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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
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THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Scotland

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Education in Scotland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Scotland has a long history of universal provision of public education, and the Scottish education system is distinctly different from other parts of the United Kingdom. Traditionally, the Scottish system has emphasised breadth across a range of subjects, while the English, Welsh and Northern Irish system has emphasised greater depth of education over a smaller range of subjects at secondary school level.

Following this, Scottish universities generally have courses a year longer than their counterparts elsewhere in the UK, though it is often possible for students to take a more advanced specialised exams and join the courses at the second year. One unique aspect is that the ancient universities of Scotland issue a Master of Arts as the first degree in humanities.

The majority of schools are non-denominational, but by legislation separate Roman Catholic schools, with an element of control by the Roman Catholic Church, are provided by the state system.

Qualifications at the secondary school and post-secondary (further education) level are provided by the Scottish Qualifications Authority and delivered through various schools, colleges and other centres. Political responsibility for education at all levels is vested in the Scottish Parliament and the Scottish Executive Education and Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Departments

Public schools are owned and operated by the local authorities which act as Education Authorities, and the compulsory phase is divided into primary school and secondary school (usually called High school). Schools are supported in delivering the National Guidelines and National Priorities by Learning and Teaching Scotland.

Inspections and audits of educational standards are conducted by three bodies: Care Commission inspect care standards in pre-school provision; Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education for pre-school, primary, education, further and community education; with the Quality Assurance Agency Scotland responsible for higher education.

School years

Children start primary school aged between four and a half and five and a half depending on when the child's birthday falls. As the Scottish school year means all those born between March and February of the following year may be in the same year group. Children born between March and August would start school at five years old and those born between September and February start school at age four-and-a-half. The Scottish system is the most flexible in the UK, however, as parents of children born between September and February can opt to hold their child back a year and let them start school when they are five-and-a-half instead. This usually allows those not ready for formal education to have an extra year at nursery school however funding is only available for children born in January and February. Pupils remain at primary school for seven years completing Primary One to Seven. Then aged eleven or twelve, they start secondary school for a compulsory four years with the final two years being optional. In Scotland, school pupils sit Standard Grade exams at the age of fifteen/sixteen, sometimes earlier, for up to eight subjects including compulsory exams in English, mathematics, a foreign language, a science subject and a social subject; it is now required by the Scottish Parliament to have two hours of physical education a week. Each school may vary these compulsory combinations. The school leaving age is generally sixteen (after completion of standard grade), after which students may choose to remain at school and study for Access, Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher exams. A small number of students at certain private, independent schools may follow the English system and study towards GCSEs instead of Standard Grades, and towards A and AS-Levels instead of Higher Grade and Advanced Higher exams.

The table below lists rough equivalences with the year system in the rest of the United Kingdom. Please note that the years are approximate as a school year is defined differently in the separate systems:

Sixth form colleges do not have an equivalent in Scotland; S5 and S6 are always part of Scottish Secondary Schools. S5 and S6 are optional, and in the Scottish system are a chance to study additional Access, Intermediate, Higher or Advanced Higher courses, further helping teenagers access university.

Access to nursery, primary and secondary school

Note that the age ranges specify the youngest age for a child entering that year and the oldest age for a child leaving that year. Children may start attending nursery as soon as they have passed their third birthday, and progress to Primary 1 in the August of the year in which they turn five. In general, the cut-off point for ages is the end of February, so all children must be of a certain age on 1 March in order to begin class in August. However all parents of children born between September and February (e.g. still 4 years old on the school start date) are entitled to defer entry to Primary School if they believe their child is not ready for school. However, only children whose birthdays fall in January or February will be considered for funding for a subsequent year at nursery, unless there are special circumstances. Children may leave school once they reach their statutory school leaving date, this is dependent on date of birth. For children born between 1 March and 30 September it is 31 May of their 4th year of secondary school. For children born between 1 October and 28 February it is the last day of the December term of the school session in which they are 16.

Pupils thus transfer to Scottish secondary schools at age 12, a year later than elsewhere in the United Kingdom, in England and Wales Year 7 is normally the first year of secondary school.

School qualifications

The vast majority of Scottish pupils take Scottish Qualifications Certificate qualifications provided by the Scottish Qualifications Authority also know as the SQA for short. Generally, most pupils take Standard Grades in S4, Highers in S5 and S6 and, for those who wish to remain at school for the final year, more highers and Advanced Highers (formerly CSYS) in S6. Intermediate 1 and Intermediate 2 qualifications - were intended to be roughly equivalent to General and Credit Level Standard Grades respectively, but in practice, Intermediate 1 is easier than General, and Intermediate 2 harder than Credit - can also be taken in lieu of any of the aforementioned qualifications.

Pupils can go to university at the end of S5, as Highers provide the entry requirements for Scottish universities where degrees are normally at least four years long. Those who want to go to university in England, or intend to study popular courses such as Medicine or Law, are often required to take a sixth year.

All educational qualifications in Scotland are part of the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework.

Access to university

Children may attend Scottish universities directly after receiving their Higher results -- potentially at the age of 16½. Therefore two sets of national examinations are held. The first set, the Standard Grade examinations, take place in the Fourth year of secondary school and show basic education level. The second set, the Higher examinations take place in the Fifth and Sixth years. A third level, Advanced Higher, replaced the old Certificate of Sixth Year Studies in 2001. It is sometimes taken by students intending to study at an English university, and has often given students holding a relevant CSYS or Advanced Higher the opportunity to pass straight into second year at a Scottish university, although this has become less common as numbers of students attending university have risen.

History

Origins

During the medieval period Scotland followed the typical pattern of European education with the Roman Catholic church organising schooling. Church choir song schools and grammar schools were founded in all the main burghs and some small towns, early examples including the High School of Glasgow in 1124 and the High School of Dundee in 1239. The foundation of the University of St. Andrews in 1413 was followed by Glasgow in 1451 and Aberdeen in 1495. The Education Act 1496 introduced compulsory education for the eldest sons of nobles.

Development of universal education

The Protestant Reformation brought the reshaping of the national Church of Scotland and in January 1561 John Knox and a small group of clergymen set out a national programme for spiritual reform, including the "virtuous education and godly upbringing of the youth of this Realm" with a schoolmaster to be appointed to every church. "For the poor, if need be, education may be given free; for the rich, it is only necessary to see that education is given under proper supervision." Reformation concepts such as the priesthood of all believers, the importance of the individual conscience, and the supremacy of Scripture, made widespread literacy important. Unlike the Reformation in England which had been imposed by the monarch, the Scottish Kirk had not been reformed under the leadership of the crown, and tensions would continue. Late in 1561 the Privy council made a financial settlement which fell far short of the Church's hopes, but the intent was implemented as resources permitted. Early progress was made in reforming the universities, and new universities were formed, at Edinburgh in 1582, and Marischal College, Aberdeen in 1593. In the burghs the old schools were maintained, with the song schools and a number of new foundations becoming reformed grammar schools or ordinary parish schools. Here and there in the countryside parish schools were set up, often with the minister also serving as schoolmaster, who was commonly called the "Dominie". At their best, the curriculum included catechism, Latin, French, Classical literature and sports.

In 1616 an act in Privy council commanded every parish to establish a school "where convenient means may be had", and when the Parliament of Scotland ratified this in 1633 it introduced a tax on local "heritors" (landowners) to provide the necessary endowment. A loophole which allowed evasion of this tax was closed in an Act of 1646 which established a solid institutional foundation for schools on Covenanter principles. Although the Restoration brought a reversion to the 1633 position, in 1696 new legislation restored the provisions of 1646 together with means of enforcement "more suitable to the age". The Education Act of 1696, which continued to regulate Scottish elementary education until 1872, could be invoked to set up a school and ensure continuing payment of the schoolmaster's salary. Schooling was not free, but the support from tax on "heritors" in country districts and municipal funds in burghs kept fees low, with it being left to the kirk-sessions aided by charity to provide the fees for the poorest as well as exerting moral pressure for them to attend.

Golden age

By the end of the 17th century a considerable proportion of the population was literate and the education system had been developed to a point considerably in advance of anything known before, well ahead of England or most other European countries. School life began at the age of five, though many did not arrive until they were seven and may at first have attended an unofficial dame-school. It was meant to continue for five years, after which some pupils would go on to a larger burgh school or possibly straight to university, but many poorer parents could not let their child stay beyond the age of eight unless he won a bursary. School was attended six days a week for ten to twelve hours a day, starting at 6 a.m. with one hour breaks for breakfast and lunch. Two or three "play-days" each week allowed for bodily exercise. When in class all subjects incorporated piety, with the Bible as the reading text. All learnt reading and writing, Latin was taught to some older children and arithmetic was taught in the burghs. Discipline was maintained by the tawse. Though the children of the nobility were often educated at home by tutors, "by far the greatest part"[citation needed] of the Scottish gentry sent their sons to the local schools with their tenants' children.[citation needed]

The 18th century brought a golden age of Scottish education, contributing to the intellectual advances of the Scottish enlightenment and the industrial revolution, as well as allowing significant migration elsewhere of professionally trained or commercially talented Scots. The universities also attracted English students, particularly Nonconformists who were excluded from the two universities in England, Oxford and Cambridge, which required their students to sign up to the Anglican faith. The Scottish universities gained a better reputation in fields like medicine, and the University of Edinburgh grew from 400 students at the start of the century to 2,000 by 1815. Many towns vaunted the quality of their schools, for example Crieff in the Scottish Highlands which grew from a village as parents moved to be near its grammar school. In Edinburgh there was a surge in provision around 1760, with numerous private schools opening, the council founding four supplementary "English schools", and in particular the Royal High School doubling in size to be claimed as the largest school in Britain around 1790.

By the end of the century the legal requirement of a school for each parish had largely been met, but was proving inadequate because of the physical extent of some parishes, or because of large and increasing populations. Each parish school usually had one schoolmaster, who would take fifty or sixty pupils. Under these circumstances the kirk-session would bring little pressure for children to attend school for more than four years or even, sometimes, for girls to attend school at all. The gap was increasingly filled by private schools funded entirely by fees per pupil, known as "adventure schools", which could be shut down by the kirk-session for incompetence or doctrinal unorthodoxy. Even in the 1690s such schools were being used to supplement the parish schools, with the kirk paying the fees for poor pupils. An "adventure school" opened in Alloway in 1765 taught Robert Burns to read and write. There was also a contribution from charitable endowments, often from local landowners, some providing cheap schools for girls to learn to read, spin, sew and knit. In the Scottish Highlands as well as problems of distance and physical isolation, most people spoke Gaelic which few teachers and ministers could understand. Here the Kirk's parish schools were supplemented by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and after 1811 by the Gaelic Societies of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Inverness. Their aim was to teach English language and end Roman Catholicism associated with rebellious Jacobitism. Though the Gaelic Society schools taught the Bible in Gaelic, the overall effect contributed to the erosion of Highland culture.

Many of the teachers in private and charitable schools were female, and the introduction from England of the pupil-teacher system in 1846 also facilitated the entry of women into teaching, but was resented by dominies and in 1847 the Educational Institute of Scotland (EIS) was set up to bolster their professional status.

Compulsory education

Education finally became compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 13 with the Education (Scotland) Act 1872. The Scottish Education Department in London took over from the Church of Scotland. Burgh as well as parish schools now came under School Boards run by local committees, many new Board schools were built, and larger School Boards established "higher grade" (secondary) schools as a cheaper alternative to the burgh schools. The Act included the statement that "Every school under the management of the school board of a parish shall be deemed a parish school, and every school under the management of the school board of a burgh shall be deemed a burgh school, and all such schools are hereby declared to be public schools within the meaning of this Act.", a usage of the term "public school" that has continued in Scotland despite awareness of the English usage of the term to mean a kind of private school.

The leaving age was raised to 14 in 1883, and the Scottish Education Department introduced a Leaving Certificate Examination in 1888 to set national standards for secondary education. Until 1890 school fees still had to be paid. In 1904 it became possible to learn Gaelic as a subject in its own right rather than as a means of acquiring English.

Roman Catholic schools were set up funded by charity, remaining outwith the national system. The Education (Scotland) Act 1918 renamed the Scottish Education Department and introduced state funding of Catholic schools which kept their distinct religious education, access to schools by priests and requirement that school staff be acceptable to the Church. The same Act gave Gaelic a statutory place as a "subject", though not as a language on an equal footing.

The Leaving Certificate instituted in 1888 continued in secondary education until its replacement by the Scottish Certificate of Education, "O grade" and Highers, in 1962. Discipline by the tawse was outlawed in 1986. In 1999 the new Scottish Executive set up an Education Department and an Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department, which together took over the work of the Scottish Education Department.

Universities

  • In Aberdeen:
    • University of Aberdeen
    • The Robert Gordon University
    • Scottish Agricultural College
  • In Dundee:
    • University of Dundee
    • University of Abertay Dundee
  • In Edinburgh:
    • University of Edinburgh
    • Heriot-Watt University
    • Napier University
    • Queen Margaret University
    • Scottish Agricultural College
  • In Glasgow:
    • University of Glasgow
    • Glasgow Caledonian University
    • University of Strathclyde
  • In Inverness:
    • UHI Millennium Institute
  • In Orkney:
    • UHI Millennium Institute
    • Heriot-Watt University
  • In Stirling:
    • University of Stirling
  • In Paisley:
    • University of Paisley
  • In St Andrews:
    • University of St Andrews
  • In Ayr:
    • Scottish Agricultural College
  • As distance learning:
    • The Open University in Scotland

External links

  • Silicon Glen, Scotland - Intro to Scottish Education
  • Decline of Gaelic
  • Social Change in the History of Education (.doc format)
  • The setting up of the Scottish Leaving Certificate
  • s1learning.com - Searchable directory of educational establishments and courses in Scotland

Reference

  • Smout, T.C., A History of the Scottish People, Fontana Press 1985, ISBN 0-00-686027-3

See also

  • Association of Educational Development and Improvement Professionals
  • Comprehensive school
  • School Board
  • Education in England
  • Education in Northern Ireland
  • Education in Wales
  • Education in the United Kingdom
  • List of further and higher education colleges in Scotland
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Scotland"