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  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
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  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
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  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
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  71. Grade
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  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
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  91. Learning content management system
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  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
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  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university
 



THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-learning

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Electronic learning

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from E-learning)
Look up e-learning glossary in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Electronic learning or E-learning is a general term used to refer to computer-enhanced learning. It is used differently in so many contexts that it is critical to be clear what one means when one speaks of "e-Learning".

Many technologies can, and are, used in e-Learning:

  • screencasts
  • Palm pilots
  • MP3 Players
  • the use of web-based teaching materials
  • hypermedia in general
  • multimedia CD-ROMs
  • web sites
  • discussion boards
  • collaborative software
  • e-mail
  • blogs
  • wikis
  • text chat
  • computer aided assessment
  • educational animation
  • simulations
  • games
  • learning management software
  • electronic voting systems

... and many more, and possibly a combination of different methods being used.

Along with the terms learning technology and Educational Technology, the term is generally used to refer to the use of technology in learning in a much broader sense than the computer-based training or Computer Aided Instruction of the 1980s. It is also broader than the terms Online Learning or Online Education which generally refer to purely web-based learning. In cases where mobile technologies are used, the term M-learning has become more common.

E-learning is naturally suited to distance learning and flexible learning, but can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching, in which case the term Blended learning is commonly used.

Typical Managed Learning Environment with a navigation menu and icons giving access to automated tools and content pages.
Typical Managed Learning Environment with a navigation menu and icons giving access to automated tools and content pages.

In higher education especially, the increasing tendency is to create a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) (which is sometimes combined with a Managed Information System (MIS) to create a Managed Learning Environment) in which all aspects of a course are handled through a consistent user interface standard throughout the institution. A growing number of physical universities, as well as newer online-only colleges, have begun to offer a select set of academic degree and certificate programs via the Internet at a wide range of levels and in a wide range of disciplines. While some programs require students to attend some campus classes or orientations, many are delivered completely online. In addition, several universities offer online student support services, such as online advising and registration, e-counselling, online textbook purchase, student governments and student newspapers.

E-learning can also refer to educational web sites such as those offering learning scenarios, worksheets and interactive exercises for children. The term is also used extensively in the business sector where it generally refers to cost-effective online training.[1]

Creating an Effective Online Learning Environment

An abundance of research has been done to determine the effectiveness of online learning. In reading through the research you’ll find the conclusions from one researcher to another to be ambiguous. Regardless of the research conclusions, there is agreement that the crafting of an online course is important to student success.

Key elements of an effective online course [1]:

• As with any learning environment, know your audience. Respect your audience.

• Develop the course around clearly defined learning objectives and goals, and clearly communicate these to the learners.

• Special attention must be given to how online courses are displayed. Artistry is not the goal. Instead, focus on organization to allow ease of navigation and learning enhancement. Graphics should present information to support learning. Attention must be given to student skill levels and equipment limitations when embedding audio, video, and web links.

• Create a collaborative community spirit by requiring sharing activities between students and teachers, ensuring constructive criticism, maintaining motivation, and providing assessment tools with timely feedback.

• Keep the learning environment flexible. Individual needs, interests, and objectives must be considered, but should not become the end in itself. Knowledge must be built on in real-time and customized to meet educational goals.

• Technical support services must be made available to train and provide ongoing support for both learners and instructor.

• Provide related links and resource listings to support and enhance the body of knowledge.

• Online learning web pages must be maintained to ensure up-to-date relevance. . The use of GSM too

Advantages and disadvantages

The most notable advantages of e-learning are flexibility, convenience and the ability to work at your own pace. E-classes are asynchronous which allows learners to participate and complete coursework in accordance with their daily commitments. This makes an e-learning education a viable option for those that have other commitments such as family or work.

Other advantages of e-learning include the ability to communicate with fellow classmates from around the country, a greater adaptability to learner's needs, more variety in learning experience with the use of multimedia and the non-verbal presentation of teaching material. Video instruction provides visual and audio learning that can be reviewed as often as needed. For organizations with distributed and constantly changing learners (e.g. restaurant staff), e-learning has huge benefits when compared with organizing classroom training.

Disadvantages of e-learning include the lack of face-to-face interaction with a teacher. Critics of e-learning argue that the process is no longer "educational" in the highest philosophical sense (for example, as defined by RS Peters, a philosopher of education). Supporters of E-learning claim that this criticism is largely unfounded, as human interactions can readily be encouraged through audio or video-based web-conferencing programs, threaded discussion boards, live chat, blogs, wikis, email, or other synchronous or asynchronous means. As a matter of fact, many in K12 would support e-learning if it was not associated with the more extreme versions that attempt to cut out the directed teacher-student relationship.

The feeling of isolation experienced by distance learning students is also often cited, although discussion forums and other computer-based communication can in fact help ameliorate this and in particular can often encourage students to meet face-to-face and form self-help groups. Discussion groups can also be formed online. Human interaction, faculty-to-student as well as student-to-student, should be encouraged in any form.

Web and software development in particular can be expensive as can systems specifically geared for e-learning. The development of adaptive materials is also much more time-consuming than that of non-adaptive ones. Consequently, some of the cost is often forwarded to the students as online college courses tend to cost more than traditional courses. However, there are transportation cost (and time) benefits with not having to commute to and from campus.

Growth of e-learning

Among the early institutions of online learning in the mid-1980s were the Western Behavioral Sciences Institute, the New York Institute of Technology, the Electronic Information Exchange System - EIES - of the New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Connected Education. More recently the organization Independent Student Media has developed a working curriculum that instructs students through an Interactive Online Textbook.

By 2003, more than 1.9 million students were participating in online learning at institutions of higher education in the United States, according to a report from the "Sloan Consortium", an authoritative source of information about online higher education. The explosive rate of growth -- now about 25 percent a year -- has made hard numbers a moving target. But according to Sloan, virtually all public higher education institutions, as well as a vast majority of private, for-profit institutions, now offer online classes. By contrast, only about half of private, nonprofit schools offer them. The Sloan report, based on a poll of academic leaders, says that students generally appear to be at least as satisfied with their online classes as they are with traditional ones. Private Institutions may become more involved with online presentations as the cost of instituting such a system decreases. Properly trained staff must also be hired to work with students online. These staff members must be able to not only understand the content area, but also be highly trained in the use of the computer and Internet.

The concept of a Digital native has also become popular, and there are certainly likely to be generational influences on the future of e-learning. As more and more adult learners enter into this field the gap will begin to close.

In addition, e-learning takes advantage of the versatility provided by asynchronous capabilities of internet delivered education.

Pedagogical approaches

It is clearly possible to apply any specific pedagogical approach to e-learning, however some approaches are more common than others. Two of the most common are those of instructional design and social-constructivist pedagogy. The latter in particular is particularly well afforded by the use of discussion forums, blogs, wikis and online collaborative activities. Adaptability to different learning styles is also still in vogue in certain circles.

Laurillard's Conversational Model is also particularly relevant to e-learning, and Gilly Salmon's Five-Stage Model is a pedagogical approach to the use of discussion boards.

There are four fundamental pedagogical perspectives which historically have influenced the approach to computer based pedagogy, distance education and continues to provide guiding principles for the pedagogy of e-learning:

Cognitive Perspective

The Cognitive perspective focuses on the cognitive processes involved in learning as well as how the brain works.

  • Black, J. & McClintock, R. (1995) "An Interpretation Construction Approach to Constructivist Design."
  • Bloom, B. S., and D. R. Krathwohl. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook 1
  • Bååth, J. A. (1982) "Distance Students' Learning - Empirical Findings and Theoretical Deliberations"
  • Gagné, R. (1970) The conditions of learning
  • Holmberg, B. (1995) Theory and Practice of Distance Education
  • Moore, M. G. & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance Education: A Systems View.
  • Rowntree, D. (1986) Teaching through self-instruction: A practical handbook for course developers

Emotional Perspective

The Emotional perspective focuses on the emotional aspects of learning, like motivation, engagement, fun, etc.

  • Bååth, J. A. (1982) "Distance Students' Learning - Empirical Findings and Theoretical Deliberations"
  • Holmberg, B. (1995) Theory and Practice of Distance Education
  • Malala, J. N. (2005) Virtual Learning Environments: What's in the Name? Business Research Yearbook, Vol VII, 529-533.
  • Malala, J. N. (2005). The E-Business of Online Education: An Ethnographic Probe of Students' Perception of Efficacy. Business Research Yearbook Vol XII, 499-503.
  • Malala, J. N.; Moshell, J.M.; Hobbs, D. (2004). The differential Roles of Authors’ Profiles and Students’ Perceptions of Efficacy in Asynchronous Computer-generated Learning. Business Research yearbook, Vol. XI 715-719.
  • Moore, M. G. & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance Education: A Systems View.
  • Rogers, C. (1969) Freedom to learn
  • Rekkedal, T. (1985) Introducing the personal tutor/counsellor in the system of distance education
  • Rowntree, D. (1986) Teaching through self-instruction: A practical handbook for course developers
  • Zimmer, R. (1995)"The Empathy Templates - A way to support collaborative learning"

Behavioural Perspective

The Behavioural perspective focuses on the skills and behavioural outcomes of the learning process. Role-playing and application to on-the-job settings.

  • Areskog, N-H. (1995) The Tutorial Process - the Roles of Student Teacher and Tutor in a Long Term Perspective.
  • Bååth, J. A. (1982) "Distance Students' Learning - Empirical Findings and Theoretical Deliberations"
  • Cobb, B. (1997) HP E-mail Mentor Program
  • Distlehorst, L. & Barrows, H. (1982). A new tool for problem-based, self-directed learning
  • Feletti, G. (1995) Developing Students into Information Literate Professionals
  • Mahling, D., Sorrows, B. and Skogseid, I. (1995) A Collaborative Environment for SemiStructured Medical Problem Based Learning
  • McCown, R. & Driscoll, M. (1995) Using Collaborative Writing and Problem-Based Learning in the College Classroom
  • Moore, M. G. & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance Education: A Systems View.
  • Rowntree, D. (1986) Teaching through self-instruction: A practical handbook for course developers
  • Verduin, J. & Clark, T. (1991) Distance Education : The Foundations of Effective Practice

Contextual Perspective

The contextual perspective focuses on the environmental and social aspects which can stimulate learning. Interaction with other people, collaborative discovery and the importance of peer support as well as pressure.

  • Black, J. & McClintock, R. (1995) "An Interpretation Construction Approach to Constructivist Design."
  • Moore, M. G. & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance Education: A Systems View.
  • Phillips, G., Santoro, G. and Kuehn, S. (1988) "The use of computer-mediated communication in training students in group problem solving and decision-making techniques
  • Petraglia, J. (1998) The Real World on a Short Leash: The (Mis)Application of Constructivism to the Design of Educational Technology
  • Kember, D. (1995). Open learning courses for adults - a model of student progress
  • Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning : legitimate peripheral participation
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979) The Ecology of Human Development : Experiments by nature and design
  • Bandura, A. (1977) Social Learning Theory
  • Vygotsky, L. (1934/reprinted 1962). Thought and language
  • Synnes, K. (1997) Distributed Education using the mStar Environment.
  • According to Vikas Shaw, " The Motion Picture is destined to revolutionize our educational system and in few years it will supplant largely, if not entirely the use of text books."[citation needed]

Reusability, standards and learning objects

Much effort has been put into the technical reuse of electronically-based teaching materials and in particular creating or re-using Learning Objects. These are self contained units that are properly tagged with keywords, or other metadata, and often stored in an XML file format. Creating a course requires putting together a sequence of learning objects. There are both proprietary and open, non-commercial and commercial, peer-reviewed repositories of learning objects such as the Merlot repository.

A common standard format for e-learning content is SCORM whilst other specifications allow for the transporting of "learning objects" (Schools Interoperability Framework) or categorizing meta-data (LOM).

These standards themselves are early in the maturity process the oldest being 8 years old. They are also relatively vertical specific: SIF is primarily pK-12, LOM is primarily Corp, Military and Higher Ed, and SCORM is primarily Military and Corp with some Higher Ed. PESC- the Post-Secondary Education Standards Council- is also making headway in developing standards and learning objects for the Higher Ed space, while SIF is beginning to seriously turn towards Instructional and Curriculum learning objects.

In the US pK12 space there are a host of content standards that are critical as well- the NCES data standards are a prime example. Each state government's content standards and achievement benchmarks are critical metadata for linking e-learning objects in that space.

Communication technologies

Communication technologies are generally categorised as asynchronous or synchronous. Asynchronous activities use technologies such as blogs, wikis, and discussion boards. Synchronous activities occur with all participants joining in at once, as with a chat session or a virtual classroom or meeting.

The term eLearning 2.0 has been used to refer to the user of social software such as blogs and wikis. This approach has been particularly evangelised by Stephen Downes who runs the very popular daily blog and newsletter.

In many models, the writing community and the communication channels relate with the E-learning and the M-learning communities. Both the communities provide a general overview of the basic learning models and the activities required for the participants to join the learning sessions across the virtual classroom or even across standrd classrooms enabled by technology. Many activities essential for the learners in these environments require frequent chat sessions in the form of virtual classrooms and/or blog meetings.

The various blogs that are being used for providing writing approaches are gaining popularity.

Computer Aided Assessment and Learning Design

Computer-aided Assessment (also but less commonly referred to as E-assessment), ranging from automated multiple-choice tests to more sophisticated systems is becoming increasingly common. With some systems, feedback can be geared towards a student's specific mistakes or the computer can navigate the student through a series of questions adapting to what the student appears to have learned or not learned. Most software for this is still very primitive however.

The term Learning Design has sometimes come to refer to the type of activity enabled by software such as the open-source system LAMS[citation needed] which supports sequences of activities that can be both adaptive and collaborative. The IMS Learning Design specification is intended as a standard format for learning designs, and IMS LD Level A is supported in LAMS V2.

The first general-purpose system for computer-assisted instruction from which e-learning evolved, was the PLATO System developed at The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.The Plato system evolved with the involvement of Control Data who created the first authoring software used to create learning content. The authoring software was called Plato. The Science Research Council then wrote the first CAI system of Math for K-6. Wicat Systems then created WISE as their authoring tool using Pascal and developed English and Math curriculum for K-6. The very first complete CAI classroom for K-6 students was set up at the Waterford Elementary School in Utah using the Wicat system. The first public CAI classroom with its own layout and design was implemented with the Wicat System by Baal Systems (later known as Virtual Systems) in Singapore as a joint operation between Wicat and Baal. It is from this design that all the computer learning centers globally evolved and which were the forerunners of elearning.[citation needed]

See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
ICT in Education
  • SIF(Schools Interoperability Framework)
  • Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative
  • CALL (computer-assisted language learning) (for a more historical perspective)
  • Collaborative learning
  • Computer Based Learning
  • Computer-based testing
  • Computer-based training
  • Distance education
  • Edublog
  • Educational technology
  • E-learning glossary
  • eLearning 2.0
  • Flexible Learning
  • History of virtual learning environments
  • Learning management system
  • Learning content management system
  • M-learning
  • Microlearning
  • Networked learning
  • Online deliberation
  • Online tutoring
  • Online learning community
  • Videobook
  • Virtual Campus
  • Virtual learning environment
  • Web-based training
  • WorkshopLive (online music education)
  • eLML - eLesson Markup Language

References

  1. ^ E-learning definition from PELDA


 

External links

  • e-Learning Courses Online.com- Online training courses in the areas of management, sales, interpersonal skills and health & safety
  • Associated e-Training- Online Training Courses for UK Businesses
  • Online Training Article - Article looking at the pros and cons of online training versus traditional, classroom-based learning
  • Dmoz.org: Open Directory on Distance Learning
  • Dmoz.org: Open Directory on Instructional Technology
  • nemine - new media in education, the blog on eLearning by prof. Lorenzo Cantoni, of the University of Lugano
  • Video on Distance Learning and Online Degrees: Are They Worth It?
  • Athabasca University, Theory and Practice of Online Learning, E-Book under Creative Commons License
  • Bournemouth University, e-Learning Business and Management, The first e-Learning Undergraduate degree
  • Thomas Toth (2003), Technology for Trainers, ASTD Press. ISBN 1-56286-321-5
  • e-Learning & Substance Abuse Prevention, eLearning Management in Non-Profit Agencies,
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Courses,
  • Academy of Art University - Online Art Education,
  • e-Learning Albanian Language Course Online
  • Interlect - Online courses for students in the Hebrew language, containing Flash movies with detailed explanations.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_learning"
 

 


 

 
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