schools and other schools with financial dependence upon outside organizations.

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland the more prestigious independent schools are known as public schools, sometimes categorised as major and minor public schools. Membership of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference is often considered as what defines a school as a public school, though this includes many independent grammar schools.

In Scotland, all schools not dependent on state funding are known as private schools or independent schools.

In Australia, where the term is also used interchangeably with private school, an independent school is usually a church-run and often prestigious school, although since the 1980s the number of low-fee schools catering for 'average' Australians, and in some cases without any religious affiliation, has increased significantly. Catholic schools, which are usually more accessible with lower fees, also make up a sizeable proportion of Australian independent schools, and are usually regarded as a school sector of their own within the broad category of independent schools.

Independent schools in the United States

Independent schools in the United States educate only a tiny fraction of the school-age population (slightly over 1% of the entire school-age population, 10% of the 10% of kids who go to private schools). The essential distinction between independent schools and other private schools is independence itself, essentially independence in governance and in finance: i.e., independent schools own, govern, and finance themselves, as opposed to government (public) and other private schools (parochial/diocesan) where the state or the church owns, governs, and finances the school. The National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) believes that the very success of its schools and their unique contribution to the mix of American pre-college education are related to the freedoms that derive from independence. See List of independent Catholic schools in the United States.

The roots of independence

In 1819 the Dartmouth College case declared that state charters establishing private schools and colleges were essentially inviolate. Charters, said the U.S. Supreme Court, were contracts, protected by the Constitution, and could not be unilaterally dissolved by the state. Thus, the independence and freedom of action of our schools were guaranteed. One hundred six years later in July, 1925, an equally important case was decided by the Supreme Court when the Society of Sisters of the Holy Names and the Hill Military Academy brought suit against Walter Pierce, the Governor of the State of Oregon, known as Pierce vs. the Society of Sisters. In November, 1922, in a wave of anti-Catholic sentiment, the voters of Oregon adopted through initiative the Compulsory Education Act which required every parent or guardian to send children between 8 and 16 years of age to a local public school. Failure to do so constituted a misdemeanor punishable by fines and/or imprisonment. In a now famous ruling, Mr. Justice McReynolds delivered the opinion of the Court: "... We think it entirely plain that the Act of 1922 unreasonably interferes with the liberty of parents and guardians to direct the upbringing and education of children under their control.... The fundamental theory of liberty upon which all governments in this Union repose excludes any general power of the state to standardize its children by forcing them to accept instruction from public teachers only. The child is not the mere creature of the state; those who nurture him and direct his destiny have the right, coupled with the high duty, to recognize and prepare him for additional obligations." The Court also held that enforcement of the Compulsory Education Act would do irreparable harm to the business and property of private schools. Thus, it was declared null and void. While Dartmouth established the right of private institutions to exist in perpetuity, Pierce asserted the right of parents to choose the educational setting for their children. State power was curbed by forbidding the erection of a monolithic educational system that all must attend. Upon these two critical decisions rests most of the constitutional protection private schools still enjoy. (Source: Frederick C. Calder, Executive Director, NYSAIS. From NYSAIS BULLETIN #226, March 23, 1998.)

A definition of independence

Independent schools belonging to NAIS share certain fundamental characteristics of purpose, structure, and operation, such characteristics being the defining factors for NAIS of a school's independence. NAIS schools are independent in that they have...

  • Independent incorporation as not-for-profit institutions with clearly stated educational goals and non-discriminatory policies in admissions and employment.
  • An individually developed mission and philosophy which in turn becomes the basis for the school's program.
  • A self-perpetuating board of trustees whose role is to plan for the future, to set overall policy, to finance the school (largely through setting tuition and generating charitable giving), and to appoint and evaluate the head of school.
  • An administration free to implement the mission of the school by designing and articulating its curriculum, by hiring and developing a capable and qualified faculty, and by admitting those students whom the school determines it can best serve.
  • A commitment to continuous institutional growth and quality manifested by participation in the rigorous and comprehensive evaluation and accreditation process of a state or regional accrediting body (whose accrediting processes are recognized and endorsed by NAIS).

The four fundamental freedoms that independence grants

Independence in terms of governance and finance affords our schools four fundamental freedoms:

  1. To define one's mission without dictates from the government or diocese.
  2. To admit and retain just those students the mission indicates the school should serve, since enrollment in independent schools is a privilege not a right.
  3. To hire faculty based on the school's own criteria for excellence, as opposed to state or union stipulations regarding education degrees or certification.
  4. To articulate a curriculum and program as an individual school sees fit, without being tied by the state (or any other outside agency) to a particular program, set of texts, or achievement assessment instruments.

The freedom and accountability embodied within these concepts of the independent school are the source of independent schools' greatest strengths and their most important contribution as a model for education.

See also

  • Independent school (UK)
  • Private school
  • Preparatory school
  • Parochial school
  • High school
  • Public school
  • Boarding school

Bibliography

  • Hein, David (4 January 2004). What Has Happened to Episcopal Schools? The Living Church, 228, no. 1, 21-22.

External links

  • National Association of Independent Schools (U.S.A.)
  • Canadian Association of Independent Schools
  • The Independent Schools Directory
  • eSchoolSearch Directory
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independent_school"