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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
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  95. Learning theory
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  98. Liberal arts
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  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
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  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
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  142. Special education
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  145. Student voice
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  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
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  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university
 



THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microlearning

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Microlearning

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Microlearning deals with relatively small learning units and short-term learning activities. Generally, the term 'microlearning' refers to micro-perspectives in the context of learning, education and training. More frequently, the term is used in the domain of E-learning and related fields in the sense of a new paradigmatic perspective on learning processes in mediated environments on micro levels.

Introduction

In a wide sense, microlearning can be understood as a metaphor which refers to micro aspects of a variety of learning models, concepts and processes.

"No matter if learning refers to the process of building up and organizing knowledge, to the change of behaviour, of attitudes, of values, of mental abilities, of cognitive structures, of emotional reactions, of action patterns or of societal dimensions, in all cases we have the possibility to consider micro, meso and macro aspects of the various views on more or less persisting changes and sustainable alterations of performances." (Hug 2005, p. 4).

Depending on frames and domains of reference, micro, meso and macro aspects vary. They are relational concepts. For example, in the context of language learning, one might think of micro aspects in terms of vocabularies, phrases, sentences, and distinguish them from situations and episodes (meso aspects) and socio-cultural specifics or complex semantics (macro aspects). In a more general discourse on learning, one might differentiate between the learning of individuals, group learning or learning of organizations and the learning of generations or societies.

Furthermore, microlearning marks a transition from common models of learning towards micro perspectives on and the significance of micro dimensions in the process of learning. The microlearning approach is an emergent paradigm, so there are no hard definitions or coherent uses of the term yet. However, the growing focus on microlearning activities can be seen by web users' activities on the subject, who tag their corresponding weblog postings and social bookmarks with the term 'microlearning' (check the corresponding Technorati and del.icio.us tags for examples).

As an instructional technology, microlearning focuses on the design of micro learning activities through micro steps in digital media environments, which already is a daily reality for today's knowledge workers. These activities can be incorporated in learner's daily routines and tasks. Unlike "traditional" elearning approaches, microlearning often tends towards push technology through push media, which reduces the cognitive load on the learners. Therefore, the selection of micro learning objects and also pace and timing of micro learning activities are of importance for didactical designs.

Characterization of microlearning

Microlearning can be characterized as follows:

  • Microlearning processes often derive from interaction with microcontent, which takes place either in designed (media) settings (eLearning) or in emergent microcontent structures like weblog postings or social bookmark managers on the World Wide Web (Mosel 2005).
  • Microlearning can be an assumption about the time needed to solve a learning task, for example answering a question, memorizing an information item, or finding a needed resource (Masie 2006). Learning processes that have been called "microlearning" can cover a span from few seconds (e.g. in mobile learning) up to 15 minutes or more. There is some relation to the term microteaching, which is an established practice in teacher education.
  • Microlearning can also be understood as a process of subsequent, "short" learning activities, i.e. learning through interaction with microcontent objects in small timeframes. In this case, the design, selection, feedback and pacing of repeated or otherwise 'chained' microlearning tasks comes into view.
  • In a wider sense, microlearning is a term that can be used to describe the way more and more people are actually doing informal learning and gaining knowledge in microcontent, micromedia or multitasking environments (microcosm), especially those that become increasingly based on Web 2.0 and wireless web technologies. In this wider sense, the borders between microlearning and the complementary concept of microknowledge are blurring.

Dimensions of microlearning

The following dimensions can be used to describe or design micro learning activities:

  • Time: relatively short effort, operating expense, degree of time consumption, measurable time, subjective time, etc.
  • Content: small or very small units, narrow topics, rather simplex issues, etc.
  • Curriculum: small part of curricular setting, parts of modules, elements of informal learning, etc.
  • Form: fragments, facets, episodes, "knowledge nuggets", skill elements, etc.
  • Process: separate, concomitant or actual, situated or integrated activities, iterative method, attention management, awareness (getting into or being in a process), etc.
  • Mediality: print media, electronic media, mono-media vs. multi-media, (inter-)mediated forms, etc.
  • Learning type: repetitive, activist, reflective, pragmatist, conceptionalist, constructivist, connectivist, behaviourist; also: action learning, classroom learning, corporate learning, etc.

(Hug 2005, used with permission)

Examples of microlearning activities

  • reading a paragraph of text, email or sms
  • listening to an informational (short) podcast or an educational video-clip
  • viewing a flashcard
  • memorizing a word, vocabulary, definition or formular
  • sorting a set of (microcontent) items by (chrono)logical order
  • selecting an answer to a question
  • answering questions in quizzes
  • playful learning with micro-games
  • composing a haiku or a short poem

Microlearning applications (examples)

  • Screensavers which prompt the user to solve small series of simple tasks after a certain amount of inactivity
  • Quizzes with multiple choice options on cell phones by use of sms or mobile applications (java midlets, symbian)
  • Word of the day as daily RSS-feed or email
  • Flashcard-software for memorizing content through spaced repetition

References

  • Gassler, Gerhard (2004): Integriertes Mikrolernen. MPhil. thesis, University of Innsbruck (Austria).
  • Gassler, Gerhard; Hug, Theo & Glahn, Christian (2004): Integrated Micro Learning – An outline of the basic method and first results. In: Auer, Michael E. & Auer, Ursula (eds.): International Conference on Interactive Computer Aided Learning, ICL 2004, Sept. 29 - Oct. 1, 2004, Villach, Austria (CD-ROM).
  • Gstrein, Silvia & Hug, Theo (2005): Integrated Micro Learning during Access Delays. A new approach to second language learning. In: Zaphiris, Panayiotis (ed.): User-centered computer assisted language learning. Hershey: Idea Group Publishing, pp. 152-175.
  • Hagleitner, Wolfgang; Drexler, Arthur; Hug, Theo (2006). Evaluation of a prototypic version of Knowledge Pulse in the context of a management course. Paper presented at the MApEC (Multimedia Applications in Education Conference) 2006, September 4-6, FH Joanneum, Graz, Austria.
  • Hug, Theo; Lindner, Martin; Bruck, Peter A. (eds.) (2006): Microlearning: Emerging Concepts, Practices and Technologies after e-Learning. Proceedings of Microlearning 2005. Innsbruck: Innsbruck University Press, 2006.
  • Hug, Theo (2005): Micro Learning and Narration. Exploring possibilities of utilization of narrations and storytelling for the designing of "micro units" and didactical micro-learning arrangements. Paper presented at the fourth Media in Transition conference, May 6-8, 2005, MIT, Cambridge (MA), USA.
  • Masie, Elliott (2006): Nano-Learning: Miniaturization of Design.
  • Mosel, Stephan (2005): Self Directed Learning With Personal Publishing and Microcontent. Constructivist Approach and Insights for Institutional Implementations. Paper presented at the Microlearning 2005 conference, June 23-24, 2005, Innsbruck, Austria.
  • Weber, Charles M. (2003): Rapid Learning in High Velocity Environments. Ph. D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) / Cambridge (U.S.A.).

See also

  • Integrated Microlearning (IML)
  • Microcontent
  • Microformats
  • Microknowledge
  • Micromedia

External links

  • Microlearning.org: Learning, Working and Living in New Media Spaces.
  • European Academy for Microlearning (EAMIL)
  • Microlearning.net (French)
  • Microlearning & Micropédagogie (French blog)
  • Micromoments: An interstitial video learning series that teaches college-level computer science fundamentals in short five-minute episodes.
  • NanoLearning.com: A marketplace for small, focused learning content.
  • Technorati Tag: Microlearning
  • del.icio.us Tag: Microlearning
  • SkillsFeed.com: Web 2.0 microlearning platform
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microlearning"

 


 

 
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