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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
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THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_object_metadata

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Learning object metadata

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Learning Object Metadata is a data model, usually encoded in XML, used to describe a learning object and similar digital resources used to support learning. The purpose of learning object metadata is to support the reusability of learning objects, to aid discoverability, and to facilitate their interoperability, usually in the context of online learning management systems (LMS).

The IEEE 1484.12.1 – 2002 Standard for Learning Object Metadata is an internationally-recognised open standard (published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association) for the description of “learning objects”. Relevant attributes of learning objects to be described include: type of object; author; owner; terms of distribution; format; and pedagogical attributes, such as teaching or interaction style.

IEEE 1484.12.1 – 2002 Standard for Learning Object Metadata

In Brief

The IEEE working group that developed the standard defined learning objects as being “any entity, digital or non-digital, that may be used for learning, education or training”, a definition which has struck many commentators as being rather broad in its scope. IEEE 1484.12.1 is the first part of a multipart standard, and describes the LOM data model. The LOM data model specifies which aspects of a learning object should be described and what vocabularies may be used for these descriptions; it also defines how this data model can be amended by additions or constraints. Other parts of the standard are being drafted to define bindings of the LOM data model, i.e. define how LOM records should be represented in XML and RDF (IEEE 1484.12.3 and IEEE 1484.12.4 respectively). This article focuses on the LOM data model rather than issues relating to XML or other bindings.

IMS Global Learning Consortium is an international consortium that contributed to the drafting of the IEEE Learning Object Metadata and endorsed early drafts of the data model as part of the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification (IMS LRM, versions 1.0 – 1.2.2). Feedback and suggestions from the implementers of IMS LRM fed into the further development of the LOM, resulting in some drift between version 1.2 of the IMS LRM specification and what was finally published at the LOM standard. Version 1.3 of the IMS LRM specification realigns the IMS LRM data model with the IEEE LOM data model and specifies that the IEEE XML binding should be used. Thus, we can now use the term 'LOM' in referring to both the IEEE standard and version 1.3 of the IMS specification. The IMS LRM specification also provides an extensive Best Practice and Implementation Guide, and an XSL transform that can be used to migrate metadata instances from the older versions of the IMS LRM XML binding to the IEEE LOM XML binding.

What is the LOM for?

Some of the main things that the LOM is designed to help you achieve are:

  • Creation of well structured descriptions of learning resources, which should help facilitate the discovery, location, evaluation and acquisition of learning resources by students, teachers or automated software processes.
  • Sharing of descriptions of learning resources between resource discovery systems, which should lead to a reduction in the cost of providing services based on high quality resource descriptions.
  • Tailoring of the resource descriptions to suit the specialised needs of a community, which may include choosing suitable controlled vocabularies for classification, reducing the number of elements that are described or adding new ones from other resource description schemas.
  • Creators and publishers may use the LOM along with other specifications to “tag” learning resources with a description that can be associated with the resource, providing information in a standard format similar to that found on the cover and fly-page of a text book.

Technical Details

How the Data Model Works

The LOM comprises a hierarchy of elements, as shown in the diagram (top right). At the first level, there are nine categories, each of which contains sub-elements; these sub-elements may be simple elements that hold data, or may themselves be aggregate elements, which contain further sub-elements. The semantics of an element are determined by its context: they are affected by the parent or container element in the hierarchy and by other elements in the same container. For example, the various Description elements (1.4, 5.10, 6.3, 7.2.2, 8.3 and 9.3) each derive their context from their parent element. In addition, description element 9.3 also takes its context from the value of element 9.1 Purpose in the same instance of Classification.

The data model specifies that some elements may be repeated either individually or as a group; for example, although the elements 9.3 (Description) and 9.1 (Purpose) can only occur once within each instance of the Classification container element, the Classification element may be repeated - thus allowing many descriptions for different purposes.

The data model also specifies the value space and datatype for each of the simple data elements. The value space defines the restrictions, if any, on the data that can be entered for that element. For many elements, the value space allows any string of Unicode character to be entered, whereas other elements entries must be drawn from a declared list (i.e. a controlled vocabulary) or must be in a specified format (e.g. date and language codes). Some element datatypes simply allow a string of characters to be entered, and others comprise two parts, as described below:

  • LangString items contain Language and String parts, allowing the same information to be recorded in multiple languages
  • Vocabulary items are constrained in such a way that their entries have to be chosen from a controlled list of terms - composed of Source-Value pairs - with the Source containing the name of the list of terms being used and the Value containing the chosen term
  • DateTime and Duration items contain one part that allows the date or duration to be given in a machine readable format, and a second that allows a description of the date or duration (for example “mid summer, 1968”).

When implementing the LOM as a data or service provider, it is not necessary to support all the elements in the data model, nor need the LOM data model limit the information which may be provided. The creation of an application profile allows a community of users to specify which elements and vocabularies they will use. Elements from the LOM may be dropped and elements from other metadata schemas may be brought in; likewise, the vocabularies in the LOM may be supplemented with values appropriate to that community.

Requirements

The key requirements for exploiting the LOM as a data or service provider are to:

  • Understand user/community needs and to express these as an application profile
  • Have a strategy for creating high quality metadata
  • Store this metadata in a form which can be exported as LOM records
  • Agree a binding for LOM instances when they are exchanged
  • Be able to exchange records with other systems either as single instances or en masse.

Related Specifications

There are many metadata specifications; of particular interest is the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (commonly known as Simple Dublin Core, standardised as ANSI/NISO Z39.85 – 2001), which provides a simpler, more loosely-defined set of elements with some overlap with the LOM, and which is useful for sharing metadata across a wide range of disparate services. The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is also working on a set of terms which allow the Dublin Core Element Set to be used with greater semantic precision (Qualified Dublin Core). The Dublin Education Working Group aims to provide refinements of Dublin Core for the specific needs of the education community. Details of Dublin Core can be found at the Dublin Core website [1].

Many other education-related specifications allow for LO metadata to be embedded within XML instances, such as: describing the resources in an IMS Content Package or Resource List; describing the vocabularies and terms in an IMS VDEX (Vocabulary Definition and Exchange) file; and describing the question items in an IMS QTI (Question and Test Interoperability) file. Details of these can be found at the IMS Global website [2].

The IMS Vocabulary Definition and Exchange (VDEX) specification has a double relation with the LOM, since not only can the LOM provide metadata on the vocabularies in a VDEX instance, but VDEX can be used to describe the controlled vocabularies which are the value space for many LOM elements.

LOM records can be transported between systems using a variety of protocols, perhaps the most widely used being OAI-PMH.

Application Profiles

UK LOM Core

For UK Further and Higher Education, the most relevant family of application profiles are those based around the UK LOM Core [3]. The UK LOM Core is currently a draft schema researched by a community of practitioners to identify common UK practice in learning object content, by comparing 12 metadata schemas.

CanCore

CanCore provides detailed guidance for the interpretation and implementation of each data element in the LOM standard [4]. These guidelines constitute a 250-page document, and have been developed over three years through consultation with experts across Canada and throughout the world. These guidelines are also available at no charge from the CanCore Website.

Vetadata

The Australian Vocational Training and Education (VTE) sector has developed an application profile of the IEEE LOM called Vetadata [5]. The profile contains five mandatory elements and makes use of a number of Australian VTE sector specific vocabularies.

Others

Other important application profiles are those developed by the Celebrate project [6] and the metadata profile that is part of the SCORM reference model [7].

See also

  • Application profile
  • Content package
  • Dublin Core
  • IMS Global
  • Learning object
  • Metadata
  • OAI-PMH
  • SCORM
  • XML

External links

E-mail Lists

  • The CETIS Metadata and Digital Repository special interest group has two email lists:
  • The SIG list will keep you up to date on all SIG activities and spec development related to metadata and digital repositories
  • The LOM-cataloguing list is for queries relating to the creation and management of LOM descriptions.

Metadata Editors

  • Reload includes an open-source editor for IMS LRM.
  • Curriculum Online Tagging Tool is used for creating metadata for online resource made available to schools in England.
  • LomPad Lompad is a metatagging tool for learning object. It is bilingual(Fr,En) supports the IEEE-lom spec and SCORM, CANCORE and Normetic profiles.

Repositories/Catalogues

  • Intrallect intraLibrary is a commercial repository system, with rich support for the IEEE LOM, including customisable application profiles
  • The Xtensis Open Architecture is a foundation for building customised learning object repository and learning content management systems.
  • HarvestRoad Hive is a commercial federated digital repository system (based out of Australia), i.e. it is designed share content across multiple repositories.
  • The Jorum project uses Intrallect intraLibrary for its ongoing service.
  • The National Learning Network, using Xtensis, is a UK repository of over 2000 learning objects, commissioned by Becta and the LSC.
  • The Learning Edge is a commercial repository based out of Australia and used by BC Campus in Canada
  • www.utdanning.no/laering (Norwegian), is a Norwegian repository under the Norwegian Ministry of Education. Over 5000 Learning objects

Resources on the Internet

  • Cancore is simply the most thorough element-by-element guide to the LOM in existence.
  • IMS Global Learning Consortium Learning resource meta-data specification.
  • XML Binding Specification.
  • LOM Java API.
  • A mapping between the IEEE LOM and IMS Learning Resource Metadata
  • Metadata? Thesauri? Taxonomies? Topic Maps! Making sense of it all
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_object_metadata"