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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
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    ENGLISHGRATIS.COM è un sito personale di
    Roberto Casiraghi e Crystal Jones
    Tel. e SMS: 375-5186291 - Email:

    Roberto Casiraghi           
    INFORMATIVA SULLA PRIVACY              Crystal Jones


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THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Learning

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
A supervised child learning the countries of Asia on the floor of the central hall of the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois
A supervised child learning the countries of Asia on the floor of the central hall of the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois

Learning, as the noun, is the body of knowledge and wisdom (that which one learns); as the verb, it is the process of gaining understanding that leads to the modification of attitudes and behaviors through the acquisition of knowledge, skills and values, through study and experience. Learning induces a persistent, measurable or observable, specified behavioral change in the learner to formulate a new mental construct or revise a prior mental construct. The learning process leads to long-term changes in behavior potential. Behavior potential describes an individual’s possible behavior in a given situation to achieve a goal. But potential is not enough; if individual learning is not periodically reinforced, it becomes shallower and shallower, and eventually will be lost in that individual.

Education can be defined as the conscious attempt to promote learning in others (but see Education for other definitions.) Traditionally, analysis of this attempt has centered around direct teaching on the part of teachers. In what constitutes a paradigm shift, however, people now note that learning can be promoted in ways that go beyond direct instruction by a teacher--education now centers around creating a viable, productive learning environment, regardless of how teacher-centric that environment might be.

When the term education is combined with entertainment, the term edutainment is coined. Edutainment also called "e-learning" are new methods and practices that enabled learning in faster, more efficient and more entertaining ways. The idea is usually to combine games with learning, using software or interactive courses. There are also blogs on edutainment that keep up with the latest news and updates on software, videos, and lessons that use edutainment as a basis for teaching in a more efficient and faster way. E-learning is more specifically related to "electronic learning." This may or may not be edutainment. Many distance education programs use electronic teaching methodologies (courseware) to facilitate the educational process, these programs will often talk about doing "e-learning."

Learning - Neuroscience

Thinking can be thought of as a network of neurons firing in a very specific pattern. As neurons are used, they become thicker and more permanent. It follows then, that the stronger the stimulation, and the more common the stimulation, the more likely the stimulus is to be remembered. More so, memory comes easier when multiple parts of the brain (such as hearing, seeing, smelling, motor skills, touch sense, and logical thinking lobes; informal names given) are stimulated.

In order to learn a skill, such as solving a Rubik's cube quickly, several factors come into play at once:

  • Directions help one learn the patterns of solving a Rubik's cube
  • Practicing the moves repeatedly and for extended time helps with "muscle memory" and therefore speed
  • Thinking critically about moves helps find shortcuts, which in turn helps to speed up future attempts.
  • The Rubik's cube's six colors help anchor solving it within the head.
  • Occasionally revisiting the cube helps prevent loss of skill

See also Forgetting curve

See also Cognitive Science

Basic learning processes

Most people will smile back at babies who gaze at them and smile.
Most people will smile back at babies who gaze at them and smile.

The most basic learning process is imitation, one's personal repetition of an observed process, such as a smile. Thus an imitation will take one's time (attention to the details), space (a location for learning), skills (or practice), and other resources (for example, a protected area). Through copying, most infants learn how to hunt (i.e., direct one's attention), feed and perform most basic tasks necessary for survival.

Bloom's Taxonomy divides the learning process into a six-level hierarchy, where knowledge is the lowest order of cognition and evaluation the highest:

  • Knowledge is the memory of previously-learned materials such as facts, terms, basic concepts, and answers.
  • Comprehension is the understanding of facts and ideas by organization, comparison, translation, interpretation, and description.
  • Application is the use of new knowledge to solve problems.
  • Analysis is the examination and division of information into parts by identifying motives or causes. A person can analyze by making inferences and finding evidence to support generalizations.
  • Synthesis is the compilation of information in a new way by combining elements into patterns or proposing alternative solutions.
  • Evaluation is the presentation and defense of opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas, or quality of work based on a set of criteria.

Learning methods

Intro

We learn through different ways. For example:

  • Informal learning is learning things in our day-to-day situations (if we don't look in front of us while walking, we learn that we run into things and that might be dangerous). It's what daily life practices teach us.
  • Formal learning is learning that takes place within a teacher-student relationship, such as in a school system.
  • Non-formal learning is organised learning outside the formal learning system. For example: learning by coming together with people with similar interests and exchanging viewpoints, in clubs or in (international) youth organisations, workshops.

The educational system may use a combination of formal, informal, and non-formal learning methods. The UN and EU recognise these different forms of learning (cf. links below). In some schools students can get points that count in the formal-learning systems if they get work done in informal-learning circuits. They may be given time to assist international youth workshops and training courses, on the condition they prepare, contribute, share and can proof this offered valuable new insights, helped to acquire new skills, a place to get experience in organising, teaching, etc.

Non-Formal learning methods

Learning outside the formal learning system. The European Union is actively promoting European Citizenship and offering several programs that enable its citizens to meet other citizens from other countries and cultures for non-formal learning sessions. Typically funding is offered to projects where groups, youth groups with a similar interest develop a joint workshop so that their members may be able to meet each other, exchange viewpoints during non-formal learning sessions and informal learning during a meal, for example. International instruments concerning non-formal education An overview of legal aspects of promoting and recognising training activities taking place outside of formal education systems in the EU and worldwide. http://www.logos-net.net/ilo/150_base/en/topic_i/t15_l.htm [EN] Links to key documents and legislation concerning non-formal education. Website of the European Commission. http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/doc/official/index_en.html [EN] Want to know how youth organisations contribute to non-formal education, or to find information about the recognition of non-formal education in Europe? On this site you will find the studies and reports carried out by this Forum. http://www.youthforum.org/en/our_work/citizenship2.html [EN][FR]

Informal learning methods

Learning from life, during a meal at table with parents, play, exploring...

Formal learning methods

Traditional teacher-centred environments have a long history.
Traditional teacher-centred environments have a long history.

Are the methods used in the official education system, with a teacher-student relationship. Schools use a variety of methods to help pupils learn.

Learning by example

Example can be a motivation for learning. Imitation of a role model is a natural mechanism for infants and children, when learning from experience. Child's play is another method for learning by the example of other children, who naturally gain satisfaction by playing the role of teacher or mentor to a less-experienced child.

Merry-go-round in a playground
Merry-go-round in a playground

The sandbox (sandpit) in a playground is an example of a location where children can learn by experience. It is instructive to watch smaller children on a merry-go-round, for example, who naturally push it more slowly than the larger, older, more experienced ones. In order for a little one to get on the merry-go-round, they might simply grab a bar and drag their feet in the sand, while holding on. This slows down the rotation, which allows the little one to climb on, under the oversight of a supervisor, to ensure their physical safety.

Learning "how to learn" is a skill, which can be taught to others, by example.

Learning 2.0

Main article: Learning 2.0

An emerging approach to learning and education where the role of the Learner becomes that of contributor and the role of the Teacher becomes that of facilitator and content shepherd.

Learning which alternative methods exist

Sometimes different methods can be applied to solve a particular problem. Often the student is not aware of alternatives until they are pointed out by the teacher, in which case the student should also be made aware of how to select the "best" method from among those available, and which textbooks are likely to be especially helpful.


 

Theories on Learning

Experiential learning Kolb's research found that people learn in four ways with the likelihood of developing one mode of learning more than another. In Kolb's "experiential learning cycle" model, learning is through:

  • concrete experience
  • observation and reflection
  • abstract conceptualisation
  • active experimentation

Other dimensions of learning

Here are a few theories and subcategories of learning:

 

See also

External links

  • Study Guides and Strategies over 120 topics including learning, studying, classroom participation, learning with others, project management, reading, writing, test preparation and taking, research, maths, science, and webtruth in thirty languages* Explorations in Learning & Instruction: The Theory Into Practice Database
  • Natural Learning, Articles by leading writers
  • General study tips, Tips on how to better learn and prepare for exams
  • Life Learning International magazine about self-directed learning, unschooling and informal learning
  • Nurturing Children's Natural Love of Learning - Article by Jan Hunt
  • Learning Inquiry: an academic journal centered on learning
  • Articles about Natural Learning from Natural Life magazine
  • Learning Through World Travel & Cultures -- The travel and learning adventures of the Escampette family as they use the world as a classroom, exploring cultures and visiting humanitarian projects.
  • How To Learn - a spiritual perspective
  • Learning With Laptop Computers - Articles on educators using technology in the classroom
  • Interview with James Zull, Ph.D.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning"