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DISPONIBILI
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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic degree
  2. Academics
  3. Academy
  4. Accreditation mill
  5. Adult education
  6. Advanced Distributed Learning
  7. Alternative education
  8. Alternative school
  9. Apprenticeship
  10. Assessment
  11. Associate's degree
  12. Autodidacticism
  13. Bachelor's degree
  14. Boarding schools
  15. Bologna process
  16. British undergraduate degree classification
  17. Bullying
  18. Charter schools
  19. City academy
  20. Classical education
  21. Classroom
  22. Collaborative learning
  23. Community college
  24. Comparative education
  25. Compulsory education
  26. Computer-assisted language learning
  27. Computer based training
  28. Core curriculum
  29. Course evaluation
  30. Curriculum
  31. Degrees of the University of Oxford
  32. Department for Education and Skills
  33. Description of a Career
  34. Diploma mill
  35. Distance education
  36. Doctorate
  37. Dottorato di ricerca
  38. Double degree
  39. Dual education system
  40. Edublog
  41. Education
  42. Educational philosophies
  43. Educational psychology
  44. Educational technology
  45. Education in England
  46. Education in Finland
  47. Education in France
  48. Education in Germany
  49. Education in Italy
  50. Education in Scotland
  51. Education in the People%27s Republic of China
  52. Education in the Republic of Ireland
  53. Education in the United States
  54. Education in Wales
  55. Education reform
  56. E-learning
  57. E-learning glossary
  58. ELML
  59. Engineer's degree
  60. Essay
  61. Evaluation
  62. Examination
  63. External degree
  64. Extracurricular activity
  65. Feeder school
  66. First School
  67. Free school
  68. GCSE
  69. Gifted education
  70. Glossary of education-related terms
  71. Grade
  72. Graduate student
  73. Gymnasium
  74. Habilitation
  75. Hidden curriculum
  76. History of education
  77. History of virtual learning environments
  78. Homeschooling
  79. Homework
  80. Honorary degree
  81. Independent school
  82. Instructional design
  83. Instructional technology
  84. Instructional theory
  85. International Baccalaureate
  86. K-12
  87. Key Stage 3
  88. Laurea
  89. Learning
  90. Learning by teaching
  91. Learning content management system
  92. Learning management system
  93. Learning object metadata
  94. Learning Objects
  95. Learning theory
  96. Lesson
  97. Lesson plan
  98. Liberal arts
  99. Liberal arts college
  100. Liceo scientifico
  101. List of education topics
  102. List of recognized accreditation associations of higher learning
  103. List of unaccredited institutions of higher learning
  104. Magnet school
  105. Maria Montessori
  106. Masters degree
  107. Medical education
  108. Mickey Mouse degrees
  109. Microlearning
  110. M-learning
  111. Montessori method
  112. National Curriculum
  113. Networked learning
  114. One-room school
  115. Online deliberation
  116. Online MBA Programs
  117. Online tutoring
  118. Open classroom
  119. OpenCourseWare
  120. Over-education
  121. Preschool
  122. Primary education
  123. Private school
  124. Problem-based learning
  125. Professor
  126. Public education
  127. Public schools
  128. Questionnaire
  129. School
  130. School accreditation
  131. School bus
  132. School choice
  133. School district
  134. School governor
  135. School health services
  136. Schools Interoperability Framework
  137. SCORM
  138. Secondary school
  139. Senior high school
  140. Sixth Form
  141. Snow day
  142. Special education
  143. Specialist degree
  144. State schools
  145. Student voice
  146. Study guide
  147. Syllabus
  148. Teacher
  149. Teaching method
  150. Technology Integration
  151. Tertiary education
  152. The Hidden Curriculum
  153. Traditional education
  154. Undergraduate
  155. University
  156. Unschooling
  157. Videobooks
  158. Virtual Campus
  159. Virtual learning environment
  160. Virtual school
  161. Vocational education
  162. Vocational school
  163. Vocational university

 

 
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THE BOOK OF EDUCATION
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academic_degree

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Academic degree

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study.

History

The first universities were founded in ancient India in Taxila (Takshashila University) and Nalanda (Nalanda University) in the 7th century BC and 5th century BC, respectively, followed by Byzantium in the 5th century (in Constantinopolis and Athens). The first university in the Islamic world was founded in Cairo (Al-Azhar University) in the 10th century, while in western Europe, universities were founded in the 12th and 13th centuries. As with other professions, teaching in universities was only carried out by people who were properly qualified. In the same way that a carpenter would attain the status of master carpenter when fully qualified by his guild, a teacher would become a master when he had been licensed by his profession, the teaching guild.

Candidates who had completed three or four years of study in the prescribed texts of the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and logic), and who had successfully passed examinations held by their masters, would be admitted to a bachelor's degree. Thus a degree was only a step on the way to becoming a fully qualified master – hence the English word "graduate", which is based on the Latin gradus ("step").

Today the terms "master", "doctor", and "professor" signify different levels of academic achievement, but initially they were equivalent terms. The University of Bologna in Italy, regarded as the oldest university in Europe, was the first institution to confer the degree of Doctor in Civil Law in the late 12th century; it also conferred similar degrees in other subjects, including medicine. Note that medicine is now the only field in which the title "doctor" is commonly applied, albeit informally, to individuals who have only obtained their first academic qualification.

The University of Paris used the term master for its graduates, a practice adopted by the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as well as the ancient Scottish universities of St Andrew's, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh.

The naming of degrees eventually became linked with the subjects studied. Scholars in the faculties of arts or grammar became known as "masters", but those in philosophy, medicine, and law were known as "doctor". As study in the arts or in grammar was a necessary prerequisite to study in subjects such as philosophy, medicine and law, the degree of doctor assumed a higher status than the master's degree. This led to the modern hierarchy in which the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.) is a more advanced degree than the Master of Arts (M.A.). The practice of using the term doctor for all advanced degrees developed within German universities and spread across the academic world.

The French terminology is tied closely to the original meanings of the terms. The baccalauréat (cf. "bachelor") is conferred upon French students who have successfully completed their secondary education and admits the student to university. When students graduate from university, they are awarded licence, much as the medieval teaching guilds would have done, and they are qualified to teach in secondary schools or proceed to higher-level studies.

In Europe, degrees are being harmonized through the Bologna process, which is based on the three-level hierarchy of degrees (Bachelor (Licence in France), Master, Doctor). This system is currently in use in Australia, Brazil, Canada, New Zealand, Portugal, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This system is gradually replacing the two-stage system now in use in some countries.

In the past, degrees have also been directly issued by authority of the monarch or by a bishop, rather than any educational institution. This practice has mostly died out. In Britain, only the universities of Oxford and Cambridge still permit the D.Phil. (Oxford) or Ph. D. (Cambridge) to be conferred upon a student by an individual member of the faculty.

Types of academic degree: United States

In the United States, most standard academic programs are based on the four-year bachelor's degree (most often bachelor of arts, B.A., or bachelor of science, B.S.), a two-year master's degree (most often master of arts, M.A., or master of science, M.S.; both of these programs might be three years in length) and a further year or so of course work, plus teaching experience and the writing of a dissertation for the doctorate (most often doctor of philosophy, Ph.D.) for a total of about nine years from starting the bachelor's degree to the warding of the doctorate. This timetable is flexible, however, as, for instance, students in accelerated programs can sometimes earn a bacehlor's in three years, or on the other hand a particular dissertation project might take four years to complete.

Some schools offer an associate's degree for two full years of study, often in pre-professional areas. This may sometimes be used as credit toward completion of the four-year bacehlor's degree.

Other degrees, for the most part considered "professional" degrees, follow similar, but varied, schedules. For instance, most medical and law schools require a bachelor's degree before beginning the medical or law degree (which take four and three years to attain, respectively), and in each case this degree with the title of "doctor" is now generally required before practicing the profession. On the other hand, other professions require only a master's degree (some of which are only one year in length), which can be earned in combination with work on a pre-professional bachelor's degree.

Types of academic degree: United Kingdom

Examples of degrees

Some examples of specific degrees follow each general term. For more information, see the article about the general term.

  • Associate's degrees (U.S.): AA (Associate of Arts), ABS (Associate of Baccalaureate Studies), AS (Associate of Science), AAS (Associate of Applied Science), AFA (Associate of Fine Arts), AES (Associate of Engineering Science), AGS (Associate in General Studies), AAT (Associate of Arts in Teaching)
  • Foundation degrees (U.K.): Fd A., Fd Mus., Fd Ed., Fd Eng., Fd Mus., Fd Sc., FdTech
  • Bachelor's degrees: BAcy, BArch, AB or BA, BSc or SB or BS, BSc(Agr) or BSA, BBus, BCom or BComm, BDes, BFA, BEc, BEd, BAI (Dubl.) or BEng or BE, BD, BDes, BHE, BJ, LLA, BPharm, BPE, BHK, BCL, LL.B., MB ChB or MB BS or BM BS or MB BChir or MB BCh BAO, BN, BMus, B.Math, BPhil BTech, BBA, BAdm, MA (Hons), BDS, BSW
  • Master's degrees: MA, MS or MSc, MA (Oxon/Cantab/Dubl), M.St., MLitt, MAcy, MArch, MEd or EdM, DEA or DESS,[1] Lic. Arts, MS, MALD, MApol, MPhil, MRes,MRUP, MFA, MLS, MTh, MTS, M.Div., MBA, MHA, MIA, MPA, MPAS, MPD, MJ, MSW, MPAff, MLIS, MMedSc, MN, MPS,MPH, MPM, MPP, MPT, MRE, MTheol, LLM, MEng, MAS, MSci, MBio, MChem, MPhys, MMath, MMus, MESci, MGeol, MRUP, MTCM, MSSc, BCL[2] (Oxon), ThM and MAT
  • Licentiate degrees: LDS, JCL, STL, SSL, LSS
  • Specialist degrees: Ed.S., SSP
  • Engineer's degrees: Ch.E., B.E., C.E., C.E., E.E., E.A.A., E.C.S., Env.E., Mat.E., Mech.E., Nav.E., Nucl.E., Ocean E., Sys.E.
  • Doctoral degrees: Au.D., J.C.D., Ph.D., EdD,[3] DProf, EngD, DTech, DNursSci, DBA, DPA, DGov, D.D., M.D., DDS, DSc, DLitt, DA, DMA, DMD, DPS, D.Min., DMus, DFA, DCL, DCL, LH.D., ThD, S.T.D., J.U.D., S.S.D., PharmD,[4] DrPH, DPM, DPT, DPhil, DOM, OMD, PsyD, DSocSci, DSW, ND, D.C., DO, OD, DVM, VMD, and J.D.[5]
  • Professor degrees: S.T.P.

Abbreviations for degrees can place the level either before or after the faculty or discipline, depending on the institution. For example, DSc and ScD both stand for the (higher) doctorate in science. Various other abbreviations also vary between institutions, for instance BS and BSc both stand for 'Bachelor of Science'.

There are various conventions for indicating degrees and diplomas after one's name. In some cultures it is usual to give only the highest degree. In others, it is usual to give the full sequence, in some cases giving abbreviations also for the discipline, the institution, and (where it applies) the level of honours. In another variation, a 'rule of subsumption' often shortens the list and may obscure the chronology evident from a full listing. Thus 'MSc BA' means that the degrees conferred were - in chronological order - BSc, BA, MSc. The subsumption rule reflects the principle that a person of a given high status does not separately belong to the lower status.

For member institutions of the Association of Commonwealth Universities , there is a standard list of abbreviations, but in practise many variations are used. Most notable is the use of the Latin abbreviations 'Oxon.' and 'Cantab.' for the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, in spite of these having been superseded by English 'Oxf.' and 'Camb.' Other Latin abbreviations include Exon. for the University of Exeter, Dunelm. for Durham University, Ebor. for the University of York and Cantuar. for the University of Kent (formerly the "University of Kent at Canterbury"). Confusion results from the widespread use of 'SA' for the University of South Australia (instead of S.Aust.) because 'SA' was officially assigned to the University of South Africa. For universities of different commonwealth countries sharing the same name, such as York University in Canada and the University of York in the UK, a convention has been adopted where a country abbreviation is included with the letters and university name. In this example, 'York (Can.)' and 'York (UK)' is commonly used to denote degrees conferred by their respective universities.

The doubling of letters in LL.B., LL.M., LL.D. is because these degrees are in laws, not law. The doubled letter indicates the Latin plural legum as opposed to the singular legis. Abbreviations for the degrees in surgery Ch. B. and Ch. M. are from Latin chiruguriae and often indicate a university system patterned after Scottish models. The combination of M.B. with Ch. B. arose from a need to graduate the students at the time of year allocated to graduation rituals, but the legal inability to confer the M.B. before they had been properly approved by professional regulatory bodies. Thus the Ch. B. was conferred first, and the M.B. was conferred later, after registration, and without ceremony. In recent times the two have come to be conferred together and are widely (mis)understood to constitute a single degree.

Some degrees are awarded jure dignitatis. That is, a person who has demonstrated the appropriate qualities to be given a particular office may be awarded the degree by virtue of the office held. It is another kind of earned degree.

Degree systems elsewhere

Australia

In some countries, such as Australia, a diploma is a specific academic award that is sometimes incorrectly considered to be an academic degree. The distinction is that the diploma is a physical document awarded, while a degree is a status to which a person is admitted. Diplomas are usually signified by a stole rather than an academic hood, the latter being used only for those of graduate status.

Australia has several different kinds of diplomas: Diplomas, Advanced Diplomas, Graduate Diplomas and Postgraduate Diplomas. The system is not without anomalies, due largely to the different traditions of individual institutions and partly to anomalies in the Australian Qualifications Framework. A Diploma is usually equivalent to the first year of a Bachelor's degree, although a few have been similar to Bachelor of Arts degrees and permit direct admission to graduate programs.

An Australian Advanced Diploma is usually considered lower than a Bachelor degree, but may qualify its holder for higher advanced placement in a Bachelor program, direct admission to a Graduate Diploma course or direct admission to a Masters program.

Graduate Diplomas are always higher than a Bachelor degree, and usually require one year of full-time study. They are often an additional course taken after a standard Bachelor degree to introduce a specialization in a particular field or a new discipline. For example, Australian school teachers often study for a bachelor's degree in Arts or Science, then in an additional year complete requirements for a Graduate Diploma of Education, which qualifies them as school teachers. Some Graduate Diplomas are simply the first two semesters of a three- or four-semester Master's program. (In the past, the Graduate Diploma of Education was called the Diploma of Education.)

Some universities have issued Post-graduate Diplomas, which are always in the same discipline as the undergraduate degree, and generally no different from a Bachelor with Honours degree, which requires one year after a regular Bachelor degree.

Ireland

In Ireland a National Diploma is below the standard of the honours bachelor degree, whilst the Higher Diploma is taken after the bachelor degree. The new NQAI National Framework of Qualifications, adopted in 2003, replaced the National Dipoma with the Ordinary Bachelors degree. The framework also clarifies that although the Higher Diploma is taken after the bachelor degree the learning outcomes are at the same level as for the Honours Bachelors Degree.

More technically, a diploma is a document attesting that its bearer has satisfied certain study requirements, as opposed to a degree being a status level in the academic community. For this reason, diplomas are 'awarded to' the recipient while degrees are 'conferred upon' the graduand who then becomes a graduate, or the graduand is "admitted to" a degree. Similarly a person 'has' a diploma, but a graduate 'is in' a status. It is also for this reason that study for diplomas can be at undergraduate or advanced level.

France

In french universities, the academic degree system was quite complicated : the first degree was the baccalauréat (completed in fact after high school), the the two-year diplôme d'études universitaires générales (DEUG General Academic Studies Degree) or premier cycle (undergraduate education), then the one-year licence, the one-year maîtrise (master's degree), the two forming the second cycle (graduate education), the 1-2 years Diplôme d'Études Approfondies, Special Studies Degree and the three-year doctorate, the two forming the troisième cycle (postgraduate education). With the Bologna Process, the system is now much more simple: baccalauréat, licence, master, a new two-year degree merging maîtrise and DEA, and doctorate.

Germany

In Germany there are several academic degrees. Traditionally, the lowest degree has been the Magister and the Diplom (in science and engineering). This is somewhat misleading however, as the Diplom, before its gradual displacement by other, Anglo-Saxon-inspired degrees, was also the highest non-PhD/Doctorate-title in many disciplines.

Since 1999, the traditional degrees are being gradually be replaced by Bachelor's (Bakkalaureus) and Master's (Master) degrees (see Bologna process). The main reasons for this change are to make degrees internationally comparable, and to introduce degrees to the German system which take less time to achieve (German students traditionally take very long to achieve their degrees). Some universities are still resistant to this change, considering it a displacement of a venerable tradition for the pure sake of globalisation. Universities must fulfill the new standard by the end of 2007. In the future, the Diplom or Magister degree will no longer be awarded.

Doctorates are issued under a variety of names, depending on the faculty: e.g., Doktorin der Naturwissenschaften (Doctor of Natural Science); Doktorin der Rechtswissenschaften (Doctor of Law); Doktorin der medizinischen Wissenschaft (Doctor of Medicine); Doktorin der Philosophie (Doctor of Philosophy), to name just a few. Multiple doctorates and honorary doctorates are often listed and even used in forms of address in German-speaking countries. A Diplom (University), Magister, or Master's student can proceed to a doctorate.

Sometimes incorrectly regarded as an academic degree, the Habilitation, a further endorsement beyond the doctorate earned by writing a second dissertation (the habilitationschrift), is the highest academic qualification in Germany. The "Dr. habil.", as it is abbreviated, is the necessary qualification for serving as a privatdozent (roughly the equivalent of an American assistant professor), or as a professur (roughly the equivalent of a full professor).

Austria

The situation in Austria is similar to the situation in Germany: students get a Diploma, but they graduate either with a Magister degree or with a Diploma. This depends on the faculty: arts, social sciences, and fine arts earn a Magister degree, while technical sciences get a Diploma in engineering. So the degree that, for example, an Information Technology student earns is "Diplom-Ingenieur". With the Bologna process, Bachelor's degrees (Bakkalaureus) have been introduced. Doctorates and the Habilitation follow a similar pattern to that of Germany.

Poland

In Poland the system is similar to the German one. For instance, Warsaw University confers the following university degrees and titles:

  • licencjat title (the equivalent of a Bachelor's degree, granted after at least 3 years of study),
  • magister title (the equivalent of a Master's degree, granted after 5 years of study, or 2 years of additional study by holders of a previous degree),
  • doktor degree (Doctor's degree, Ph. D.),
  • doktor habilitowany degree (Polish Habilitation degree, requires approval by an external ministerial body),

The profesor (Professor's) title is officially conferred by the President of Poland.

References

  1. ^ Former French degree, diplôme d'études approfondies
  2. ^ Note: Despite their names, the Bachelor of Civil Law (BCL) and the Bachelor of Philosophy B.Phil. offered at the University of Oxford are both advanced degrees (in law and philosophy respectively) - what, in America, would be called "second bachelors degrees," because they're bachelor's degrees by name but they require a prior bachelor's degree in order to earn them. Likewise, the Canadian LL.B. is a second bachelor's degree, and that was also the case with LL.B. when it was still conferred by American law schools.
  3. ^ In the U.S., holders of the EdD (Doctor of Education) are considered "doctorally prepared" only within the field of education (see, for example, AACSB rules for accreditation)
  4. ^ Note: In the U.S., the PharmD is a six-year program which does not require a prior bachelor's degree and is more akin to a professional Master's degree.
  5. ^ Note: In the U.S., there are those who do not consider the J.D. to be a doctoral level degree and do not believe holders of the degree should use the title "doctor". [citation needed] This is true even though the ABA, which accredits law schools, has stated that holders of the J.D. can use the title "doctor". See the Comparison with other degrees section of the Juris Doctor entry.

See also

  • Ad eundem degree
  • Bologna process
  • Degrees of the University of Oxford
  • Lambeth degree
  • List of education articles by country
  • Higher education
  • Honorary degree
  • European Higher Education Area
  • Lisbon Recognition Convention
  • External degree


 

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academic_degree"