From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Educational technology is the systematic and creative
blending of "idea" and "product" technologies with
subject-matter content in order to engender and improve teaching
and learning processes. Educational technology is often
associated with the terms
instructional technology or learning technology.
"Product" technologies are tangible; for example, computer
hardware or software. "Idea" technologies are cognitive
frameworks or schemes; for example, the
Multiple Intelligence Theory proposed by
Howard Gardner. When products are thoughtfully blended with
subject matter content (such as mathematics or science concepts)
for a specific audience in a specific educational context (such
as a school), one is using "educational technology."
The words educational and technology in the
term educational technology have the general meaning.
Educational technology is not restricted to the education of
children, nor to the use of
high technology. The particular case of the meaningful use
of high-technology to enhance learning in
classrooms and higher education is known as
technology integration. Several universities have recently
opened tracks for graduate programs in the field of Educational
One of the earliest disciplines of educational technology was
instructional systems design (ISD). This was used by the
United States military during World War II, in order to train
large numbers of people more effectively. In a common ISD model,
ADDIE Model, the steps involved are: analysis, design,
development, implementation, and evaluation.
Theories and practices
The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology
 places the theories and practices of educational
technology into six categories: cognition and learning,
analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
Cognition and learning
Cognition and learning is about the mechanisms by which
people process information. Since the Cognitive Revolution of
the 1960s and 1970s, learning theory has undergone a great deal
of change. Much of the theoretical framework of
Behaviorism was retained and a new paradigm was begun. Like
the Behavioral learning theories of the past, Cognitive learning
theory is based on objective, empirical data. Cognitive theories
look beyond behavior to explain brain-based behavior.
New theoretical frameworks are emerging to complement the
behavioral theories of previous eras. Today researchers are
concentrating on topics like
Situated learning, and
Information Processing Theory.
Zone of proximal development,
Analysis is the use of processes for gathering basic
information needed for the design of a training programme. The
results of analysis answer some basic questions: who?, what?,
when? and where?
Human Performance Technology
Design is the use of information gained from analysis to
create an outline training programme.
Instructional Systems Design,
Development is the building of an outline training programme
into a usable training programme.
Implementation is the actual use of a completed training
programme. Success relies heavily on the effectiveness of the
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge or TPCK,
Instructional design coordinator
Evaluation is the assessment of the effectiveness of all
aspects of training programme development. The results are used
to improve the programme.
Educational technology and the
Research from the Alberta Initiative for School Improvement
 indicates that inquiry and project-based approaches,
combined with a focus on curriculum, effectively supports the
infusion of educational technologies into the learning and
teaching process. Below are some promising practices and
emerging applications specifically related to learning and
technology within humanities disciplines:
- Social Studies - Under Construction -Global Studies and
- English Language Arts - Under Construction - Changing
Space of Text and Reading
Societies and journals
Learned societies concerned with educational technology
Association for Educational Communications and Technology
Association for Learning Technology
International Society for Technology in Education - ISTE
Journals on the subject of educational technology include:
ALT-J - Research in Learning Technology
Australasian Journal of Educational Technology
Educational Technology & Society
International Journal of Educational Technology
Now On - The Educational Technology Journal]
Learning theory (education)
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Retrieved on
AISI Technology Projects Research Review. Retrieved on
Educational technology in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Januszewski, Alan (2001). Educational Technology: The
Development of a Concept. Libraries Unlimited.
Kumar, K L (1997). Educational Technology: A Practical
Textbook for Students, Teachers, Professionals and Trainers.
New Delhi: New Age International.
Encyclopedia of Educational Technology, a comprehensive
resource of articles about Educational Technology, published
by the Department of Educational Technology,
San Diego State University
- L Low & M O'Connell,
Learner-Centric Design of Digital Mobile Learning,
Queensland University of Technology, 2006.
- Professor Brian J. Ford,
Absolute Zeno, Laboratory News p 16, january 2006.
- McKenzie, Jamie (2006).
 Inspired Writing and Thinking.
- Mishra, P. & Koehler, M.J. (2006).
Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for
integrating technology in teacher knowledge. Teachers
College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
- Monahan, Torin (2005). Globalization, Technological
Change, and Public Education. New York: Routledge:
Soni, S K (2004). An Information Resource on Educational
Technology for:Technical & Vocational Education and TRaining
(TVET). Sarup & Sons Publishers,Location- New Delhi,
Jonassen, D H (2006). Modeling with Technology: Mindtools
for Conceptual Change. OH: Merrill/Prentice-Hall.
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