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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
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- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
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MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
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SCIENCE
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LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
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TRADITIONS
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NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
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THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnasium_%28school%29

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Gymnasium (school)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

A gymnasium (pronounced with /g-/ or, in Swedish, /j-/ as opposed to /dʒ-/) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. The word γυμνάσιον (gymnasion) was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men (see gymnasium (ancient Greece)). The gymnasium prepares pupils to enter a university.

In Germany, for instance, pupils study subjects like German, math, physics, chemistry, geography, biology, arts, music, physical education, divinity, history and social sciences. They are also required to study at least two foreign languages (the combination of English and Latin, English and French, English and Italian or English and Spanish being the most popular). In Germany, the 12th and 13th grade students prepare for the Abitur, an examination required in order to go on to a university. In the Netherlands the gymnasium consists of six years in which pupils study the same subjects as their German counterparts, with the addition of compulsory Ancient Greek and Latin.

This meaning of a secondary school preparing for higher education at university in the German-speaking, the Scandinavian, the Benelux and the Baltic countries has been the same at least since the protestant reformation in the 16th century. The first general system of schools which provided for the Gymnasia was that of Saxony, formulated in 1528. They are thus meant for the more academically-minded students, who are sifted out at about the age of 10–13. In addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium often study Latin and Greek.

Some gymnasiums provide general education, others have a specific focus. (This also differs from country to country.) The three traditional branches are:

  • humanities education (specialising in Classical languages, such as Latin and Greek)
  • modern languages (students are required to study at least three languages)
  • mathematical-scientific education

Today, a number of other areas of specialisation exist, such as gymnasiums specialising in economics or domestic science.

In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, which is equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, with the rights to continue education in a gymnasium. Here, the prefix "pro" means "instead of".

In Italy, the first two years of secondary school are called Gymnasium if the school chosen is a classical lyceum (a particular secondary school focusing on Latin and Greek as well as literature).

Countries with gymnasium schools

  • Argentina 8 years in Tucuman, Starting at age 10. http://gymnastucuman.com.ar
  • Austria 8 years, after 4 years of primary school, or 4 years, after primary school and 4 years of Hauptschule, ends with Matura at the age of 18.
  • Bulgaria 5 years, after 7 years of primary school. Currently graduation after passing the Matriculation Examination.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina (4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 9 years in elementary school, ends with Matura)
  • Croatia (4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary school, ends with Matura)
  • Cyprus 3 years, starting at age 12 and following 6 years of Elementary School. Compulsory for all students. Followed by the non-mandatory Lyceum (ages 15-18) for students with academic aspirations or TEL for students who prefer vocational training.
  • Czech Republic (4 years starting at age 14/15; 6 years starting at age 12/13; 8 years starting at age 10/11; all of them end with a Maturita)
  • Denmark 3 years (4 years for athletes who are part of Team Denmark, or musicians who have chosen MGK), usually starting after 9 or 10 years of primary school). This is more like a prep school or junior college than high school. Everyone is eligible to go to a US high school, but you have to be tested and pass with high grades to get into a gymnasium. Gymnasium is also available in an intensive 2 year program for gifted students known as Gymnasieskole.
  • Estonia (3 years, after 9 years of primary school)
  • Finland (2-4 years (most students spend 3 years), after 9 years of primary school, starting usually at age 15/16, Abitur after passing the Matriculation Examination)
  • Germany (6-9 years (depending on the Bundesland) (now being changed to 8 years nationwide), starting at 5th (at age 10) or 7th grade, Abitur in 12th or 13th grade). Also, there are progymnasiums and realgymnasiums. (For more information, see Gymnasia and Realgymnasia.)
  • Greece 3 years, starting at age 12 after 6 years of Elementary School. Compulsory for all children, it is followed by the non-mandatory Lyceum (ages 15-18) for students with academic aspirations, or the Technical Vocational Educational School (TEE) for students who prefer vocational training.
  • Hungary (4/6/8 years, starting after 8/6/4 years of primary school, ends with Matura)
  • Iceland (usually 4 years, starting at age 15/16 after 10 years of elementary school, though 3 years can also be chosen. If chosen, students at Menntaskólinn Hraðbraut finish the school in 2 years.)
  • Israel, five schools termed "gymnasium" located in Tel Aviv, Rishon LeZion, Jerusalem and Haifa.
  • Italy, ginnasio is the name of the two first years of Liceo Classico
  • Liechtenstein (ends with Matura)
  • Latvia (3 years, after 9 years of primary school)
  • Lithuania (4 years, after 4 years of primary school and 4 years of secondary school)
  • Luxembourg (usually 7 years, starting at age 12-13 after 6 years of primary school)
  • Macedonia (4 years, starting at age 14)
  • Montenegro (4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary school, ends with Matura)
  • Netherlands (6 years, starting at age 11-13, after 8 years of primary school. Prepares for admission to University. Gymnasia in the Netherlands have compulsory classes in Ancient Greek and Latin; a similar high level secondary school without the classical languages is called "Atheneum")
  • Norway (2/3/4 years depending on course path taken, starting at the age of 15/16, final examination upon completion) (This is no longer in official use - it's been subsumed within the "videregående skole" - but many people still refer to it as "gymnas")
  • Poland - 3 years, type of middle school, starting at age 13/14 and following 6 years of Elementary School. Compulsory for all students. Followed by the non-mandatory 3 years Liceum, 4 years technikum, or 2 or 3 years vocational technical school.
  • Russia
    • Imperial Russia: since 1726, 8 years since 1871. Women gymnasiums since 1862; 7 years + optional 8th for specialisation in pedagogy. Progymnasiums: equivalent to 4 first years of gymnasium.
    • Russian Federation (?)
  • Serbia (4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary school, ends with Matura)
  • Slovakia (4 years starting at age 14/15; 8 years starting at age 9/10; both end with a Maturita)
  • Slovenia (4 years, starting at age 14/15, ends with Matura)
  • Sweden (3 years, starting at age 15/16 after 9 years of primary school)
  • Switzerland (either 6 years after 6 years of primary school or 4 years after 6 years of primary school and 2-3 years of secondary school, ends with Matura)
  • Ukraine (8 years, starting after 4 years of primary school)
  • United Kingdom: historically, grammar schools have been the English equivalent of the gymnasium, selecting pupils on the basis of academic ability and educating them with the assumption that they would go on to study at a university; such schools were largely phased out under the Wilson government, with less than 5% of pupils now attending grammar schools, and the UK now has no widespread equivalent of the gymnasium. The exception is Northern Ireland which retained the system.
  • United States
    • Public school: As school districts continue to experiment with educational styles, the magnet school has become a popular type of high school. Boston Latin School and Central High School (Philadelphia) are both the oldest public schools in the country, and the oldest magnet schools. As the concept has not become entrenched in the various American educational systems, due partly to the federal, rather than unitary style of education in the US, the term may vary among states.
    • Private school: The equivalent among private schools is the preparatory school.

Final degree

Depending on country, the final degree (if any) is called Abitur, Artium, Diploma, Matura, Maturita or Student and it usually opens the way to professional schools directly. The final two or three years at a gymnasium are therefore equivalent to the first two years at college in the United States.

Relationship with other education facilities

In countries like Croatia, most university faculties only accept students from secondary schools that last four years (rather than three). This includes all Gymnasium students but only a part of vocational high schools, in effect making Gymnasium the preferred choice for all pupils aiming for university diplomas.

In Germany, other types of secondary school are called Realschule, Hauptschule and Gesamtschule. These are attended by about two thirds of the students and the first two are practically unknown in other parts of the world. A Gesamtschule largely corresponds to an American high school. However, it offers the same school leaving certificates as the other three types of German secondary schools - the Hauptschulabschluss (school leaving certificate of a Hauptschule after 9th Grade or in Berlin and North Rhine-Westphalia after 10th Grade), the Realschulabschluss, also called Mittlere Reife, (school leaving certificate of a Realschule after 10th Grade) and Abitur, also called Hochschulreife, after 13th or seldom after 12th Grade. Students who graduate from Hauptschule or Realschule may continue their schooling at a vocational school until they have full job qualifications. It is also possible to get an erweiterter Realschulabschluss after 10th grade that allows the students to continue their education at the Oberstufe of a gymnasium and get an Abitur. There are two types of vocational school in Germany. The Berufsschule, a part time vocational school and a part of Germany's dual education system, and the Berufsfachschule, a full time vocational school outside the dual education system. Both types of school are also part of Germany's secondary school system. Students who graduate from a vocational school and students who graduate with a good GPA from a Realschule can continue their schooling at another type of German secondary school, the Fachoberschule, a vocational high school. The school leaving exam of this type of school, the Fachhochschulreife, enables the graduate to start studying at a Fachhochschule (polytechnic), and in Hesse also at an university within the state. Students who have graduateded from vocational school and have been working in a job for at least 3 years can go to Berufsoberschule to get either a "Fachabitur" (meaning they may go to university, but they can only study the subjects belonging to the "branch" (economical, technical, social) they studied in at Berufschule.) after one year, or the normal "Abitur" (after two years), which gives them complete access to universities.

In Sweden, the term gymnasium was traditionally reserved for the theoretical education described above. However, due to the egalitarian strivings of post-war Sweden's socialist governments, the term is today used for all kinds of secondary education, both theoretical and vocational.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnasium_%28school%29"