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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
•••••••••

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
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THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Finland

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Education in Finland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

The Finnish education system is a comparatively egalitarian Nordic system, with no tuition fees for full-time students. Attendance is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 16, and free meals are served to pupils at primary and secondary levels. The first nine years of education (primary and secondary school) are compulsory, and the pupils go to their local school. In the OECD's international assessment of student performance, PISA, Finland has consistently been among the highest scorers worldwide; in 2003 Finnish 15-year-olds came first in reading literacy, mathematics, and science, while placing second in problem solving, worldwide. In tertiary education, the World Economic Forum ranks Finland #1 in the world in the enrollment and quality and #2 in math and science education.

The education after primary school is divided to the vocational and academic systems, according to the old German model. The systems do not traditionally interoperate, although some of the de jure restrictions have been recently lifted. In particular, an important difference to other systems is that there is no common "youth school" — ages 16-19 are spent either in a trade school, or in an academic-oriented upper secondary school. Trade school graduates may enter the workforce directly after graduation. Upper secondary school graduates are taught no vocational skills and are expected to continue to tertiary education. A national speciality in contrast to some foreign systems is the academic matriculation diploma (Abitur) received after successful completion of upper secondary school, which holds a high prestige.

As the trade school is considered a secondary school, the term "tertiary education" refers to institutes of higher learning, or what is generally considered university level elsewhere. Therefore, plain figures for tertiary level enrollment are not internationally comparable. The tertiary level is divided to the university and higher vocational school (ammattikorkeakoulu) systems, whose diplomas are not mutually interchangeable. Only universities award licentiates and doctorates. Traditionally only university graduates may obtain higher (postgraduate) degrees. The Bologna process has resulted in a some restructuring, where vocational degree holders can qualify for further studies by doing additional courses. There are 20 universities and 30 polytechnics in the country.

Primary and secondary education

The educational system in Finland is based on a nine year comprehensive school (Finnish peruskoulu, Swedish grundskola, 'basic school'), with mandatory attendance. It begins at the age of 6-7 and ends at the age of 15-16. After graduation from comprehensive school there is a choice between upper secondary school (lukio, gymnasium) and vocational school (ammatillinen oppilaitos, yrkesinstitut). The second level education is not compulsory, but an overwhelming majority attends. Both primary and secondary education is funded by the municipality, and a free lunch is served.

Upper secondary school prepares for the university, so that all the material taught is "general studies". Vocational school develops vocational competence and as such does not prepare for higher education. Unlike in Sweden, these two are separate kinds of schools. There was an experiment about integrating these two into a so-called "youth school" as in Sweden, but the conclusion was to keep them separate.

Upper secondary school, unlike vocational school, concludes with a nationally graded matriculation examination (ylioppilastutkinto, studentexamen). Passing the test is a de facto prerequisite for further education. The system is designed so that approximately the lowest scoring 5% fails and also 5% get the best grade. The exam allows for a limited degree of specialization in either natural sciences or social sciences. Universities may use the test score in the matriculation examination to accept students. The examination was originally the entrance examination to the University of Helsinki, and its high prestige survives to this day. Each May Day, or Vappu, people wear the white cap that is the academic regalia associated with the graduation. Furthermore, the graduation is an important and formal family event, like christening, wedding, and funeral.

Special programmes exist in vocational institutes which either require a matriculation examination, or allow the student to study for the matriculation exam in conjunction to the vocational education. The latter are unpopular, because they equate to going to two schools at the same time.

Tertiary education

There are two sectors in the tertiary education: universities (yliopisto, universitet) and polytechnics (ammattikorkeakoulu, yrkeshögskola, or AMK for short). When recruiting new students, the national matriculation examination and entrance examinations are used as criteria for student selection. The focus for universities is research, and they give a more theoretical education. The polytechics are not academia; they focus on more practice-oriented teaching, and development instead of research. For example, physicians are university graduates, where as nurses are polytechnic graduates. The vocational schools and polytechnics are governed by the municipality, cf. the universities operate under the state. A bachelor's degree takes about 3–4 years at a university. Depending on the programme, this may be the point of graduation, but usually only an intermediate step towards the master's degree. A polytechnic degree, on the other hand, takes about 3.5–4.5 years. A degree from a polytechnic is not, however, considered legally equivalent to a lower university degree in the Finnish system. Polytechnic-graduated Bachelors have been able for the last few years to continue by applying to polytechnic Master's degree-programmes (takes 2 years, while working), which are work-oriented - not academic or by applying to a university to continue towards a university master's degree. The scope of polytechnic master's programs is still limited in total numbers and fields of education. Contrary to Bachelors, Master's degree -graduate from a polytechnic is considered equivalent to academic Master graduate of related field, but besides business and engineering there's not many shared branches. After master's, the remaining degrees (two levels of doctorate) are available only in universities.

Attendance is compulsory in the primary and in vocational schools and polytechnics, but voluntary in universities. No tuition fees are collected from Finnish citizens in Finnish universities or polytecnics. However, at universities, membership in the students' union is compulsory. Students' unions of polytechnic are also recognized in the legislation, but the membership is voluntary and does not include special university student healthcare. Finnish students are entitled to a student benefit, but it may be revoked if there is a persistent lack of progress in the studies. The benefit is often not sufficient for living, so students usually do also some work to fund their studies. State-guaranteed student loans are also available.

Some universities give professional degrees in fields like engineering and medicine. They have additional requirements than merely completing the studies, such as demonstrations of competence in practice.

Examples:

  • Lääketieteen lisensiaatti, Licentiate of Medicine. A Bachelor of Medicine (lääketieteen kandidaatti) specialises in their field by doing medical work. There is no Master's degree, and the licentiate degree does not require a full doctoral dissertation. Common physicians are therefore not doctors, but licentiates. The research or "professor's degree", including a full dissertation, is called "Doctor of Medicine" (lääketieteen tohtori).
  • Diplomi-insinööri is a six-year programme of 300 ECTS, which is comparable to an Anglo-Saxon Master of Science with the Bachelor in the same field. However, included in this is a 30 ECTS "diploma project", which is a real-life engineering project taking about ½-1 years. Its completion demonstrates the professional competence in addition to the necessary amount of education. Notice: this program, in practice, does not interoperate with the non-academic insinööri (amk) program.

After a master's degree, there are two further post-graduate degrees - an intermediate postgraduate degree, called Licentiate, and the Doctor (Doctorate) degree. A Licenciate programme has the same amount of theoretical education as a Doctor, but its dissertation work has less requirements. On the other hand, the requirements for a doctoral disseration are a little bit higher than in other countries.

Most universities give the title 'Doctor of Philosophy' (filosofian tohtori). However, universities of technology give the title Doctor of Science in Technology, tekniikan tohtori, and there are several similar titles, e.g. in medicine lääketieteen tohtori, in art taiteen tohtori, in social sciences valtiotieteen tohtori, aso.

Adult education

Completing secondary school on a vocational program with full classes on a three year curriculum provides a formal qualification for further studies. However, it may prove necessary to obtain post-secondary education before being admitted at a university, as the entrance examinations require a relatively high level of knowledge. Post-secondary education is provided by municipal schools or independent 'adult education centres', which can give either vocational education or teaching at comprehensive or upper secondary school levels. It is possible to obtain the matriculation diploma, or to better the comprehensive school grades in these programs. A new trade can also be learnt by an adult at an adult education centre (aikuiskoulutuskeskus), for example, if the structural change of the economy has made the old trade redundant.

In universities, the "Open University" (Avoin yliopisto) program enables people without student status to enroll in individual university courses. There are no requirements, but there is a modest tuition fee (e.g. 60 euros/course).

Future prospects

The ongoing Bologna Process blurs the distinction between vocational and academic qualifications. In some fields, new postgraduate degrees have been introduced. Co-operation between the different systems is rising and some integration will occur (not without substantial amount of pressure). This accounts to not only the Bologna Process but a noble goal of Finnish politicians — to educate the vast majority of Finns to a higher degree (ca. 60–70% of each annual cohort enter higher education)[citation needed].

During recent few years a cut in the number of new student places has been often called for by the economic life, trade- and student unions, because of an ongoing trend of rising academic unemployment rate, which is interpreted as an aftermath to the steep increase in 1990s in the student places of higher education. In particular, some AMK degrees have suffered inflation. As a step to the right direction, the Ministry of Education has recently issued a nationwide cut of 10% to new student places in ammattikorkeakoulus to be applied starting from 2007 and 2008. It is still largely undecided whether (and when) some of those cuts could be redistributed to areas in need of more highly educated working force. In 2001 and 2002, university graduates had a 3.7% unemployment rate, and AMK graduates had 8% (see the OECD report).

An increase to vocational school student places might be preferred as shortage of basic workforce such as plumbers and building workers is widely acknowledged in Finland. It should be also noted that retiring age groups are bigger than the ones entering higher education in Finland for now and for quite some time into the foreseeable future. If current amount of student places were kept unchanged to year 2020 for example, Eastern Finland would have student places for 103% of the estimated size of the age group 19-21.

See also

  • European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System
  • Finnish National Agency for Education
  • Government Agencies in Finland
  • List of universities in Finland
  • Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)

External links

  • Finnish school system
  • Nuorisokoulua ei tule (in Finnish)
  • PISA 2000 and PISA 2003 in Finland
  • PISA 2006 and the Finnish school system
  • World Economic Forum report
  • OECD report on education in Finland
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Finland"