New Page 1

LA GRAMMATICA DI ENGLISH GRATIS IN VERSIONE MOBILE • TEL. 375-5186291 •   INFORMATIVA PRIVACY

  Telefono e SMS: 375-5186291       NUOVA SEZIONE ELINGUE
EMAIL:

 

Selettore risorse   

   

 

                                         IL Metodo  |  Grammatica  |  RISPOSTE GRAMMATICALI  |  Multiblog  |  INSEGNARE AGLI ADULTI  |  INSEGNARE AI BAMBINI  |  AudioBooks  |  RISORSE SFiziosE  |  Articoli  |  Tips  | testi pAralleli  |  VIDEO SOTTOTITOLATI
                                                                                         ESERCIZI :   Serie 1 - 2 - 3  - 4 - 5  SERVIZI:   Pronunciatore di inglese - Dizionario - Convertitore IPA/UK - IPA/US - Convertitore di valute in lire ed euro                                              

 

 

WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
CONDIZIONI DI USO DI QUESTO SITO
L'utente può utilizzare il nostro sito solo se comprende e accetta quanto segue:

  • Le risorse linguistiche gratuite presentate in questo sito si possono utilizzare esclusivamente per uso personale e non commerciale con tassativa esclusione di ogni condivisione comunque effettuata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. La riproduzione anche parziale è vietata senza autorizzazione scritta.
  • Il nome del sito EnglishGratis è esclusivamente un marchio e un nome di dominio internet che fa riferimento alla disponibilità sul sito di un numero molto elevato di risorse gratuite e non implica dunque alcuna promessa di gratuità relativamente a prodotti e servizi nostri o di terze parti pubblicizzati a mezzo banner e link, o contrassegnati chiaramente come prodotti a pagamento (anche ma non solo con la menzione "Annuncio pubblicitario"), o comunque menzionati nelle pagine del sito ma non disponibili sulle pagine pubbliche, non protette da password, del sito stesso.
  • La pubblicità di terze parti è in questo momento affidata al servizio Google AdSense che sceglie secondo automatismi di carattere algoritmico gli annunci di terze parti che compariranno sul nostro sito e sui quali non abbiamo alcun modo di influire. Non siamo quindi responsabili del contenuto di questi annunci e delle eventuali affermazioni o promesse che in essi vengono fatte!
  • L'utente, inoltre, accetta di tenerci indenni da qualsiasi tipo di responsabilità per l'uso - ed eventuali conseguenze di esso - degli esercizi e delle informazioni linguistiche e grammaticali contenute sul siti. Le risposte grammaticali sono infatti improntate ad un criterio di praticità e pragmaticità più che ad una completezza ed esaustività che finirebbe per frastornare, per l'eccesso di informazione fornita, il nostro utente. La segnalazione di eventuali errori è gradita e darà luogo ad una immediata rettifica.

     

    ENGLISHGRATIS.COM è un sito personale di
    Roberto Casiraghi e Crystal Jones
    Tel. e SMS: 375-5186291 - Email:

    Roberto Casiraghi           
    INFORMATIVA SULLA PRIVACY              Crystal Jones


    Siti amici:  Lonweb Daisy Stories English4Life Scuolitalia
    Sito segnalato da INGLESE.IT

 
 



THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Degrees_of_the_University_of_Oxford

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Degrees of the University of Oxford

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
For other degrees, see Academic degree

This article concerns the degrees of the University of Oxford. The system of academic degrees in the University of Oxford can be confusing to those not familiar with it. This is not merely because many degree titles date from the Middle Ages, but also because many changes have been haphazardly introduced in recent years. For example, the (medieval) B.D., B.M., B.C.L., etc., are postgraduate degrees, while the (modern) M.Phys., M.Eng., etc., are undergraduate degrees.

In postnominals, "University of Oxford" is normally abbreviated "Oxon.", which is short for (Academia) Oxoniensis: e.g. M.A. (Oxon.)

Undergraduate degrees

  • Bachelor of Arts (B.A.)
  • Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.)

The Bachelor's degree is awarded soon after the end of the degree course (three or four years after matriculation). Until recently, all undergraduates studied for the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The B.F.A. was introduced in 1978. Holders of the degrees of B.A. and B.F.A. both proceed in time to the degree of Master of Arts (M.A.). Note that the B.A is still awarded even for some science courses, such as the three-year Physics degree. The degree of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) has never been awarded as an undergraduate degree at Oxford; it used to be awarded as a graduate qualification, however.

  • Bachelor of Theology (B.Th.)
  • Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

The B.Th. is awarded primarily to students of the various Theological Colleges and Halls enjoying some sort of associate status with the University, such as Wycliffe Hall, St Stephen's House, Ripon College (Cuddesdon) [1] and the former Westminster College, Oxford. Usually, these students are candidates for the ordained ministry of one of the mainstream Christian denominations, but may be drawn from any faith background or none at the discretion of the College or Hall. It should not be confused with the degree of bachelor of divinity (B.D.), which is a postgraduate degree.

The B.Ed. was formerly awarded to students at Westminster College, Oxford, when that course was validated by the University.

Undergraduate Master's degrees

In the 1990s the degrees of Master of Engineering, etc., were introduced to increase public recognition of the four-year undergraduate science programmes in those subjects:

  • Master of Engineering (M.Eng.)
  • Master of Physics (M.Phys.)
  • Master of Chemistry (M.Chem.)
  • Master of Biochemistry (M.Biochem.)
  • Master of Mathematics (M.Math.)
  • Master of Earth Sciences (M.EarthSc.)

The holders of these degrees have the academic dress and standing of BAs until the twenty-first term from matriculation, when they rank and dress as M.A.s. In Cambridge the same purpose has been accomplished by granting science undergraduates the additional degree of Master of Natural Sciences (M.Sci.) while continuing to award them the B.A. (and the subsequent M.A.). Note that biology undergraduates are still awarded the B.A./M.A., as are all other undergraduates, whether their degree courses last three years or four years.

The degree of Master of Arts

Main article: Master of Arts (Oxbridge)
  • Master of Arts (M.A.)

The degree of Master of Arts is awarded to B.A.s and B.F.A.s twenty-one terms (seven years) after matriculation, without further examination, upon the payment of a nominal fee. Recipients of undergraduate masters' degrees are not eligible to incept as M.A., but are afforded the same privileges after the statutory twenty-one terms (currently only nine terms).

This system dates from the Middle Ages, when the study of the liberal arts took seven years. In between matriculation and the licence to teach which was awarded at the end of an undergraduate's studies (whereafter he was incepted as a Master of Arts), he took an intermediate degree known as the baccalaureate, or degree of Bachelor of Arts. In the University of Paris the baccalaureate was granted soon after responsions (the examination for matriculation), whereas in Oxford and Cambridge the bachelor's degree was postponed to a much later stage, and gradually developed a greater significance. While the requirements for the bachelor's degree increased, those for the master's degree gradually diminished. An examination along modern lines was introduced for the M.A. degree in 1800, but this was abolished in 1807.

While the length of the undergraduate degree course has been shortened to three or four years, the University of Oxford still requires seven years to pass before the awarding of the M.A. The universities of Cambridge and Dublin have similar systems. In the four ancient universities of Scotland, the B.A. has become obsolete, and the Scottish M.A. is awarded on completion of the four-year undergraduate degree course in the arts.

The shortening of the degree course reflects the fact that much of the teaching of the liberal arts was taken over by high schools, and undergraduates now enter university at a much older age.

Significance of the M.A.

Traditionally the M.A. represented full membership of the University: until 2000, only M.A.s (as well as doctors of divinity, medicine, and civil law) were members of Convocation, the main legislative assembly of the University, which today only elects the Chancellor and the professor of Poetry. Before then, members of the university who had not yet been made M.A. were known as "junior members", while those who were M.A.s were "senior members".

Whilst recently there has been increasing criticism of being awarded a Master's degree whilst not doing any additional academic work [2][3], supporters assert that the academic workload of a three-year Oxford undergraduate degree exceeds that of a four-year Masters course at many other British universities[4][5].

Postgraduate degrees

Bachelors' degrees

  • Bachelor of Divinity (B.D.)
  • Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery (B.M., B.Ch.)
  • Bachelor of Civil Law (B.C.L.)
  • Bachelor of Letters (B.Litt.) (no longer awarded)
  • Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) (no longer awarded)
  • Bachelor of Music (B.Mus.)
  • Bachelor of Philosophy (B.Phil.) (only now awarded in Philosophy)

In medieval times a student could not study some subjects until he had completed his study in the liberal arts. These were known as the higher faculties. The degrees in Science and Letters were added in the 19th century, and the degree in Philosophy was added in 1914 (although the D.Phil. is not considered a "higher doctorate"). The higher bachelor's degree programme is generally a taught programme of one or two years for graduates. In Medicine and Surgery this corresponds to the clinical phase of training, after which they are accorded the courtesy title "Doctor". The B.D. and B.Mus. are open only to Oxford graduates who have done well in the B.A. examinations in divinity and music respectively. The B.Phil./M.Phil. is a part-taught, part-research degree which is often a stepping stone to the D.Phil.

Masters' degrees

  • Master of Surgery (M.Ch.)

The M.Ch. is the higher degree in surgery, and is awarded on similar conditions to higher doctorates such as the D.M., e.g., ten years must have passed since the lower degree in the faculty. In medieval times the distinction between a master and doctor was not significant, and both words signified the higher degree in a faculty. The title "master" is used instead of "doctor", as surgeons in England are traditionally known as "Mr" rather than "Dr".

  • Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.)
  • Master of Letters (M.Litt.)
  • Master of Science (M.Sc.) (awarded by examination or by research)

Due to pressure from employers and overseas applicants to conform with United States practice, which is also that of most other UK universities, the B.Litt., B.Sc., and B.Phil. (in degrees other than philosophy) were re-titled masters' degrees.

  • Magister Juris (M.Jur.)
  • Master of Studies (M.St.)
  • Master of Theology (M.Th.)
  • Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.)
  • Master of Education (M.Ed.)

The M.Jur., M.St., and M.B.A. are awarded after taught courses, the M.Jur. being the equivalent of the B.C.L. for students from non-common-law backgrounds. The M.St. is a one-year taught course which is the equivalent of the taught MA in most other UK universities. The M.Th. is an applied theology course for those intending to enter holy orders. The degree of Master of Education was formerly awarded to students at Westminster College, when that course was validated by the University.

Doctorates

  • Doctor of Divinity (D.D.)
  • Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.)
  • Doctor of Medicine (D.M.)
  • Doctor of Letters (D.Litt.)
  • Doctor of Science (D.Sc.)
  • Doctor of Music (D.Mus.)

Bachelors in the higher faculties other than Medicine can proceed to a doctorate in the same faculty without further examination, on presentation of evidence of an important contribution to their subject, e.g., published work, research, etc. Doctorates in the higher faculties may also be awarded honoris causa, i.e., as honorary degrees. It is traditional for the Chancellor to be made a D.C.L. jure officio (by virtue of his office). Until the 19th century all bishops who had studied at Oxford were made D.D.s jure officio.

  • Doctor of Philosophy (D.Phil.)

The DPhil is a research degree, modelled on the German and American Ph. D., which was introduced in 1914. Rather atypically, Oxford was the first university in the UK to accept this innovation.

  • Doctor of Clinical Psychology (D.Clin. Psychol.)
  • Doctor of Engineering (Eng. D.)
The new degrees of D.Clin. Psychol. and Eng. D. are professional degrees in the American model. The Eng. D. is the only Oxford degree to use the Cambridge abbreviation format.

Order of academic standing

Members of the University of Oxford are ranked in the following order according to their degree. The order is as follows:

  • Doctor of Divinity
  • Doctor of Civil Law
  • Doctor of Medicine if also a Master of Arts
  • Doctor of Letters if also a Master of Arts
  • Doctor of Science if also a Master of Arts
  • Doctor of Music if also a Master of Arts
  • Doctor of Philosophy if also a Master of Arts
  • Doctor of Clinical Psychology if also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Surgery if also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Science if also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Letters if also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Philosophy if also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Studies if also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Theology if also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Education if also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Business Administration if also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Fine Art if also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Arts, or Master of Biochemistry or Chemistry or Earth Sciences or Engineering or Mathematics or Physics with effect from the twenty-first term from matriculation
  • Doctor of Medicine if not also a Master of Arts
  • Doctor of Letters if not also a Master of Arts
  • Doctor of Science if not also a Master of Arts
  • Doctor of Music if not also a Master of Arts
  • Doctor of Philosophy if not also a Master of Arts
  • Doctor of Clinical Psychology if not also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Surgery if not also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Science if not also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Letters if not also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Philosophy if not also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Studies if not also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Theology if not also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Education if not also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Business Administration if not also a Master of Arts
  • Master of Fine Art if not also a Master of Arts
  • Bachelor of Divinity
  • Bachelor of Civil Law
  • Magister Juris
  • Bachelor of Medicine
  • Bachelor of Surgery
  • Bachelor of Letters
  • Bachelor of Science
  • Bachelor of Music
  • Bachelor of Philosophy
  • Bachelor of Arts, or Master of Biochemistry or Chemistry or Earth Sciences or Engineering or Mathematics or Physics until the twenty-first term from matriculation
  • Bachelor of Fine Art
  • Bachelor of Theology
  • Bachelor of Education

Within each degree the holders are ranked by the date on which they proceeded to their degree. In the case of people who graduated on the same day they are ranked by alphabetical order.

See also

  • Academic degree
  • Bachelor's degree
  • Master's degree
  • Doctorate
  • University of Oxford
  • Academic dress of the University of Oxford

External links

  • University of Oxford
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Degrees_of_the_University_of_Oxford"