Tantissimi classici della letteratura e della cultura politica,
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Abbe Prevost - MANON LESCAUT
Alcott, Louisa M. - AN OLDFASHIONED GIRL
Alcott, Louisa M. - LITTLE MEN
Alcott, Louisa M. - LITTLE WOMEN
Alcott, Louisa May - JACK AND JILL
Alcott, Louisa May - LIFE LETTERS AND JOURNALS
Andersen, Hans Christian - FAIRY TALES
Anonimo - BEOWULF
Ariosto, Ludovico - ORLANDO ENRAGED
Aurelius, Marcus - MEDITATIONS
Austen, Jane - EMMA
Austen, Jane - MANSFIELD PARK
Austen, Jane - NORTHANGER ABBEY
Austen, Jane - PERSUASION
Austen, Jane - PRIDE AND PREJUDICE
Austen, Jane - SENSE AND SENSIBILITY
Authors, Various - LETTERS OF ABELARD AND HELOISE
Authors, Various - SELECTED ENGLISH LETTERS
Autori Vari - THE WORLD ENGLISH BIBLE
Bacon, Francis - THE ADVANCEMENT OF LEARNING
Balzac, Honore de - EUGENIE GRANDET
Balzac, Honore de - FATHER GORIOT
Baroness Orczy - THE SCARLET PIMPERNEL
Barrie, J. M. - PETER AND WENDY
Barrie, James M. - PETER PAN
Bierce, Ambrose - THE DEVIL'S DICTIONARY
Blake, William - SONGS OF INNOCENCE AND EXPERIENCE
Boccaccio, Giovanni - DECAMERONE
Brent, Linda - INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF A SLAVE GIRL
Bronte, Charlotte - JANE EYRE
Bronte, Charlotte - VILLETTE
Buchan, John - GREENMANTLE
Buchan, John - MR STANDFAST
Buchan, John - THE 39 STEPS
Bunyan, John - THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Burckhardt, Jacob - THE CIVILIZATION OF THE RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
Burnett, Frances H. - A LITTLE PRINCESS
Burnett, Frances H. - LITTLE LORD FAUNTLEROY
Burnett, Frances H. - THE SECRET GARDEN
Butler, Samuel - EREWHON
Carlyle, Thomas - PAST AND PRESENT
Carlyle, Thomas - THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
Cellini, Benvenuto - AUTOBIOGRAPHY
Cervantes - DON QUIXOTE
Chaucer, Geoffrey - THE CANTERBURY TALES
Chesterton, G. K. - A SHORT HISTORY OF ENGLAND
Chesterton, G. K. - THE BALLAD OF THE WHITE HORSE
Chesterton, G. K. - THE INNOCENCE OF FATHER BROWN
Chesterton, G. K. - THE MAN WHO KNEW TOO MUCH
Chesterton, G. K. - THE MAN WHO WAS THURSDAY
Chesterton, G. K. - THE WISDOM OF FATHER BROWN
Chesterton, G. K. - TWELVE TYPES
Chesterton, G. K. - WHAT I SAW IN AMERICA
Chesterton, Gilbert K. - HERETICS
Chopin, Kate - AT FAULT
Chopin, Kate - BAYOU FOLK
Chopin, Kate - THE AWAKENING AND SELECTED SHORT STORIES
Clark Hall, John R. - A CONCISE ANGLOSAXON DICTIONARY
Clarkson, Thomas - AN ESSAY ON THE SLAVERY AND COMMERCE OF THE HUMAN SPECIES
Clausewitz, Carl von - ON WAR
Coleridge, Herbert - A DICTIONARY OF THE FIRST OR OLDEST WORDS IN THE ENGLISH
Coleridge, S. T. - COMPLETE POETICAL WORKS
Coleridge, S. T. - HINTS TOWARDS THE FORMATION OF A MORE COMPREHENSIVE THEORY
Coleridge, S. T. - THE RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER
Collins, Wilkie - THE MOONSTONE
Collodi - PINOCCHIO
Conan Doyle, Arthur - A STUDY IN SCARLET
Conan Doyle, Arthur - MEMOIRS OF SHERLOCK HOLMES
Conan Doyle, Arthur - THE HOUND OF THE BASKERVILLES
Conan Doyle, Arthur - THE RETURN OF SHERLOCK HOLMES
Conan Doyle, Arthur - THE SIGN OF THE FOUR
Conrad, Joseph - HEART OF DARKNESS
Conrad, Joseph - LORD JIM
Conrad, Joseph - NOSTROMO
Conrad, Joseph - THE NIGGER OF THE NARCISSUS
Conrad, Joseph - TYPHOON
Crane, Stephen - LAST WORDS
Crane, Stephen - MAGGIE
Crane, Stephen - THE RED BADGE OF COURAGE
Crane, Stephen - WOUNDS IN THE RAIN
Dante - THE DIVINE COMEDY: HELL
Dante - THE DIVINE COMEDY: PARADISE
Dante - THE DIVINE COMEDY: PURGATORY
Darwin, Charles - THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF CHARLES DARWIN
Darwin, Charles - THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES
Defoe, Daniel - A GENERAL HISTORY OF THE PYRATES
Defoe, Daniel - A JOURNAL OF THE PLAGUE YEAR
Defoe, Daniel - CAPTAIN SINGLETON
Defoe, Daniel - MOLL FLANDERS
Defoe, Daniel - ROBINSON CRUSOE
Defoe, Daniel - THE COMPLETE ENGLISH TRADESMAN
Defoe, Daniel - THE FURTHER ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE
Deledda, Grazia - AFTER THE DIVORCE
Dickens, Charles - A CHRISTMAS CAROL
Dickens, Charles - A TALE OF TWO CITIES
Dickens, Charles - BLEAK HOUSE
Dickens, Charles - DAVID COPPERFIELD
Dickens, Charles - DONBEY AND SON
Dickens, Charles - GREAT EXPECTATIONS
Dickens, Charles - HARD TIMES
Dickens, Charles - LETTERS VOLUME 1
Dickens, Charles - LITTLE DORRIT
Dickens, Charles - MARTIN CHUZZLEWIT
Dickens, Charles - NICHOLAS NICKLEBY
Dickens, Charles - OLIVER TWIST
Dickens, Charles - OUR MUTUAL FRIEND
Dickens, Charles - PICTURES FROM ITALY
Dickens, Charles - THE MYSTERY OF EDWIN DROOD
Dickens, Charles - THE OLD CURIOSITY SHOP
Dickens, Charles - THE PICKWICK PAPERS
Dickinson, Emily - POEMS
Dostoevsky, Fyodor - CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
Dostoyevsky, Fyodor - THE BROTHERS KARAMAZOV
Du Maurier, George - TRILBY
Dumas, Alexandre - THE COUNT OF MONTE CRISTO
Dumas, Alexandre - THE MAN IN THE IRON MASK
Dumas, Alexandre - THE THREE MUSKETEERS
Eliot, George - DANIEL DERONDA
Eliot, George - MIDDLEMARCH
Eliot, George - SILAS MARNER
Eliot, George - THE MILL ON THE FLOSS
Engels, Frederick - THE CONDITION OF THE WORKING-CLASS IN ENGLAND IN 1844
Equiano - AUTOBIOGRAPHY
Esopo - FABLES
Fenimore Cooper, James - THE LAST OF THE MOHICANS
Fielding, Henry - TOM JONES
France, Anatole - THAIS
France, Anatole - THE GODS ARE ATHIRST
France, Anatole - THE LIFE OF JOAN OF ARC
France, Anatole - THE SEVEN WIVES OF BLUEBEARD
Frank Baum, L. - THE PATCHWORK GIRL OF OZ
Frank Baum, L. - THE WONDERFUL WIZARD OF OZ
Franklin, Benjamin - AUTOBIOGRAPHY
Frazer, James George - THE GOLDEN BOUGH
Freud, Sigmund - DREAM PSYCHOLOGY
Galsworthy, John - COMPLETE PLAYS
Galsworthy, John - STRIFE
Galsworthy, John - STUDIES AND ESSAYS
Galsworthy, John - THE FIRST AND THE LAST
Galsworthy, John - THE FORSYTE SAGA
Galsworthy, John - THE LITTLE MAN
Galsworthy, John - THE SILVER BOX
Galsworthy, John - THE SKIN GAME
Gaskell, Elizabeth - CRANFORD
Gaskell, Elizabeth - MARY BARTON
Gaskell, Elizabeth - NORTH AND SOUTH
Gaskell, Elizabeth - THE LIFE OF CHARLOTTE BRONTE
Gay, John - THE BEGGAR'S OPERA
Gentile, Maria - THE ITALIAN COOK BOOK
Gilbert and Sullivan - PLAYS
Goethe - FAUST
Gogol - DEAD SOULS
Goldsmith, Oliver - SHE STOOPS TO CONQUER
Goldsmith, Oliver - THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD
Grahame, Kenneth - THE WIND IN THE WILLOWS
Grimm, Brothers - FAIRY TALES
Harding, A. R. - GINSENG AND OTHER MEDICINAL PLANTS
Hardy, Thomas - A CHANGED MAN AND OTHER TALES
Hardy, Thomas - FAR FROM THE MADDING CROWD
Hardy, Thomas - JUDE THE OBSCURE
Hardy, Thomas - TESS OF THE D'URBERVILLES
Hardy, Thomas - THE MAYOR OF CASTERBRIDGE
Hartley, Cecil B. - THE GENTLEMEN'S BOOK OF ETIQUETTE
Hawthorne, Nathaniel - LITTLE MASTERPIECES
Hawthorne, Nathaniel - THE SCARLET LETTER
Henry VIII - LOVE LETTERS TO ANNE BOLEYN
Henry, O. - CABBAGES AND KINGS
Henry, O. - SIXES AND SEVENS
Henry, O. - THE FOUR MILLION
Henry, O. - THE TRIMMED LAMP
Henry, O. - WHIRLIGIGS
Hindman Miller, Gustavus - TEN THOUSAND DREAMS INTERPRETED
Hobbes, Thomas - LEVIATHAN
Homer - THE ILIAD
Homer - THE ODYSSEY
Hornaday, William T. - THE EXTERMINATION OF THE AMERICAN BISON
Hume, David - A TREATISE OF HUMAN NATURE
Hume, David - AN ENQUIRY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING
Hume, David - DIALOGUES CONCERNING NATURAL RELIGION
Ibsen, Henrik - A DOLL'S HOUSE
Ibsen, Henrik - AN ENEMY OF THE PEOPLE
Ibsen, Henrik - GHOSTS
Ibsen, Henrik - HEDDA GABLER
Ibsen, Henrik - JOHN GABRIEL BORKMAN
Ibsen, Henrik - ROSMERHOLM
Ibsen, Henrik - THE LADY FROM THE SEA
Ibsen, Henrik - THE MASTER BUILDER
Ibsen, Henrik - WHEN WE DEAD AWAKEN
Irving, Washington - THE LEGEND OF SLEEPY HOLLOW
James, Henry - ITALIAN HOURS
James, Henry - THE ASPERN PAPERS
James, Henry - THE BOSTONIANS
James, Henry - THE PORTRAIT OF A LADY
James, Henry - THE TURN OF THE SCREW
James, Henry - WASHINGTON SQUARE
Jerome, Jerome K. - THREE MEN IN A BOAT
Jerome, Jerome K. - THREE MEN ON THE BUMMEL
Jevons, Stanley - POLITICAL ECONOMY
Johnson, Samuel - A GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH TONGUE
Jonson, Ben - THE ALCHEMIST
Jonson, Ben - VOLPONE
Joyce, James - A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN
Joyce, James - CHAMBER MUSIC
Joyce, James - DUBLINERS
Joyce, James - ULYSSES
Keats, John - ENDYMION
Keats, John - POEMS PUBLISHED IN 1817
Keats, John - POEMS PUBLISHED IN 1820
King James - THE BIBLE
Kipling, Rudyard - CAPTAINS COURAGEOUS
Kipling, Rudyard - INDIAN TALES
Kipling, Rudyard - JUST SO STORIES
Kipling, Rudyard - KIM
Kipling, Rudyard - THE JUNGLE BOOK
Kipling, Rudyard - THE MAN WHO WOULD BE KING
Kipling, Rudyard - THE SECOND JUNGLE BOOK
Lawrence, D. H - THE RAINBOW
Lawrence, D. H - THE WHITE PEACOCK
Lawrence, D. H - TWILIGHT IN ITALY
Lawrence, D. H. - AARON'S ROD
Lawrence, D. H. - SONS AND LOVERS
Lawrence, D. H. - THE LOST GIRL
Lawrence, D. H. - WOMEN IN LOVE
Lear, Edward - BOOK OF NONSENSE
Lear, Edward - LAUGHABLE LYRICS
Lear, Edward - MORE NONSENSE
Lear, Edward - NONSENSE SONG
Leblanc, Maurice - ARSENE LUPIN VS SHERLOCK HOLMES
Leblanc, Maurice - THE ADVENTURES OF ARSENE LUPIN
Leblanc, Maurice - THE CONFESSIONS OF ARSENE LUPIN
Leblanc, Maurice - THE HOLLOW NEEDLE
Leblanc, Maurice - THE RETURN OF ARSENE LUPIN
Lehmann, Lilli - HOW TO SING
Leroux, Gaston - THE MAN WITH THE BLACK FEATHER
Leroux, Gaston - THE MYSTERY OF THE YELLOW ROOM
Leroux, Gaston - THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA
London, Jack - MARTIN EDEN
London, Jack - THE CALL OF THE WILD
London, Jack - WHITE FANG
Machiavelli, Nicolo' - THE PRINCE
Malthus, Thomas - PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION
Mansfield, Katherine - THE GARDEN PARTY AND OTHER STORIES
Marlowe, Christopher - THE JEW OF MALTA
Marryat, Captain - THE CHILDREN OF THE NEW FOREST
Maupassant, Guy De - BEL AMI
Melville, Hermann - MOBY DICK
Melville, Hermann - TYPEE
Mill, John Stuart - PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY
Milton, John - PARADISE LOST
Mitra, S. M. - HINDU TALES FROM THE SANSKRIT
Montaigne, Michel de - ESSAYS
Montgomery, Lucy Maud - ANNE OF GREEN GABLES
More, Thomas - UTOPIA
Nesbit, E. - FIVE CHILDREN AND IT
Nesbit, E. - THE PHOENIX AND THE CARPET
Nesbit, E. - THE RAILWAY CHILDREN
Nesbit, E. - THE STORY OF THE AMULET
Newton, Isaac - OPTICKS
Nietsche, Friedrich - BEYOND GOOD AND EVIL
Nietsche, Friedrich - THUS SPAKE ZARATHUSTRA
Nightingale, Florence - NOTES ON NURSING
Owen, Wilfred - POEMS
Ozaki, Yei Theodora - JAPANESE FAIRY TALES
Pascal, Blaise - PENSEES
Pellico, Silvio - MY TEN YEARS IMPRISONMENT
Perrault, Charles - FAIRY TALES
Pirandello, Luigi - THREE PLAYS
Plato - THE REPUBLIC
Poe, Edgar Allan - THE COMPLETE POETICAL WORKS 1
Poe, Edgar Allan - THE COMPLETE POETICAL WORKS 2
Poe, Edgar Allan - THE COMPLETE POETICAL WORKS 3
Poe, Edgar Allan - THE COMPLETE POETICAL WORKS 4
Poe, Edgar Allan - THE COMPLETE POETICAL WORKS 5
Poe, Edgar Allan - THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER
Potter, Beatrix - THE TALE OF PETER RABBIT
Proust, Marcel - SWANN'S WAY
Radcliffe, Ann - A SICILIAN ROMANCE
Ricardo, David - ON THE PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY AND TAXATION
Richardson, Samuel - PAMELA
Rider Haggard, H. - ALLAN QUATERMAIN
Rider Haggard, H. - KING SOLOMON'S MINES
Rousseau, J. J. - THE ORIGIN AND FOUNDATION OF INEQUALITY AMONG MANKIND
Ruskin, John - THE SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE
Schiller, Friedrich - THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN
Schiller, Friedrich - THE PICCOLOMINI
Schopenhauer, Arthur - THE ART OF CONTROVERSY
Schopenhauer, Arthur - THE WISDOM OF LIFE
Scott Fitzgerald, F. - FLAPPERS AND PHILOSOPHERS
Scott Fitzgerald, F. - TALES OF THE JAZZ AGE
Scott Fitzgerald, F. - THE BEAUTIFUL AND DAMNED
Scott Fitzgerald, F. - THIS SIDE OF PARADISE
Scott, Walter - IVANHOE
Scott, Walter - QUENTIN DURWARD
Scott, Walter - ROB ROY
Scott, Walter - THE BRIDE OF LAMMERMOOR
Scott, Walter - WAVERLEY
Sedgwick, Anne Douglas - THE THIRD WINDOW
Sewell, Anna - BLACK BEAUTY
Shakespeare, William - COMPLETE WORKS
Shakespeare, William - HAMLET
Shakespeare, William - OTHELLO
Shakespeare, William - ROMEO AND JULIET
Shelley, Mary - FRANKENSTEIN
Shelley, Percy Bysshe - A DEFENCE OF POETRY AND OTHER ESSAYS
Shelley, Percy Bysshe - COMPLETE POETICAL WORKS
Sheridan, Richard B. - THE SCHOOL FOR SCANDAL
Sienkiewicz, Henryk - QUO VADIS
Smith, Adam - THE WEALTH OF NATIONS
Smollett, Tobias - TRAVELS THROUGH FRANCE AND ITALY
Spencer, Herbert - ESSAYS ON EDUCATION AND KINDRED SUBJECTS
Spyri, Johanna - HEIDI
Sterne, Laurence - A SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY
Sterne, Laurence - TRISTRAM SHANDY
Stevenson, Robert Louis - A CHILD'S GARDEN OF VERSES
Stevenson, Robert Louis - ESSAYS IN THE ART OF WRITING
Stevenson, Robert Louis - KIDNAPPED
Stevenson, Robert Louis - NEW ARABIAN NIGHTS
Stevenson, Robert Louis - THE BLACK ARROW
Stevenson, Robert Louis - THE STRANGE CASE OF DR. JEKYLL AND MR. HYDE
Stevenson, Robert Louis - TREASURE ISLAND
Stoker, Bram - DRACULA
Strindberg, August - LUCKY PEHR
Strindberg, August - MASTER OLOF
Strindberg, August - THE RED ROOM
Strindberg, August - THE ROAD TO DAMASCUS
Strindberg, August - THERE ARE CRIMES AND CRIMES
Swift, Jonathan - A MODEST PROPOSAL
Swift, Jonathan - A TALE OF A TUB
Swift, Jonathan - GULLIVER'S TRAVELS
Swift, Jonathan - THE BATTLE OF THE BOOKS AND OTHER SHORT PIECES
Tagore, Rabindranath - FRUIT GATHERING
Tagore, Rabindranath - THE GARDENER
Tagore, Rabindranath - THE HUNGRY STONES AND OTHER STORIES
Thackeray, William - BARRY LYNDON
Thackeray, William - VANITY FAIR
Thackeray, William Makepeace - THE BOOK OF SNOBS
Thackeray, William Makepeace - THE ROSE AND THE RING
Thackeray, William Makepeace - THE VIRGINIANS
Thoreau, Henry David - WALDEN
Tolstoi, Leo - A LETTER TO A HINDU
Tolstoy, Lev - ANNA KARENINA
Tolstoy, Lev - WAR AND PEACE
Trollope, Anthony - AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY
Trollope, Anthony - BARCHESTER TOWERS
Trollope, Anthony - FRAMLEY PARSONAGE
Trollope, Anthony - THE EUSTACE DIAMONDS
Trollope, Anthony - THE MAN WHO KEPT HIS MONEY IN A BOX
Trollope, Anthony - THE WARDEN
Trollope, Anthony - THE WAY WE LIVE NOW
Twain, Mark - LIFE ON THE MISSISSIPPI
Twain, Mark - SPEECHES
Twain, Mark - THE ADVENTURES OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN
Twain, Mark - THE ADVENTURES OF TOM SAWYER
Twain, Mark - THE PRINCE AND THE PAUPER
Vari, Autori - THE MAGNA CARTA
Verga, Giovanni - SICILIAN STORIES
Verne, Jules - 20000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS
Verne, Jules - A JOURNEY TO THE CENTRE OF THE EARTH
Verne, Jules - ALL AROUND THE MOON
Verne, Jules - AROUND THE WORLD IN 80 DAYS
Verne, Jules - FIVE WEEKS IN A BALLOON
Verne, Jules - FROM THE EARTH TO THE MOON
Verne, Jules - MICHAEL STROGOFF
Verne, Jules - THE MYSTERIOUS ISLAND
Voltaire - PHILOSOPHICAL DICTIONARY
Vyasa - MAHABHARATA
Wallace, Edgar - SANDERS OF THE RIVER
Wallace, Edgar - THE DAFFODIL MYSTERY
Wallace, Lew - BEN HUR
Webster, Jean - DADDY LONG LEGS
Wedekind, Franz - THE AWAKENING OF SPRING
Wells, H. G. - KIPPS
Wells, H. G. - THE INVISIBLE MAN
Wells, H. G. - THE ISLAND OF DOCTOR MOREAU
Wells, H. G. - THE STOLEN BACILLUS AND OTHER INCIDENTS
Wells, H. G. - THE TIME MACHINE
Wells, H. G. - THE WAR OF THE WORLDS
Wells, H. G. - WHAT IS COMING
Wharton, Edith - THE AGE OF INNOCENCE
White, Andrew Dickson - FIAT MONEY INFLATION IN FRANCE
Wilde, Oscar - A WOMAN OF NO IMPORTANCE
Wilde, Oscar - AN IDEAL HUSBAND
Wilde, Oscar - DE PROFUNDIS
Wilde, Oscar - LADY WINDERMERE'S FAN
Wilde, Oscar - SALOME
Wilde, Oscar - SELECTED POEMS
Wilde, Oscar - THE BALLAD OF READING GAOL
Wilde, Oscar - THE CANTERVILLE GHOST
Wilde, Oscar - THE HAPPY PRINCE AND OTHER TALES
Wilde, Oscar - THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING EARNEST
Wilde, Oscar - THE PICTURE OF DORIAN GREY
Wilde, Oscar - THE SOUL OF MAN
Wilson, Epiphanius - SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST
Wollstonecraft, Mary - A VINDICATION OF THE RIGHTS OF WOMAN
Woolf, Virgina - NIGHT AND DAY
Woolf, Virgina - THE VOYAGE OUT
Woolf, Virginia - JACOB'S ROOM
Woolf, Virginia - MONDAY OR TUESDAY
Wordsworth, William - POEMS
Wordsworth, William - PROSE WORKS
Zola, Emile - THERESE RAQUIN
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ISTRUZIONI D'USO DETTAGLIATE
by ANATOLE FRANCE
PART I. THE LOTUS
PART II. THE PAPYRUS
THE PAPYRUS (resumed)
PART III. THE EUPHORBIA
PART THE FIRST -- THE LOTUS
In those days there were many hermits living in the desert. On both
banks of the Nile numerous huts, built by these solitary dwellers, of
branches held together by clay, were scattered at a little distance from
each other, so that the inhabitants could live alone, and yet help one
another in case of need. Churches, each surmounted by a cross, stood
here and there amongst the huts, and the monks flocked to them at each
festival to celebrate the services or to partake of the Communion. There
were also, here and there on the banks of the river, monasteries, where
the cenobites lived in separate cells, and only met together that they
might the better enjoy their solitude.
Both hermits and cenobites led abstemious lives, taking no food till
after sunset, and eating nothing but bread with a little salt and
hyssop. Some retired into the desert, and led a still more strange life
in some cave or tomb.
All lived in temperance and chastity; they wore a hair shirt and a hood,
slept on the bare ground after long watching, prayed, sang psalms, and,
in short, spent their days in works of penitence. As an atonement
for original sin, they refused their body not only all pleasures and
satisfactions, but even that care and attention which in this age are
deemed indispensable. They believed that the diseases of our members
purify our souls, and the flesh could put on no adornment more glorious
than wounds and ulcers. Thus, they thought they fulfilled the words of
the prophet, "The desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose."
Amongst the inhabitants of the holy Thebaid, there were some who
passed their days in asceticism and contemplation; others gained their
livelihood by plaiting palm fibre, or by working at harvest-time for
the neighbouring farmers. The Gentiles wrongly suspected some of them
of living by brigandage, and allying themselves to the nomadic Arabs
who robbed the caravans. But, as a matter of fact, the monks despised
riches, and the odour of their sanctity rose to heaven.
Angels in the likeness of young men, came, staff in hand, as travellers,
to visit the hermitages; whilst demons--having assumed the form of
Ethiopians or of animals--wandered round the habitations of the hermits
in order to lead them into temptation. When the monks went in the
morning to fill their pitcher at the spring, they saw the footprints
of Satyrs and Aigipans in the sand. The Thebaid was, really and
spiritually, a battlefield, where, at all times, and more especially at
night, there were terrible conflicts between heaven and hell.
The ascetics, furiously assailed by legions of the damned, defended
themselves--with the help of God and the angels--by fasting, prayer,
and penance. Sometimes carnal desires pricked them so cruelly that
they cried aloud with pain, and their lamentations rose to the starlit
heavens mingled with the howls of the hungry hyaenas. Then it was that
the demons appeared in delightful forms. For though the demons are, in
reality, hideous, they sometimes assume an appearance of beauty which
prevents their real nature from being recognised. The ascetics of the
Thebaid were amazed to see in their cells phantasms of delights unknown
even to the voluptuaries of the age. But, as they were under the sign
of the Cross, they did not succumb to these temptations, and the unclean
spirits, assuming again their true character, fled at daybreak, filled
with rage and shame. It was not unusual to meet at dawn one of these
beings, flying away and weeping, and replying to those who questioned
it, "I weep and groan because one of the Christians who live here has
beaten me with rods, and driven me away in ignominy."
The power of the old saints of the desert extended over all sinners and
unbelievers. Their goodness was sometimes terrible. They derived from
the Apostles authority to punish all offences against the true and only
God, and no earthly power could save those they condemned. Strange tales
were told in the cities, and even as far as Alexandria, how the earth
had opened and swallowed up certain wicked persons whom one of these
saints struck with his staff. Therefore they were feared by all
evil-doers, and particularly by mimes, mountebanks, married priests, and
Such was the sanctity of these holy men that even wild beasts felt their
power. When a hermit was about to die, a lion came and dug a grave with
its claws. The saint knew by this that God had called him, and he went
and kissed all his brethren on the cheek. Then he lay down joyfully, and
slept in the Lord.
Now that Anthony, who was more than a hundred years old, had retired
to Mount Colzin with his well-beloved disciples, Macarius and Amathas,
there was no monk in the Thebaid more renowned for good works than
Paphnutius, the Abbot of Antinoe. Ephrem and Serapion had a greater
number of followers, and in the spiritual and temporal management
of their monasteries surpassed him. But Paphnutius observed the most
rigorous fasts, and often went for three entire days without taking
food. He wore a very rough hair shirt, he flogged himself night and
morning, and lay for hours with his face to the earth.
His twenty-four disciples had built their huts near his, and imitated
his austerities. He loved them all dearly in Jesus Christ, and
unceasingly exhorted them to good works. Amongst his spiritual children
were men who had been robbers for many years, and had been persuaded by
the exhortations of the holy abbot to embrace the monastic life, and who
now edified their companions by the purity of their lives. One, who had
been cook to the Queen of Abyssinia, and was converted by the Abbot of
Antinoe, never ceased to weep. There was also Flavian, the deacon, who
knew the Scriptures, and spoke well; but the disciple of Paphnutius who
surpassed all the others in holiness was a young peasant named Paul, and
surnamed the Fool, because of his extreme simplicity. Men laughed at his
childishness, but God favoured him with visions, and by bestowing upon
him the gift of prophecy.
Paphnutius passed his life in teaching his disciples, and in ascetic
practices. Often did he meditate upon the Holy Scriptures in order to
find allegories in them. Therefore he abounded in good works, though
still young. The devils, who so rudely assailed the good hermits, did
not dare to approach him. At night, seven little jackals sat in the
moonlight in front of his cell, silent and motionless, and with their
ears pricked up. It was believed that they were seven devils, who, owing
to his sanctity, could not cross his threshold.
Paphnutius was born at Alexandria of noble parents, who had instructed
him in all profane learning. He had even been allured by the falsehoods
of the poets, and in his early youth had been misguided enough to
believe that the human race had all been drowned by a deluge in the days
of Deucalion, and had argued with his fellow-scholars concerning the
nature, the attributes, and even the existence of God. He then led a
life of dissipation, after the manner of the Gentiles, and he recalled
the memory of those days with shame and horror.
"At that time," he used to say to the brethren, "I seethed in the
cauldron of false delights."
He meant by that that he had eaten food properly dressed, and frequented
the public baths. In fact, until his twentieth year he had continued
to lead the ordinary existence of those times, which now seemed to
him rather death than life; but, owing to the lessons of the priest
Macrinus, he then became a new man.
The truth penetrated him through and through, and--as he used to
say--entered his soul like a sword. He embraced the faith of Calvary,
and worshipped Christ crucified. After his baptism he remained yet a
year amongst the Gentiles, unable to cast off the bonds of old habits.
But one day he entered a church, and heard a deacon read from the Bible,
the verse, "If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and
give to the poor." Thereupon he sold all that he had, gave away the
money in alms, and embraced the monastic life.
During the ten years that he had lived remote from men, he no longer
seethed in the cauldron of false delights, but more profitably macerated
his flesh in the balms of penitence.
One day when, according to his pious custom, he was recalling to mind
the hours he had lived apart from God, and examining his sins one by
one, that he might the better ponder on their enormity, he remembered
that he had seen at the theatre at Alexandria a very beautiful actress
named Thais. This woman showed herself in the public games, and did not
scruple to perform dances, the movements of which, arranged only too
cleverly, brought to mind the most horrible passions. Sometimes she
imitated the horrible deeds which the Pagan fables ascribe to Venus,
Leda, or Pasiphae. Thus she fired all the spectators with lust, and when
handsome young men, or rich old ones, came, inspired with love, to hang
wreaths of flowers round her door, she welcomed them, and gave herself
up to them. So that, whilst she lost her own soul, she also ruined the
souls of many others.
She had almost led Paphnutius himself into the sins of the flesh. She
had awakened desire in him, and he had once approached the house of
Thais. But he stopped on the threshold of the courtesan's house, partly
restrained by the natural timidity of extreme youth--he was then but
fifteen years old--and partly by the fear of being refused on account
of his want of money, for his parents took care that he should commit no
God, in His mercy, had used these two means to prevent him from
committing a great sin. But Paphnutius had not been grateful to Him for
that, because at that time he was blind to his own interests, and did
not know that he was lusting after false delights. Now, kneeling in
his cell, before the image of that holy cross on which hung, as in a
balance, the ransom of the world, Paphnutius began to think of Thais,
because Thais was a sin to him, and he meditated long, according to
ascetic rules, on the fearful hideousness of the carnal delights with
which this woman had inspired him in the days of his sin and ignorance.
After some hours of meditation the image of Thais appeared to him
clearly and distinctly. He saw her again, as he had seen her when she
tempted him, in all the beauty of the flesh. At first she showed herself
like a Leda, softly lying upon a bed of hyacinths, her head bowed, her
eyes humid and filled with a strange light, her nostrils quivering, her
mouth half open, her breasts like two flowers, and her arms smooth and
fresh as two brooks. At this sight Paphnutius struck his breast and
"I call Thee to witness, my God, that I have considered how heinous has
been my sin."
Gradually the face of the image changed its expression. Little by little
the lips of Thais, by lowering at the corners of the mouth, expressed a
mysterious suffering. Her large eyes were filled with tears and lights;
her breast heaved with sighs, like the sighing of a wind that precedes
a tempest. At this sight Paphnutius was troubled to the bottom of his
soul. Prostrating himself on the floor, he uttered this prayer--
"Thou who hast put pity in our hearts, like the morning dew upon the
fields, O just and merciful God, be Thou blessed! Praise! praise be unto
Thee! Put away from Thy servant that false tenderness which tempts to
concupiscence, and grant that I may only love Thy creatures in Thee, for
they pass away, but Thou endurest for ever. If I care for this woman,
it is only because she is Thy handiwork. The angels themselves feel
pity for her. Is she not, O Lord, the breath of Thy mouth? Let her not
continue to sin with many citizens and strangers. There is great pity
for her in my heart. Her wickednesses are abominable, and but to think
of them makes my flesh creep. But the more wicked she is, the more do I
lament for her. I weep when I think that the devils will torment her to
As he was meditating in this way, he saw a little jackal lying at his
feet. He felt much surprised, for the door of his cell had been closed
since the morning. The animal seemed to read the Abbot's thoughts, and
wagged its tail like a dog. Paphnutius made the sign of the cross and
the beast vanished. He knew then that, for the first time, the devil had
entered his cell, and he uttered a short prayer; then he thought again
"With God's help," he said to himself, "I must save her." And he slept.
The next morning, when he had said his prayers, he went to see the
sainted Palemon, a holy hermit who lived some distance away. He found
him smiling quietly as he dug the ground, as was his custom. Palemon
was an old man, and cultivated a little garden; the wild beasts came and
licked his hands, and the devils never tormented him.
"May God be praised, brother Paphnutius," he said, as he leaned upon his
"God be praised!" replied Paphnutius. "And peace be unto my brother."
"The like peace be unto thee, brother Paphnutius," said Palemon; and he
wiped the sweat from his forehead with his sleeve.
"Brother Palemon, all our discourse ought to be solely the praise of Him
who has promised to be wheresoever two or three are gathered together in
His Name. That is why I come to you concerning a design I have formed to
glorify the Lord."
"May the Lord bless thy design, Paphnutius, as He has blessed my
lettuces. Every morning He spreads His grace with the dew on my garden,
and His goodness causes me to glorify Him in the cucumbers and melons
which He gives me. Let us pray that He may keep us in His peace. For
nothing is more to be feared than those unruly passions which trouble
our hearts. When these passions disturb us we are like drunken men,
and we stagger from right to left unceasingly, and are like to fall
miserably. Sometimes these passions plunge us into a turbulent joy, and
he who gives way to such, sullies the air with brutish laughter. Such
false joy drags the sinner into all sorts of excess. But sometimes also
the troubles of the soul and of the senses throw us into an impious
sadness which is a thousand times worse than the joy. Brother
Paphnutius, I am but a miserable sinner, but I have found, in my long
life, that the cenobite has no foe worse than sadness. I mean by that
the obstinate melancholy which envelopes the soul as in a mist, and
hides from us the light of God. Nothing is more contrary to salvation,
and the devil's greatest triumph is to sow black and bitter thoughts in
the heart of a good man. If he sent us only pleasurable temptations,
he would not be half so much to be feared. Alas! he excels in making
us sad. Did he not show to our father Anthony a black child of such
surpassing beauty that the very sight of it drew tears? With God's help,
our father Anthony avoided the snares of the demon. I knew him when he
lived amongst us; he was cheerful with his disciples, and never gave
way to melancholy. But did you not come, my brother, to talk to me of
a design you had formed in your mind? Let me know what it is--if, at
least, this design has for its object the glory of God."
"Brother Palemon, what I propose is really to the glory of God.
Strengthen me with your counsel, for you know many things, and sin has
never darkened the clearness of your mind."
"Brother Paphnutius, I am not worthy to unloose the latchet of thy
sandals, and my sins are as countless as the sands of the desert. But I
am old, and I will never refuse the help of my experience."
"I will confide in you, then, brother Palemon, that I am stricken with
grief at the thought that there is, in Alexandria, a courtesan named
Thais, who lives in sin, and is a subject of reproach unto the people."
"Brother Paphnutius, that is, in truth, an abomination which we do well
to deplore. There are many women amongst the Gentiles who lead lives of
that kind. Have you thought of any remedy for this great evil?"
"Brother Palemon, I will go to Alexandria and find this woman, and, with
God's help, I will convert her; that is my intention; do you approve of
"Brother Paphnutius, I am but a miserable sinner, but our father Anthony
used to say, 'In whatsoever place thou art, hasten not to leave it to go
"Brother Palemon, do you disapprove of my project?"
"Dear Paphnutius, God forbid that I should suspect my brother of bad
intentions. But our father Anthony also said, 'Fishes die on dry land,
and so is it with those monks who leave their cells and mingle with the
men of this world, amongst whom no good thing is to be found.'"
Having thus spoken, the old man pressed his foot on the spade, and began
to dig energetically round a fig tree laden with fruit. As he was thus
engaged, there was a rustling in the bushes, and an antelope leaped
over the hedge which surrounded the garden; it stopped, surprised and
frightened, its delicate legs trembling, then ran up to the old man, and
laid its pretty head on the breast of its friend.
"God be praised in the gazelle of the desert," said Palemon.
He went to his hut, the light-footed little animal trotting after him,
and brought out some black bread, which the antelope ate out of his
Paphnutius remained thoughtful for some time, his eyes fixed upon the
stones at his feet. Then he slowly walked back to his cell, pondering on
what he had heard. A great struggle was going on in his mind.
"The hermit gives good advice," he said to himself; "the spirit of
prudence is in him. And he doubts the wisdom of my intention. Yet it
would be cruel to leave Thais any longer in the power of the demon who
possesses her. May God advise and conduct me."
As he was walking along, he saw a plover, caught in the net that a
hunter had laid on the sand, and he knew that it was a hen bird, for
he saw the male fly to the net, and tear the meshes one by one with its
beak, until it had made an opening by which its mate could escape. The
holy man watched this incident, and as, by virtue of his holiness, he
easily comprehended the mystic sense of all occurrences, he knew that
the captive bird was no other than Thais, caught in the snares of sin,
and that--like the plover that had cut the hempen threads with its
beak--he could, by pronouncing the word of power, break the invisible
bonds by which Thais was held in sin. Therefore he praised God, and was
confirmed in his first resolution. But then seeing the plover caught
by the feet, and hampered by the net it had broken, he fell into
He did not sleep all night, and before dawn he had a vision. Thais
appeared to him again. There was no expression of guilty pleasure on her
face, nor was she dressed according to custom in transparent drapery.
She was enveloped in a shroud, which hid even a part of her face, so
that the Abbot could see nothing but the two eyes, from which flowed
white and heavy tears.
At this sight he began to weep, and believing that this vision came from
God, he no longer hesitated. He rose, seized a knotted stick, the symbol
of the Christian faith, and left his cell, carefully closing the door,
lest the animals of the desert and the birds of the air should enter,
and befoul the copy of the Holy Scriptures which stood at the head of
his bed. He called Flavian, the deacon, and gave him authority over the
other twenty-three disciples during his absence; and then, clad only in
a long cassock, he bent his steps towards the Nile, intending to follow
the Libyan bank to the city founded by the Macedonian monarch. He walked
from dawn to eve, indifferent to fatigue, hunger, and thirst; the sun
was already low on the horizon when he saw the dreadful river, the
blood-red waters of which rolled between the rocks of gold and fire.
He kept along the shore, begging his bread at the door of solitary
huts for the love of God, and joyfully receiving insults, refusals, or
threats. He feared neither robbers nor wild beasts, but he took great
care to avoid all the towns and villages he came near. He was afraid
lest he should see children playing at knuckle-bones before their
father's house, or meet, by the side of the well, women in blue smocks,
who might put down their pitcher and smile at him. All things are
dangerous for the hermit; it is sometimes a danger for him to read in
the Scriptures that the Divine Master journeyed from town to town and
supped with His disciples. The virtues that the anchorites embroider so
carefully on the tissue of faith, are as fragile as they are beautiful;
a breath of ordinary life may tarnish their pleasant colours. For that
reason, Paphnutius avoided the towns, fearing lest his heart should
soften at the sight of his fellow men.
He journeyed along lonely roads. When evening came, the murmuring of the
breeze amidst the tamarisk trees made him shiver, and he pulled his hood
over his eyes that he might not see how beautiful all things were. After
walking six days, he came to a place called Silsile. There the
river runs in a narrow valley, bordered by a double chain of granite
mountains. It was there that the Egyptians, in the days when they
worshipped demons, carved their idols. Paphnutius saw an enormous sphinx
carved in the solid rock. Fearing that it might still possess some
diabolical properties, he made the sign of the cross, and pronounced the
name of Jesus; he immediately saw a bat fly out of one of the monster's
ears, and Paphnutius knew that he had driven out the evil spirits which
had been for centuries in the figure. His zeal increased, and picking up
a large stone, he threw it in the idol's face. Then the mysterious face
of the sphinx expressed such profound sadness that Paphnutius was moved.
In fact, the expression of superhuman grief on the stone visage would
have touched even the most unfeeling man. Therefore Paphnutius said to
"O monster, be like the satyrs and centaurs our father Anthony saw in
the desert, and confess the divinity of Jesus Christ, and I will bless
thee in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost."
When he had spoken a rosy light gleamed in the eyes of the sphinx; the
heavy eyelids of the monster quivered and the granite lips painfully
murmured, as though in echo to the man's voice, the holy name of Jesus
Christ; therefore Paphnutius stretched out his right hand, and blessed
the sphinx of Silsile.
That being done, he resumed his journey, and the valley having grown
wider, he saw the ruins of an immense city. The temples, which still
remained standing, were supported by idols which served as columns,
and--by the permission of God--these figures with women's heads and
cow's horns, threw on Paphnutius a long look which made him turn pale.
He walked thus seventeen days, his only food a few raw herbs, and
he slept at night in some ruined palace, amongst the wild cats and
Pharaoh's rats, with which mingled sometimes, women whose bodies ended
in a scaly tail. But Paphnutius knew that these women came from hell,
and he drove them away by making the sign of the cross.
On the eighteenth day, he found, far from any village, a wretched hut
made of palm leaves, and half buried under the sand which had been
driven by the desert wind. He approached it, hoping that the hut was
inhabited by some pious anchorite. He saw inside the hovel--for there
was no door--a pitcher, a bunch of onions, and a bed of dried leaves.
"This must be the habitation of a hermit," he said to himself. "Hermits
are generally to be found near their hut, and I shall not fail to meet
this one. I will give him the kiss of peace, even as the holy Anthony
did when he came to the hermit Paul, and kissed him three times. We will
discourse of things eternal, and perhaps our Lord will send us, by one
of His ravens, a crust of bread, which my host will willingly invite me
to share with him."
Whilst he was thus speaking to himself, he walked round the hut to see
if he could find any one. He had not walked a hundred paces when he saw
a man seated, with his legs crossed, by the side of the river. The man
was naked; his hair and beard were quite white, and his body redder than
brick. Paphnutius felt sure this must be the hermit. He saluted him with
the words the monks are accustomed to use when they meet each other.
"Peace be with you, brother! May you some day taste the sweet joys of
The man did not reply. He remained motionless, and appeared not to have
heard. Paphnutius supposed this was due to one of those rhapsodies to
which the saints are accustomed. He knelt down, with his hands joined,
by the side of the unknown, and remained thus in prayer till sunset.
Then, seeing that his companion had not moved, he said to him--
"Father, if you are now out of the ecstasy in which you were lost, give
me your blessing in our Lord Jesus Christ."
The other replied without turning his head--
"Stranger, I understand you not, and I know not the Lord Jesus Christ."
"What!" cried Paphnutius. "The prophets have announced Him; legions of
martyrs have confessed His name; Caesar himself has worshipped Him, and,
but just now, I made the sphinx of Silsile proclaim His glory. Is it
possible that you do not know Him?"
"Friend," replied the other, "it is possible. It would even be certain,
if anything in this world were certain."
Paphnutius was surprised and saddened by the incredible ignorance of the
"If you know not Jesus Christ," he said, "all your works serve no
purpose, and you will never rise to life immortal."
The old man replied--
"It is useless to act, or to abstain from acting. It matters not whether
we live or die."
"Eh, what?" asked Paphnutius. "Do you not desire to live through all
eternity? But, tell me, do you not live in a hut in the desert as the
"It seems so."
"Do I not see you naked, and lacking all things?"
"It seems so."
"Do you not feed on roots, and live in chastity?"
"It seems so."
"Have you not renounced all the vanities of this world?"
"I have truly renounced all those vain things for which men commonly
"Then you are like me, poor, chaste, and solitary. And you are
not so--as I am--for the love of God, and with a hope of celestial
happiness! That I cannot understand. Why are you virtuous if you do not
believe in Jesus Christ? Why deprive yourself of the good things of this
world if you do not hope to gain eternal riches in heaven?"
"Stranger, I deprive myself of nothing which is good, and I flatter
myself that I have found a life which is satisfactory enough, though--to
speak more precisely--there is no such thing as a good or evil life.
Nothing is itself, either virtuous or shameful, just or unjust, pleasant
or painful, good or bad. It is our opinion which gives those qualities
to things, as salt gives savour to meats."
"So then, according to you there is no certainty. You deny the truth
which the idolaters themselves have sought. You lie in ignorance--like a
tired dog sleeping in the mud."
"Stranger, it is equally useless to abuse either dogs or philosophers.
We know not what dogs are or what we are. We know nothing."
"Old man, do you belong, then, to the absurd sect of sceptics? Are you
one of those miserable fools who alike deny movement and rest, and who
know not how to distinguish between the light of the sun and the shadows
"Friend, I am truly a sceptic, and of a sect which appears praiseworthy
to me, though it seems ridiculous to you. For the same things often
assume different appearances. The pyramids of Memphis seem at sunrise to
be cones of pink light. At sunset they look like black triangles against
the illuminated sky. But who shall solve the problem of their true
nature? You reproach me with denying appearances, when, in fact,
appearances are the only realities I recognise. The sun seems to me
illuminous, but its nature is unknown to me. I feel that fire burns--but
I know not how or why. My friend, you understand me badly. Besides, it
is indifferent to me whether I am understood one way or the other."
"Once more. Why do you live on dates and onions in the desert? Why do
you endure great hardships? I endure hardships equally great, and, like
you, I live in abstinence and solitude. But then it is to please God,
and to earn eternal happiness. And that is a reasonable object, for
it is wise to suffer now for a future gain. It is senseless, on the
contrary, to expose yourself voluntarily to useless fatigue and vain
sufferings. If I did not believe--pardon my blasphemy, O uncreated
Light!--if I did not believe in the truth of that which God has taught
us by the voice of the prophets, by the example of His Son, by the acts
of the Apostles, by the authority of councils, and by the testimony
of the martyrs,--if I did not know that the sufferings of the body are
necessary for the salvation of the soul--if I were, like thee, lost in
ignorance of sacred mysteries--I would return at once amongst the men of
this day, I would strive to acquire riches, that I might live in ease,
like those who are happy in this world, and I would say to the votaries
of pleasure, 'Come, my daughters, come, my servants, come and pour out
for me your wines, your philtres, your perfumes.' But you, foolish old
man! you deprive yourself of all these advantages; you lose without
hope of any gain; you give without hope of any return, and you imitate
foolishly the noble deeds of us anchorites, as an impudent monkey
thinks, by smearing a wall, to copy the picture of a clever artist.
What, then, are your reasons, O most besotted of men?"
Paphnutius spoke with violence and indignation, but the old man remained
"Friend," he replied, gently, "what matter the reasons of a dog sleeping
in the dirt or a mischievous ape?"
Paphnutius' only aim was the glory of God. His anger vanished, and he
apologised with noble humility.
"Pardon me, old man, my brother," he said, "if zeal for the truth has
carried me beyond proper bounds. God is my witness, that it is thy
errors and not thyself that I hate. I suffer to see thee in darkness,
for I love thee in Jesus Christ, and care for thy salvation fills my
heart. Speak! give me your reasons. I long to know them that I may
The old man replied quietly--
"It is the same to me whether I speak or remain silent. I will give my
reasons without asking yours in return, for I have no interest in you
at all. I care neither for your happiness nor your misfortune, and it
matters not to me whether you think one way or another. Why should I
love you, or hate you? Aversion and sympathy are equally unworthy of the
wise man. But since you question me, know then that I am named Timocles,
and that I was born at Cos, of parents made rich by commerce. My father
was a shipowner. In intelligence he much resembled Alexander, who is
surnamed the Great. But he was not so gross. In short, he was a man of
no great parts. I had two brothers, who, like him, were shipowners. As
for me, I followed wisdom. My eldest brother was compelled by my father
to marry a Carian woman, named Timaessa, who displeased him so greatly
that he could not live with her without falling into a deep melancholy.
However, Timaessa inspired our younger brother with a criminal passion,
and this passion soon turned to a furious madness. The Carian woman
hated them both equally; but she loved a flute-player, and received him
at night in her chamber. One morning he left there the wreath which he
usually wore at feasts. My two brothers, having found this wreath, swore
to kill the flute-player, and the next day they caused him to perish
under the lash, in spite of his tears and prayers. My sister-in-law
felt such grief that she lost her reason, and these three poor wretches
became beasts rather than human beings, and wandered insane along the
shores of Cos, howling like wolves and foaming at the mouth, and hooted
at by the children, who threw shells and stones at them. They died, and
my father buried them with his own hands. A little later his stomach
refused all nourishment, and he died of hunger, though he was rich
enough to have bought all the meats and fruits in the markets of Asia.
He was deeply grieved at having to leave me his fortune. I used it in
travels. I visited Italy, Greece, and Africa without meeting a single
person who was either wise or happy. I studied philosophy at Athens and
Alexandria, and was deafened by noisy arguments. At last I wandered as
far as India, and I saw on the banks of the Ganges a naked man, who had
sat there motionless with his legs crossed for more than thirty years.
Climbing plants twined round his dried up body, and the birds built
their nests in his hair. Yet he lived. At the sight of him I called to
mind Timaessa, the flute-player, my two brothers, and my father, and
I realised that this Indian was a wise man. 'Men,' I said to myself,
'suffer because they are deprived of that which they believe to be good;
or because, possessing it they fear to lose it; or because they endure
that which they believe to be an evil. Put an end to all beliefs of this
kind, and the evils would disappear.' That is why I resolved henceforth
to deem nothing an advantage, to tear myself entirely from the good
things of this world, and to live silent and motionless, like the
Paphnutius had listened attentively to the old man's story.
"Timocles of Cos," he replied, "I own that your discourse is not wholly
devoid of sense. It is, in truth, wise to despise the riches of this
world. But it would be absurd to despise also your eternal welfare, and
render yourself liable to be visited by the wrath of God. I grieve at
your ignorance, Timocles, and I will instruct you in the truth, in order
that knowing that there really exists a God in three hypostases, you may
obey this God as a child obeys its father."
Timocles interrupted him.
"Refrain, stranger, from showing me your doctrines, and do not imagine
that you will persuade me to share your opinions. All discussions are
useless. My opinion is to have no opinion. My life is devoid of trouble
because I have no preferences. Go thy ways, and strive not to withdraw
me from the beneficent apathy in which I am plunged, as though in a
delicious bath, after the hardships of my past days."
Paphnutius was profoundly instructed in all things relating to the
faith. By his knowledge of the human heart, he was aware that the grace
of God had not fallen on old Timocles, and the day of salvation for this
soul so obstinately resolved to ruin itself had not yet come. He did not
reply, lest the power given for edification should turn to destruction.
For it sometimes happens, in disputing with infidels, that the means
used for their conversion may steep them still farther in sin. Therefore
they who possess the truth should take care how they spread it.
"Farewell, then, unhappy Timocles," he said; and heaving a deep sigh, he
resumed his pious pilgrimage through the night.
In the morning, he saw the ibises motionless on one leg at the edge of
the water, which reflected their pale pink necks. The willows stretched
their soft grey foliage to the bank, cranes flew in a triangle in the
clear sky, and the cry of unseen herons was heard from the sedges. Far
as the eye could reach, the river rolled its broad green waters o'er
which white sails, like the wings of birds, glided, and here and there
on the shores, a white house shone out. A light mist floated along the
banks, and from out the shadow of the islands, which were laden
with palms, flowers, and fruits, came noisy flocks of ducks, geese,
flamingoes, and teal. To the left, the grassy valley extended to the
desert its fields and orchards in joyful abundance; the sun shone on
the yellow wheat, and the earth exhaled forth its fecundity in odorous
wafts. At this sight, Paphnutius fell on his knees, and cried--
"Blessed be the Lord, who has given a happy issue to my journey. O God,
who spreadest Thy dew upon the fig trees of the Arsiniote, pour Thy
grace upon Thais, whom Thou hast formed with Thy love, as Thou hast the
flowers and trees of the field. May she, by Thy loving care, flourish
like a sweet-scented rose in the heavenly Jerusalem."
And every time that he saw a tree covered with blossom, or a bird of
brilliant plumage, he thought of Thais. Keeping along the left arm of
the river and through a fertile and populous district, he reached, in
a few days, the city of Alexandria, which the Greeks have surnamed the
Beautiful and the Golden. The sun had risen an hour, when he beheld,
from the top of a hill, the vast city, the roofs of which glittered in
the rosy light. He stopped, and folded his arms on his breast.
"There, then," he said, "is the delightful spot where I was born in sin;
the bright air where I breathed poisonous perfumes; the sea of pleasure
where I heard the songs of the sirens. There is my cradle, after the
flesh; my native land--in the parlance of the men of these days! A rich
cradle, an illustrious country, in the judgment of men! It is natural
that thy children should reverence thee like a mother, Alexandria, and
I was begotten in thy magnificently adorned breast. But the ascetic
despises nature, the mystic scorns appearances, the Christian regards
his native land as a place of exile, the monk is not of this earth. I
have turned away my heart from loving thee, Alexandria. I hate thee! I
hate thee for thy riches, thy science, thy pleasures, and thy beauty. Be
accursed, temple of demons! Lewd couch of the Gentiles, tainted pulpit
of Arian heresy, be thou accursed! And thou, winged son of heaven who
led the holy hermit Anthony, our father, when he came from the depths of
the desert, and entered into the citadel of idolatry to strengthen the
faith of believers and the confidence of martyrs, beautiful angel of
the Lord, invisible child, first breath of God, fly thou before me, and
cleanse, by the beating of thy wings, the corrupted air I am about to
breathe amongst the princes of darkness of this world!"
Having thus spoken, he resumed his journey. He entered the city by the
Gate of the Sun. This gate was a handsome structure of stone. In the
shadow of its arch, crowded some poor wretches, who offered lemons
and figs for sale, or with many groans and lamentations, begged for an
An old woman in rags, who was kneeling there, seized the monk's cassock,
kissed it, and said--
"Man of the Lord, bless me, that God may bless me. I have suffered many
things in this world that I may have joys in the world to come. You
come from God, O holy man, and that is why the dust of your feet is more
precious than gold."
"The Lord be praised!" said Paphnutius, and with his half-closed hand he
made the sign of redemption on the old woman's head.
But hardly had he gone twenty paces down the street, than a band of
children began to jeer at him, and throw stones, crying--
"Oh, the wicked monk! He is blacker than an ape, and more bearded than
a goat! He is a skulker! Why not hang him in an orchard, like a wooden
Priapus, to frighten the birds? But no; he would draw down the hail on
the apple-blossom. He brings bad luck. To the ravens with the monk! to
the ravens!" and stones mingled with the cries.
"My God, bless these poor children!" murmured Paphnutius.
And he pursued his way, thinking.
"I was worshipped by the old woman, and hated and despised by these
children. Thus the same object is appreciated differently by men who are
uncertain in their judgment and liable to error. It must be owned that,
for a Gentile, old Timocles was not devoid of sense. Though blind, he
knew he was deprived of light. His reasoning was much better than that
of these idolaters, who cry from the depths of their thick darkness, 'I
see the day!' Everything in this world is mirage and moving sand. God
alone is steadfast."
He passed through the city with rapid steps. After ten years of absence
he would still recognise every stone, and every stone was to him a stone
of reproach that recalled a sin. For that reason he struck his naked
feet roughly against the kerb-stones of the wide street, and rejoiced
to see the bloody marks of his wounded feet. Leaving on his left the
magnificent portico of the Temple of Serapis, he entered a road lined
with splendid mansions, which seemed to be drowsy with perfumes. Pines,
maples, and larches raised their heads above the red cornices and golden
acroteria. Through the half-open doors could be seen bronze statues
in marble vestibules, and fountains playing amidst foliage. No noise
troubled the stillness of these quiet retreats. Only the distant strains
of a flute could be heard. The monk stopped before a house, rather
small, but of noble proportions, and supported by columns as graceful as
young girls. It was ornamented with bronze busts of the most celebrated
He recognised Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Epicurus, and Zeno, and
having knocked with the hammer against the door, he waited, wrapped in
"It is vanity to glorify in metal these false sages; their lies are
confounded, their souls are lost in hell, and even the famous Plato
himself, who filled the earth with his eloquence, now disputes with the
A slave opened the door, and seeing a man with bare feet standing on the
mosaic threshold, said to him roughly--
"Go and beg elsewhere, stupid monk, or I will drive you away with a
"Brother," replied the Abbott of Antinoe, "all that I ask is that you
conduct me to your master, Nicias."
The slave replied, more angrily than before--
"My master does not see dogs like you."
"My son," said Paphnutius, "will you please do what I ask, and tell your
master that I desire to see him.
"Get out, vile beggar!" cried the porter furiously; and he raised his
stick and struck the holy man, who, with his arms crossed upon his
breast, received unmovedly the blow, which fell full in his face, and
then repeated gently--
"Do as I ask you, my son, I beg."
The porter tremblingly murmured--
"Who is this man who is not afraid of suffering?"
And he ran and told his master.
Nicias had just left the bath. Two pretty slave girls were scraping him
with strigils. He was a pleasant-looking man, with a kind smile. There
was an expression of gentle satire in his face. On seeing the monk, he
rose and advanced with open arms.
"It is you!" he cried, "Paphnutius, my fellow-scholar, my friend my
brother! Oh, I knew you again, though, to say the truth, you look more
like a wild animal than a man. Embrace me. Do you remember the time when
we studied grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy together? You were, even
then, of a morose and wild character, but I liked you because of your
complete sincerity. We used to say that you looked at the universe with
the eyes of a wild horse, and it was not surprising you were dull and
moody. You needed a pinch of Attic salt, but your liberality knew no
bounds. You cared nothing for either your money or your life. And you
had the eccentricity of genius, and a strange character which interested
me deeply. You are welcome, my dear Paphnutius, after ten years of
absence. You have quitted the desert; you have renounced all Christian
superstitions, and now return to your old life. I will mark this day
with a white stone."
"Crobyle and Myrtale," he added, turning towards the girls, "perfume the
feet, hands, and beard of my dear guest."
They smiled, and had already brought the basin, the phials, and the
metal mirror. But Paphnutius stopped them with an imperious gesture, and
lowered his eyes that he might not look upon them, for they were naked.
Nicias brought cushions for him, and offered him various meats and
drinks, which Paphnutius scornfully refused.
"Nicias," he said, "I have not renounced what you falsely call the
Christian superstition, which is the truth of truths. 'In the beginning
was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. All
things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was
made. In Him was the life, and the life was the light of men.'"
"My dear Paphnutius," replied Nicias, who had now put on a perfumed
tunic, "do you expect to astonish me by reciting a lot of words jumbled
together without skill, which are no more than a vain murmur? Have you
forgotten that I am a bit of a philosopher myself? And do you think to
satisfy me with some rags, torn by ignorant men from the purple garment
of AEmilius, when AEmilius, Porphyry, and Plato, in all their glory, did
not satisfy me! The systems devised by the sages are but tales imagined
to amuse the eternal childishness of men. We divert ourselves with them,
as we do with the stories of "The Ass", "The Tub", and "The Ephesian
Matron", or any other Milesian fable."
And, taking his guest by the arm, he led him into a room where thousands
of papyri were rolled up and lay in baskets.
"This is my library," he said. "It contains a small part of the various
systems which the philosophers have constructed to explain the world.
The Serapeium itself, with all its riches, does not contain them all.
Alas! they are but the dreams of sick men."
He compelled his guest to sit down in an ivory chair, and sat down
himself. Paphnutius scowled gloomily at all the books in the library,
"They ought all to be burned."
"Oh, my dear guest, that would be a pity!" replied Nicias. "For the
dreams of sick men are sometimes amusing. Besides, if we should destroy
all the dreams and visions of men, the earth would lose its form and
colours, and we should all sleep in a dull stupidity."
Paphnutius continued in the same strain as before--
"It is certain that the doctrines of the pagans are but vain lies. But
God, who is the truth, revealed Himself to men by miracles, and He was
made flesh, and lived among us."
"You speak well, my dear Paphnutius, when you say that he was made
flesh. A God who thinks, acts, speaks, who wanders through nature, like
Ulysses of old on the glaucous sea, is altogether a man. How do you
expect that we should believe in this new Jupiter, when the urchins of
Athens, in the time of Pericles, no longer believed in the old one?
"But let us leave all that. You did not come here; I suppose, to
argue about the three hypostases. What can I do for you, my dear
"A good deed," replied the Abbot of Antinoe. "Lend me a perfumed tunic,
like the one you have just put on. Be kind enough to add to the tunic,
gilt sandals, and a vial of oil to anoint my beard and hair. It is
needful also, that you should give me a purse with a thousand drachmae
in it. That, O Nicias, is what I came to ask of you, for the love of
God, and in remembrance of our old friendship."
Nicias made Crobyle and Myrtale bring his richest tunic; it was
embroidered, after the Asiatic fashion, with flowers and animals. The
two girls held it open, and skilfully showed its bright colours, waiting
till Paphnutius should have taken off the cassock which covered him down
to his feet. But the monk having declared that they should rather tear
off his flesh than this garment, they put on the tunic over it. As the
two girls were pretty, they were not afraid of men, although they were
slaves. They laughed at the strange appearance of the monk thus clad.
Crobyle called him her dear satrap, as she presented him with the
mirror, and Myrtale pulled his beard. But Paphnutius prayed to the Lord,
and did not look at them. Having tied on the gilt sandals, and fastened
the purse to his belt, he said to Nicias, who was looking at him with an
"O Nicias, let not these things be an offence in your eyes. For know
that I shall make pious use of this tunic, this purse, and these
"My dear friend," replied Nicias, "I suspect no evil, for I believe that
men are equally incapable of doing evil or doing good. Good and evil
exist only in the opinion. The wise man has only custom and usage to
guide him in his acts. I conform with all the prejudices which prevail
at Alexandria. That is why I pass for an honest man. Go, friend, and
But Paphnutius thought that it was needful to inform his host of his
"Do you know Thais," he said, "who acts in the games at the theatre?"
"She is beautiful," replied Nicias, "and there was a time when she was
dear to me. For her sake, I sold a mill and two fields of corn, and I
composed in her honour three books full of detestably bad verses. Surely
beauty is the most powerful force in the world, and were we so made that
we could possess it always, we should care as little as may be for
the demiurgos, the logos, the aeons, and all the other reveries of the
philosophers. But I am surprised, my good Paphnutius, that you should
have come from the depths of the Thebaid to talk about Thais."
Having said this, he sighed gently. And Paphnutius gazed at him with
horror, not conceiving it possible that a man should so calmly avow such
a sin. He expected to see the earth open, and Nicias swallowed up in
flames. But the earth remained solid, and the Alexandrian silent, his
forehead resting on his hand, and he smiling sadly at the memories of
his past youth. The monk rose, and continued in solemn tones--
"Know then, O Nicias, that, with the aid of God, I will snatch this
woman Thais from the unclean affections of the world, and give her as
a spouse to Jesus Christ. If the Holy Spirit does not forsake me, Thais
will leave this city and enter a nunnery."
"Beware of offending Venus," replied Nicias. "She is a powerful goddess,
she will be angry with you if you take away her chief minister."
"God will protect me," said Paphnutius. "May He also illumine thy heart,
O Nicias, and draw thee out of the abyss in which thou art plunged."
And he stalked out of the room. But Nicias followed him, and overtook
him on the threshold, and placing his hand on his shoulder whispered
into his ear the same words--
"Beware of offending Venus; her vengeance is terrible."
Paphnutius, disdainful of these trivial words, left without turning his
head. He felt only contempt for Nicias; but what he could not bear was
the idea that his former friend had received the caresses of Thais. It
seemed to him that to sin with that woman was more detestable than to
sin with any other. To him this appeared the height of iniquity, and he
henceforth looked upon Nicias as an object of execration. He had always
hated impurity, but never before had this vice appeared so heinous to
him; never before had it so seemed to merit the anger of Jesus Christ
and the sorrow of the angels.
He felt only a more ardent desire to save Thais from the Gentiles,
and that he must hasten to see the actress in order to save her.
Nevertheless, before he could enter her house, he must wait till the
heat of the day was over, and now the morning had hardly finished.
Paphnutius wandered through the most frequented streets. He had resolved
to take no food that day, in order to be the less unworthy of the
favours he had asked of the Lord. To the great grief of his soul, he
dared not enter any of the churches in the city, because he knew they
were profaned by the Arians, who had overturned the Lord's table. For,
in fact, these heretics, supported by the Emperor of the East, had
driven the patriarch Athanasius from his episcopate, and sown trouble
and confusion among the Christians of Alexandria.
He therefore wandered about aimlessly, sometimes with his eyes fixed on
the ground in humility, and sometimes raised to heaven in ecstasy. After
some time, he found himself on the quay. Before him lay the harbour,
in which were sheltered innumerable ships and galleys, and beyond them,
smiling in blue and silver, lay the perfidious sea. A galley, which bore
a Nereid at its prow, had just weighed anchor. The rowers sang as the
oars struck the water; and already the white daughter of the waters,
covered with humid pearls, showed no more than a flying profile to the
monk. Steered by her pilot, she cleared the passage leading from the
basin of the Eunostos, and gained the high seas, leaving a glittering
trail behind her.
"I also," thought Paphnutius, "once desired to embark singing on the
ocean of the world. But I soon saw my folly, and the Nereid did not
carry me away."
Lost in his thoughts, he sat down upon a coil of rope, and went to
sleep. During his sleep, he had a vision. He seemed to hear the sound of
a clanging trumpet, and the sky became blood red, and he knew that the
day of judgment had come. Whilst he was fervently praying to God, he saw
an enormous monster coming towards him, bearing on its forehead a cross
of light, and he recognised the sphinx of Silsile. The monster seized
him between its teeth, without hurting him, and carried him in its
mouth, as a cat carries a kitten. Paphnutius was thus conveyed across
many countries, crossing rivers and traversing mountains, and came at
last to a desert place, covered with scowling rocks and hot cinders. The
ground was rent in many places, and through these openings came a hot
air. The monster gently put Paphnutius down on the ground, and said--
And Paphnutius, leaning over the edge of the abyss, saw a river of fire
which flowed in the interior of the earth, between two cliffs of black
rocks. There, in a livid light, the demons tormented the souls of the
damned. The souls preserved the appearance of the bodies which had held
them, and even wore some rags of clothing. These souls seemed peaceful
in the midst of their torments. One of them, tall and white, his eyes
closed, a white fillet across his forehead, and a sceptre in his hand,
sang; his voice filled the desert shores with harmony; he sang of gods
and heroes. Little green devils pierced his lips and throat with red-hot
irons. And the shade of Homer still sang. Near by, old Anaxagoras, bald
and hoary, traced figures in the dust with a compass. A demon poured
boiling oil into his ear, yet failed, however, to disturb the sage's
meditations. And the monk saw many other persons, who, on the dark
shore by the side of the burning river, read, or quietly meditated, or
conversed with other spirits while walking,--like the sages and pupils
under the shadow of the sycamore trees of Academe. Old Timocles alone
had withdrawn from the others, and shook his head like a man who denies.
One of the demons of the abyss shook a torch before his eyes, but
Timocles would see neither the demon nor the torch.
Mute with surprise at this spectacle, Paphnutius turned to the monster.
It had disappeared, and, in place of the sphinx, the monk saw a veiled
woman, who said--
"Look and understand. Such is the obstinacy of these infidels, that,
even in hell, they remain victims of the illusions which deluded them
when on earth. Death has not undeceived them; for it is very plain that
it does not suffice merely to die in order to see God. Those who are
ignorant of the truth whilst living, will be ignorant of it always. The
demons which are busy torturing these souls, what are they but agents of
divine justice? That is why these souls neither see them nor feel them.
They were ignorant of the truth, and therefore unaware of their own
condemnation, and God Himself cannot compel them to suffer.
"God can do all things," said the Abbot of Antinoe.
"He cannot do that which is absurd," replied the veiled woman. "To
punish them, they must first be enlightened, and if they possessed the
truth, they would be like unto the elect."
Vexed and horrified, Paphnutius again bent over the edge of the abyss.
He saw the shade of Nicias smiling, with a wreath of flowers on his
head, sitting under a burnt myrtle tree. By his side was Aspasia of
Miletus, gracefully draped in a woollen cloak, and they seemed to talk
together of love and philosophy; the expression of her face was sweet
and noble. The rain of fire which fell on them was as a refreshing dew,
and their feet pressed the burning soil as though it had been tender
grass. At this sight Paphnutius was filled with fury.
"Strike him, O God! strike him!" he cried. "It is Nicias! Let him weep!
let him groan! let him grind his teeth! He sinned with Thais!"
And Paphnutius woke in the arms of a sailor, as strong as Hercules, who
"Quietly! quietly! my friend! By Proteus, the old shepherd of the seals,
you slumber uneasily. If I had not caught hold of you, you would have
tumbled into the Eunostos. It is as true as that my mother sold salt
fish, that I saved your life."
"I thank God," replied Paphnutius.
And, rising to his feet, he walked straight before him, meditating on
the vision which had come to him whilst he was asleep.
"This vision," he said to himself, "is plainly an evil one; it is an
insult to divine goodness to imagine hell is unreal. The dream certainly
came from the devil."
He reasoned thus because he knew how to distinguish between the dreams
sent by God and those produced by evil angels. Such discernment is
useful to the hermit, who lives surrounded by apparitions, and who,
in avoiding men, is sure to meet with spirits. The deserts are full of
phantoms. When the pilgrims drew near the ruined castle, to which the
holy hermit, Anthony, had retired, they heard a noise like that which
goes up from the public square of a large city at a great festival. The
noise was made by the devils, who were tempting the holy man.
Paphnutius remembered this memorable example. He also called to mind
St. John the Egyptian, who for sixty years was tempted by the devil.
But John saw through all the tricks of the demon. One day, however, the
devil, having assumed the appearance of a man, entered the grotto of the
venerable John, and said to him, "John, you must continue to fast until
to-morrow evening." And John, believing that it was an angel who spoke,
obeyed the voice of the demon, and fasted the next day until the vesper
hour. That was the only victory that the Prince of Darkness ever gained
over St. John the Egyptian, and that was but a trifling one. It was
therefore not astonishing that Paphnutius knew at once that the vision
which had visited him in his sleep was an evil one.
Whilst he was gently remonstrating with God for having given him into
the power of the demons, he felt himself pushed and dragged amidst a
crowd of people who were all hurrying in the same direction. As he was
unaccustomed to walk in the streets of a city, he was shoved and knocked
from one passer to another like an inert mass; and being embarrassed by
the folds of his tunic, he was more than once on the point of falling.
Desirous of knowing where all these people could be going, he asked one
of them the cause of this hurry.
"Do you not know, stranger," replied he, "that the games are about to
begin, and that Thais will appear on the stage? All the citizens are
going to the theatre, and I also am going. Would you like to accompany
It occurred to him at once that it would further his design to see Thais
in the games, and Paphnutius followed the stranger. In front of them
stood the theatre, its portico ornamented with shining masks, and its
huge circular wall covered with innumerable statues. Following the
crowd, they entered a narrow passage, at the end of which lay the
amphitheatre, glittering with light. They took their places on one of
the seats, which descended in steps to the stage, which was empty but
magnificently decorated. There was no curtain to hide the view, and on
the stage was a mound, such as used to be erected in old times to the
shades of heroes. This mound stood in the midst of a camp. Lances were
stacked in front of the tents, and golden shields hung from masts,
amidst boughs of laurel and wreaths of oak. On the stage all was
silence, but a murmur like the humming of bees in a hive rose from the
vast hemicycle filled with spectators. All their faces, reddened by the
reflection from the purple awning which waved above them, turned with
attentive curiosity towards the large, silent stage, with its tomb and
tents. The women laughed and ate lemons, and the regular theatre-goers
called gaily to one another from their seats.
Paphnutius prayed inwardly, and refrained from uttering any vain words,
but his neighbour began to complain of the decline of the drama.
"Formerly," he said, "clever actors used to declaim, under a mask, the
verses of Euripides and Menander. Now they no longer recite dramas, they
act in dumb show; and of the divine spectacles with which Bacchus
was honoured in Athens, we have kept nothing but what a barbarian--a
Scythian even--could understand--attitude and gesture. The tragic mask,
the mouth of which was provided with metal tongues that increased the
sound of the voice; the cothurnus, which raised the actors to the height
of gods; the tragic majesty and the splendid verses that used to be
sung, have all gone. Pantomimists, and dancing girls with bare faces,
have replaced Paulus and Roscius. What would the Athenians of the days
of Pericles have said if they had seen a woman on the stage? It is
indecent for a woman to appear in public. We must be very degenerate to
permit it. It is as certain as that my name is Dorion, that woman is the
natural enemy of man, and a disgrace to human kind."
"You speak wisely," replied Paphnutius; "woman is our worst enemy. She
gives us pleasure, and is to be feared on that account."
"By the immovable gods," cried Dorion, "it is not pleasure that woman
gives to man, but sadness, trouble, and black cares. Love is the cause
of our most biting evils. Listen, stranger. When I was a young man
I visited Troezene, in Argolis, and I saw there a myrtle of a most
prodigious size, the leaves of which were covered with innumerable
pinholes. And this is what the Troezenians say about that myrtle. Queen
Phaedra, when she was in love with Hippolytos, used to recline idly all
day long under this same tree. To beguile the tedium of her weary life
she used to draw out the golden pin which held her fair locks, and
pierce with it the leaves of the sweet-scented bush. All the leaves were
riddled with holes. After she had ruined the poor young man whom
she pursued with her incestuous love, Phaedra, as you know, perished
miserably. She locked herself up in her bridal chamber, and hanged
herself by her golden girdle from an ivory peg. The gods willed that the
myrtle, the witness of her bitter misery, should continue to bear, in
its fresh leaves, the marks of the pin-holes. I picked one of these
leaves, and placed it at the head of my bed, that by the sight of it
I might take warning against the folly of love, and conform to the
doctrine of the divine Epicurus, my master, who taught that all lust is
to be feared. But, properly speaking, love is a disease of the liver,
and one is never sure of not catching the malady."
"Dorion, what are your pleasures?"
Dorion replied sadly--
"I have only one pleasure, and, it must be confessed, that it is not a
very exciting one; it is meditation. When a man has a bad digestion, he
must not look for any others."
Taking advantage of these words, Paphnutius proceeded to initiate the
Epicurean into those spiritual joys which the contemplation of God
procures. He began--
"Hear the truth, Dorion, and receive the light."
But he saw then that all heads were turned towards him, and everybody
was making signs for him to be quiet. Dead silence prevailed in the
theatre, broken at last by the strains of heroic music.
The play began. The soldiers left their tents, and were preparing to
depart, when a prodigy occurred--a cloud covered the summit of the
funeral pile. Then the cloud rolled away, and the ghost of Achilles
appeared, clad in golden armour. Extending his arms towards the
warriors, he seemed to say to them, "What! do you depart, children of
Danaos? do you return to the land I shall never behold again, and leave
my tomb without any offerings?" Already the principal Greek chieftains
pressed to the foot of the pile. Acamas, the son of Theseus, old Nestor,
Agamemnon, bearing a sceptre and with a fillet on his brow, gazed at the
prodigy. Pyrrhus, the young son of Achilles, was prostrate in the dust.
Ulysses, recognisable by the cap which covered his curly hair, showed
by his gestures that he acquiesced in the demand of the hero's shade. He
argued with Agamemnon, and their words might be easily guessed--
"Achilles," said the King of Ithaca, "is worthy to be honoured by us,
for he died gloriously for Hellas. He demands that the daughter of
Priam, the virgin Polyxena, should be immolated on his tomb. Greeks!
appease the manes of the hero, and let the son of Peleus rejoice in
But the king of kings replied--
"Spare the Trojan virgins we have torn from the altars. Sufficient
misfortunes have already fallen on the illustrious race of Priam."
He spoke thus because he shared the couch of the sister of Polyxena, and
the wise Ulysses reproached him for preferring the couch of Cassandra to
the lance of Achilles.
The Greeks showed they shared the opinion of Ulysses, by loudly clashing
their weapons. The death of Polyxena was resolved on, and the appeased
shade of Achilles vanished. The music--sometimes wild and sometimes
plaintive--followed the thoughts of the personages in the drama. The
spectators burst into applause.
Paphnutius, who applied divine truth to everything murmured--
"This fable shows how cruel the worshippers of false gods were."
"All religions breed crimes," replied the Epicurean. "Happily, a
Greek, who was divinely wise, has freed men from foolish terrors of the
Just at that moment, Hecuba, her white hair dishevelled, her robe
tattered, came out of the tent in which she was kept captive. A long
sigh went up from the audience, when her woeful figure appeared. Hecuba
had been warned by a prophetic dream, and lamented her daughter's fate
and her own. Ulysses approached her, and asked her to give up Polyxena.
The old mother tore her hair, dug her nails into her cheeks, and kissed
the hands of the cruel chieftain, who, with unpitying calmness, seemed
"Be wise, Hecuba, and yield to necessity. There are amongst us many old
mothers who weep for their children, now sleeping under the pines of
And Hecuba, formerly queen of the most flourishing city in Asia, and now
a slave, bowed her unhappy head in the dust.
Then the curtain in front of one of the tents was raised, and the virgin
Polyxena appeared. A tremor passed through all the spectators. They had
recognised Thais. Paphnutius saw again the woman he had come to seek.
With her white arm she held above her head the heavy curtain. Motionless
as a splendid statue, she stood, with a look of pride and resignation
in her violet eyes, and her resplendent beauty made a shudder of
commiseration pass through all who beheld her.
A murmur of applause uprose, and Paphnutius, his soul agitated, and
pressing both hands to his heart, sighed--
"Why, O my God, hast thou given this power to one of Thy creatures?"
Dorion was not so disturbed. He said--
"Certainly the atoms, which have momentarily met together to form this
woman, present a combination which is agreeable to the eye. But that is
but a freak of nature, and the atoms know not what they do. They will
some day separate with the same indifference as they came together.
Where are now the atoms which formed Lais or Cleopatra? I must confess
that women are sometimes beautiful. But they are liable to grievous
afflictions, and disgusting inconveniences. That is patent to all
thinking men, though the vulgar pay no attention to it. And women
inspire love, though it is absurd and ridiculous to love them."
Such were the thoughts of the philosopher and the ascetic as they
gazed on Thais. They neither of them noticed Hecuba, who turned to her
daughter, and seemed to say by her gestures--
"Try to soften the cruel Ulysses. Employ your tears, your beauty, and
Thais--or rather Polyxena herself--let fall the curtain of the tent. She
made a step forward, and all hearts were conquered. And when, with firm
but light steps, she advanced towards Ulysses, her rhythmic movements,
which were accompanied by the sound of flutes, created in all present
such happy visions, that it seemed as though she were the divine centre
of all the harmonies of the world. All eyes were bent on her; the other
actors were obscured by her effulgence, and were not noticed. The play
The prudent son of Laertes turned away his head, and hid his hand under
his mantle, in order to avoid the looks and kisses of the suppliant. The
virgin made a sign to him to fear nothing. Her tranquil gaze said--
"I follow you, Ulysses, and bow to necessity--because I wish to die.
Daughter of Priam, and sister of Hector, my couch, which was once worthy
of Kings, shall never receive a foreign master. Freely do I quit the
light of day."
Hecuba, lying motionless in the dust, suddenly rose and enfolded her
daughter in a last despairing embrace. Polyxena gently, but resolutely,
removed the old arms which held her. She seemed to say--
"Do not expose yourself, mother, to the fury of your master. Do not wait
until he drags you ignominiously on the ground in tearing me from your
arms. Better, O well-beloved mother, to give me your wrinkled hand, and
bend your hollow cheeks to my lips."
The face of Thais looked beautiful in its grief. The crowd felt grateful
to her for showing them the forms and passions of life endowed with
superhuman grace, and Paphnutius pardoned her present splendour on
account of her coming humility, and glorified himself in advance for the
saint he was about to give to heaven.
The drama neared its end. Hecuba fell as though dead, and Polyxena, led
by Ulysses, advanced towards the tomb, which was surrounded by the
chief warriors. A dirge was sung as she mounted the funeral pile, on the
summit of which the son of Achilles poured out libations from a gold
cup to the manes of the hero. When the sacrificing priests stretched out
their arms to seize her, she made a sign that she wished to die free and
unbound, as befitted the daughter of so many kings. Then, tearing aside
her robe, she bared her bosom to the blow. Pyrrhus, turning away his
head, plunged his sword into her heart, and by a skilful trick, the
blood gushed forth over the dazzling white breast of the virgin, who,
with head thrown back, and her eyes swimming in the horrors of death,
fell with grace and modesty.
Whilst the warriors enshrouded the victim with a veil, and covered her
with lilies and anemones, terrified screams and groans rent the air, and
Paphnutius, rising from his seat, prophesied in a loud voice.
"Gentiles? vile worshippers of demons! And you Arians more infamous than
the idolaters!--learn! That which you have just seen is an image and a
symbol. There is a mystic meaning in this fable, and very soon the woman
you see there will be offered, a willing and happy sacrifice, to the
But already the crowd was surging in dark waves towards the exits. The
Abbot of Antinoe, escaping from the astonished Dorion, gained the door,
An hour later he knocked at the door of the house of Thais.
The actress then lived in the rich Racotis quarter, near the tomb of
Alexander, in a house surrounded by shady gardens, in which a brook,
bordered with poplars, flowed amidst artificial rocks. An old black
slave woman, loaded with rings, opened the door, and asked what he
"I wish to see Thais," he replied. "God is my witness that I came here
for no other purpose."
As he wore a rich tunic, and spoke in an imperious manner, the slave
allowed him to enter.
"You will find Thais," she said, "in the Grotto of Nymphs."
PART THE SECOND -- THE PAPYRUS
Thais was born of free, but poor, parents, who were idolaters. When she
was a very little girl, her father kept, at Alexandria, near the Gate
of the Moon, an inn, which was frequented by sailors. She still
retained some vivid, but disconnected, memories of her early youth. She
remembered her father, seated at the corner of the hearth with his legs
crossed--tall, formidable, and quiet, like one of those old Pharaohs who
are celebrated in the ballads sung by blind men at the street corners.
She remembered also her thin, wretched mother, wandering like a hungry
cat about the house, which she filled with the tones of her sharp
voice, and the glitter of her phosphorescent eyes. They said in the
neighbourhood that she was a witch, and changed into an owl at night,
and flew to see her lovers. It was a lie. Thais knew well, having often
watched her, that her mother practised no magic arts, but that she was
eaten up with avarice, and counted all night the gains of the day. The
idle father and the greedy mother let the child live as best it could,
like one of the fowls in the poultry-yard. She became very clever in
extracting, one by one, the oboli from the belt of some drunken sailor,
and in amusing the drinkers with artless songs and obscene words, the
meaning of which she did not know. She passed from knee to knee, in a
room reeking with the odours of fermented drinks and resiny wine-skins;
then, her cheeks sticky with beer and pricked by rough beards, she
escaped, clutching the oboli in her little hand, and ran to buy
honey-cakes from an old woman who crouched behind her baskets under the
Gate of the Moon. Every day the same scenes were repeated, the
sailors relating their perilous adventures, then playing at dice or
knuckle-bones, and blaspheming the gods, amid their shouting for the
best beer of Cilicia.
Every night the child was awakened by the quarrels of the drunkards.
Oyster-shells would fly across the tables, cutting the heads of those
they hit, and the uproar was terrible. Sometimes she saw, by the light
of the smoky lamps, the knives glitter, and the blood flow.
It humiliated her to think that the only person who showed her any human
kindness in her young days was the mild and gentle Ahmes. Ahmes, the
house-slave, a Nubian blacker than the pot he gravely skimmed, was as
good as a long night's sleep. Often he would take Thais on his knee,
and tell her old tales about underground treasure-houses constructed for
avaricious kings, who put to death the masons and architects. There
were also tales about clever thieves who married kings' daughters, and
courtesans who built pyramids. Little Thais loved Ahmes like a father,
like a mother, like a nurse, and like a dog. She followed the slave into
the cellar when he went to fill the amphorae, and into the poultry-yard
amongst the scraggy and ragged fowls, all beak, claws, and feathers, who
flew swifter than eagles before the knife of the black cook. Often at
night, on the straw, instead of sleeping, he built for Thais little
water-mills, and ships no bigger than his hand, with all their rigging.
He had been badly treated by his masters; one of his ears was torn,
and his body covered with scars. Yet his features always wore an air of
joyous peace. And no one ever asked him whence he drew the consolation
in his soul, and the peace in his heart. He was as simple as a child.
As he performed his heavy tasks, he sang, in a harsh voice, hymns which
made the child tremble and dream. He murmured, in a gravely joyous
"Tell us, Mary, what thou hast seen where thou hast been?
I saw the shroud and the linen cloths, and the angels
seated on the tomb.
And I saw the glory of the Risen One."
She asked him--
"Father, why do you sing about angels seated on a tomb?"
And he replied--
"Little light of my eyes, I sing of the angels because Jesus, our Lord,
is risen to heaven."
Ahmes was a Christian. He had been baptised, and was known as Theodore
at the meetings of the faithful, to which he went secretly during the
hours allowed him for sleep.
At that time the Church was suffering the severest trials. By order of
the Emperor, the churches had been thrown down, the holy books burned,
the sacred vessels and candlesticks melted. The Christians had been
deprived of all their honours, and expected nothing but death. Terror
reigned over all the community at Alexandria, and the prisons were
crammed with victims. It was whispered with horror amongst the faithful,
that in Syria, in Arabia, in Mesopotamia, in Cappadocia, in all the
empire, bishops and virgins had been flogged, tortured, crucified or
thrown to wild beasts. Then Anthony, already celebrated for his visions
and his solitary life, a prophet, and the head of all the Egyptian
believers, descended like an eagle from his desert rock on the city of
Alexandria, and, flying from church to church, fired the whole community
with his holy ardour. Invisible to the pagans, he was present at the
same time at all the meetings of Christians, endowing all with the
spirit of strength and prudence by which he was animated. Slaves, in
particular, were persecuted with singular severity. Many of them, seized
with fright, denied the faith. Others, and by far the greater number,
fled to the desert, hoping to live there, either as hermits or robbers.
Ahmes, however, frequented the meetings as usual, visited the prisoners,
buried the martyrs, and joyfully professed the religion of Christ. The
great Anthony, who saw his unshaken zeal, before he returned into the
desert, pressed the black slave in his arms, and gave him the kiss of
When Thais was seven years old, Ahmes began to talk to her of God.
"The good Lord God," he said, "lived in heaven like a Pharaoh, under
the tents of His harem, and under the trees of His gardens. He was the
Ancient of Ancients, and older than the world; and He had but one Son,
the Prince Jesus, whom He loved with all His heart, and who surpassed in
beauty the virgins and the angels. And the good Lord God said to Prince
"'Leave My harem and My palace, and My date trees and My running
waters. Descend to earth for the welfare of men. There Thou shalt
be like a little child, and Thou shalt live poor amongst the poor.
Suffering shall be Thy daily bread, and Thou shalt weep so profusely
that Thy tears shall form rivers, in which the tired slave shall bathe
with delight. Go, My Son!'
"Prince Jesus obeyed the good Lord, and He came down to earth, to a
place named Bethlehem of Judaea. And He walked in fields, amidst the
flowering anemones, saying to His companion--
"'Blessed are they who hunger, for I will lead them to My Father's
table! Blessed are they who thirst, for they shall drink of the
fountains of heaven! Blessed are they who weep, for I will dry their
tears with veils finer than those of the almehs!'
"That is why the poor loved Him, and believed in Him. But the rich hated
Him; fearing that He should raise the poor above them. At that time,
Cleopatra and Caesar were powerful on the earth. They both hated Jesus,
and they ordered the judges and priests to put Him to death. To obey the
Queen of Egypt, the princes of Syria erected a cross on a high mountain,
and they caused Jesus to die on this cross. But women washed His corpse,
and buried it; and Prince Jesus, having broken the door of His tomb,
rose again to the good Lord, His Father.
"And, from that time, all those who believed in Him go to heaven.
"The Lord God opens His arms, and says to them--
"'Ye are welcome, because ye love the Prince, My Son. Wash, and then
"They bathe to the sound of beautiful music, and, all the time they are
eating, they see almehs dancing, and they listen to tales that never
end. They are dearer to the good Lord God than the light of His eyes,
because they are His guests, and they shall have for their portion the
carpets of His house, and the pomegranates of His gardens."
Ahmes often spoke in this strain, and thus taught the truth to Thais.
She wondered, and said--
"I should like to eat the pomegranates of the good Lord."
"Only those who are baptised may taste the fruits of heaven."
And Thais asked to be baptised. Seeing by this that she believed in
Jesus, the slave resolved to instruct her more fully, so that, being
baptised, she might enter the Church; and he loved her as his spiritual
The child, unloved and uncared for by its selfish parents, had no bed
in the house. She slept in a corner of the stable amongst the domestic
animals, and there Ahmes came to her every night secretly.
He gently approached the mat on which she lay, and sat down on his
heels, his legs bent and his body straight--a position hereditary to his
race. His face and his body, which was clothed in black, were invisible
in the darkness; but his big white eyes shone out, and there came from
them a light like a ray of dawn through the chinks of a door. He spoke
in a husky, monotonous tone, with a slight nasal twang that gave it
the soft melody of music heard at night in the streets. Sometimes the
breathing of an ass, or the soft lowing of an ox, accompanied, like a
chorus of invisible spirits, the voice of the slave as he recited the
gospels. His words flowed gently in the darkness, which they filled
with zeal, mercy, and hope; and the neophyte, her hand in that of Ahmes,
lulled by the monotonous sounds, and the vague visions in her mind,
slept calm and smiling, amid the harmonies of the dark night and the
holy mysteries, gazed down on by a star, which twinkled between the
joists of the stable-roof.
The initiation lasted a whole year, till the time when the Christians
joyfully celebrate the festival of Easter. One night in the holy week,
Thais, who was already asleep on her mat, felt herself lifted by the
slave, whose eyes gleamed with a strange light. He was clad, not as
usual in a pair of torn drawers, but in a long white cloak, beneath
which he pressed the child, whispering to her--
"Come, my soul! Come, light of my eyes! Come, little sweetheart! Come
and be clad in the baptismal robes!"
He carried the child pressed to his breast. Frightened and yet curious,
Thais, her head out of the cloak, threw her arms round her friend's
neck, and he ran with her through the darkness. They went down narrow,
black alleys; they passed through the Jews' quarter; they skirted a
cemetery, where the osprey uttered its dismal cry; they traversed an
open space, passing under crosses on which hung the bodies of victims,
and on the arms of the crosses the ravens clacked their beaks. Thais
hid her head in the slave's breast. She did not dare to peep out all
the rest of the way. Soon it seemed to her that she was going down under
ground. When she reopened her eyes she found herself in a narrow cave,
lighted by resin torches, on the walls of which were painted standing
figures, which seemed to move and live in the flickering glare of the
torches. They were men clad in long tunics and carrying branches of
palm, and around them were lambs, doves, and tendrils of vine.
Amongst these figures, Thais recognised Jesus of Nazareth, by the
anemones flowering at his feet. In the centre of the cave, near a
large stone font filled with water, stood an old man clad in a scarlet
dalmatic embroidered with gold, and on his head a low mitre. His thin
face ended in a long beard. He looked gentle and humble, in spite of
his rich costume. This was Bishop Vivantius, an exiled dignitary of the
Church of Cyrene, who now gained his livelihood by weaving common stuffs
of goats' hair. Two poor children stood by his side. Close by, an old
negress unfolded a little white robe. Ahmes set the child down on the
ground, and kneeling before the Bishop, said--
"Father, this is the little soul, the child of my soul. I have brought
her that you may, according to your promise, and if it please your
holiness, bestow on her the baptism of life."
At these words the Bishop opened his arms, and showed his mutilated
hands. His nails had been torn out because he had maintained the faith
in the days of persecution. Thais was frightened, and threw herself into
the arms of Ahmes. But the kind words of the priest reassured her.
"Fear nothing, dearly beloved little one. Thou hast here a spiritual
father, Ahmes, who is called Theodore amongst the faithful, and a kind
mother in grace, who has prepared for thee, with her own hands, a white
And turning towards the negress--
"She is called Nitida," he added, "and is a slave in this world, but in
heaven she will be a spouse of Jesus."
Then he said to the child neophyte--
"Thais, dost thou believe in God, the Father Almighty; and in His only
Son, who died for our salvation; and in all that the apostles taught?"
"Yes," replied together the negro and negress, who held her by each
By the Bishop's orders, Nitida knelt down and undressed Thais. The child
was quite naked; round her neck was an amulet. The Pontiff plunged her
three times into the baptismal font. The acolytes brought the oil, with
which Vivantius anointed the catechumen, and the salt, a morsel of
which he placed on her tongue. Then, having dried that body which was
destined, after many trials, to life immortal, the slave Nitida put on
Thais the white robe she had woven.
The Bishop gave to each and all the kiss of peace, and, the ceremony
being terminated, took off his sacerdotal insignia.
When they had left the crypt, Ahmes said--
"We ought to rejoice that we have this day brought a soul to the good
Lord God; let us go to the house of your Holiness and spend the rest of
the night in rejoicing."
"Thou hast well said, Theodore," replied the Bishop, and he led the
little band to his house, which was quite near. It consisted of a single
room, furnished with a couple of looms, a heavy table, and a worn-out
carpet. As soon as they had entered,
"Nitida," cried the Nubian, "bring hither the stove and the jar of oil,
and we will have a good supper."
Saying thus, he drew from under his cloak some little fish which he had
kept concealed, and lighted a fire and fried them. The Bishop, the girl,
the two boys, and the two slaves sat in a ring on the carpet, ate the
fried fish, and blessed the Lord. Vivantius spoke of the torture he had
undergone, and prophesied the speedy triumph of the Church. His language
was grotesque, and full of word-play and rhetorical tropes. He compared
the life of the just to a tissue of purple, and to explain the mystery
of baptism, he said--
"The Divine Spirit floated on the waters, and that is why Christians
receive the baptism of water. But demons also inhabit the brooks;
springs consecrated to nymphs are especially dangerous, and there are
certain waters which cause various maladies, both of the soul and of the
Sometimes he spoke enigmatically, and the child listened to him with
profound awe and wonder. At the end of the repast he offered his guests
a little wine, and this unloosed their tongues, and they began to sing
lamentations and hymns. Ahmes and Nitida then rose, and danced a Nubian
dance which they had learned as children, and which, no doubt, had been
danced by their tribe since the early ages of the world. It was a love
dance; waving their arms, and moving their bodies in rhythmic measure,
they feigned, in turn, to fly from and to pursue each other. Their big
eyes rolled, and they showed their gleaming teeth in broad grins.
In this strange manner did Thais receive the holy rite of baptism.
She loved amusements, and, as she grew, vague desires were created in
her mind. All day long she danced and sang with the children in the
streets, and when at night she returned to her father's house, she was
"Crooked twist, why do you stay in the house? I comb the wool, and the
Miletan threads. Crooked twist, what did your son die of? He fell from
the white horses into the sea."
She now began to prefer the company of boys and girls to that of the
gentle and quiet Ahmes. She did not notice that her friend was not so
often with her. The persecution having relented, the Christians were
able to assemble more regularly, and the Nubian frequented these
meetings assiduously. His zeal increased, and he sometimes uttered
mysterious threats. He said that the rich would not keep their wealth.
He went to the public places to which the poorer Christians used to
resort, and assembling together all the poor wretches who were lying in
the shade of the old walls, he announced to them that all slaves would
soon be free, and that the day of justice was at hand.
"In the kingdom of God," he said, "the slaves will drink new wine and
eat delicious fruits; whilst the rich, crouching at their feet like
dogs, will devour the crumbs from their table."
These sayings were noised abroad through all that quarter of the city,
and the masters feared that Ahmes might incite the slaves to revolt.
The innkeeper hated him intensely, though he carefully concealed his
One day, a silver salt-cellar, reserved for the table of the gods,
disappeared from the inn. Ahmes was accused of having stolen it--out of
hate to his master and to the gods of the empire. There was no proof
of the accusation, and the slave vehemently denied the charge.
Nevertheless, he was dragged before the tribunal, and as he had the
reputation of being a bad servant, the judge condemned him to death.
"As you did not know how to make a good use of your hands," he said,
"they will be nailed to the cross."
Ahmes heard the verdict quietly, bowed to the judge most respectfully,
and was taken to the public prison. During the three days that remained
to him, he did not cease to preach the gospel to the prisoners, and
it was related afterwards that the criminals, and the gaoler himself,
touched by his words, believed in Jesus crucified.
He was taken to the very place which one night, less than two years
before, he had crossed so joyfully, carrying in his cloak little Thais,
the daughter of his soul, his darling flower. When his hands were nailed
to the cross, he uttered no complaint, but many times he sighed and
murmured, "I thirst."
His agony lasted three days and three nights. It seemed hardly possible
that human flesh could have endured such prolonged torture. Many times
it was thought he was dead; the flies clustered on his eyelids, but
suddenly he would reopen his bloodshot eyes. On the morning of the
fourth day, he sang, in a voice clearer and purer than that of a child--
"Tell us, Mary, what thou hast seen where thou hast been?"
Then he smiled and said--
"They come, the angels of the good Lord. They bring me wine and fruit.
How refreshing is the fanning of their wings!"
And he expired.
His features preserved in death an expression of ecstatic happiness.
Even the soldiers who guarded the cross were struck with wonder.
Vivantius, accompanied by some of the Christian brethren, claimed the
body, and buried it with the remains of the other martyrs in the crypt
of St. John the Baptist, and the Church venerated the memory of Saint
Theodore the Nubian.
Three years later, Constantine, the conquerer of Maxentius, issued an
edict which granted toleration to the Christians, and the believers were
not henceforth persecuted, except by heretics.
Thais had completed her eleventh year when her friend was tortured
to death, and she felt deeply saddened and shocked. Her soul was not
sufficiently pure to allow her to understand that the slave Ahmes was
blessed both in his life and his death. The idea sprang up in her little
mind that no one can be good in this world except at the cost of
the most terrible sufferings. And she was afraid to be good, for her
delicate flesh could not bear pain.
At an early age, she had given herself to the lads about the port, and
she followed the old men who wandered about the quarter in the evening,
and with what she received from them she bought cakes and trinkets.
As she did not take home any of the money she gained, her mother
continually ill-treated her. To get out of reach of her mother's arm,
she often ran, bare-footed, to the city walls, and hid with the lizards.
There she thought with envy of the ladies she had seen pass her, richly
dressed, and in a litter surrounded by slaves.
One day, when she had been beaten more brutally than usual, she was
crouching down beside the gate, motionless and sulky, when an old woman
stopped in front of her, looked at her for some moments in silence, and
"Oh, the pretty flower! the beautiful child! Happy is the father who
begot thee, and the mother who brought thee into the world!"
Thais remained silent, with her eyes fixed on the ground. Her eyelids
were red, and it was evident she had been weeping.
"My white violet," continued the old woman, "is not your mother happy to
have nourished a little goddess like you, and does not your father, when
he sees you, rejoice from the bottom of his heart?"
To which the child replied, as though talking to herself--
"My father is a wine-skin swollen with wine, and my mother a greedy
The old woman glanced to right and left, to see if she were observed.
Then, in a fawning voice--
"Sweet flowering hyacinth, beautiful drinker of light, come with me,
and you shall have nothing to do but dance and smile. I will feed you on
honey cakes, and my son--my own son--will love you as his eyes. My son
is handsome and young; he has but little beard on his chin; his skin is
soft, and he is, as they say, a little Acharnian pig."
"I am quite willing to go with you."
And she rose and followed the old woman out of the city.
The old woman, who was named Moeroe, went from city to city with a
troupe of girls and boys, whom she taught to dance, and then hired out
to rich people to appear at feasts.
Guessing that Thais would soon develop into a most beautiful woman, she
taught her--with the help of a whip--music and prosody, and she flogged
with leather thongs those beautiful legs, when they did not move in time
to the strains of the cithara. Her son--a decrepit abortion, of no age
and no sex--ill-treated the child, on whom he vented the hate he had for
all womankind. Like the dancing-girls whose grace he affected, he knew,
and taught Thais, the art of pantomime, and how to mimic, by expression,
gesture, and attitude, all human passions, and more especially the
passions of love. He was a clever master, though he disliked his work;
but he was jealous of his pupil, and as soon as he discovered that she
was born to give men pleasure, he scratched her cheeks, pinched her
arms, or pricked her legs, as a spiteful girl would have done. Thanks,
however, to his lessons, she quickly became an excellent musician,
pantomimist, and dancer. The brutality of her master did not at all
surprise her; it seemed natural to her to be badly treated. She even
felt some respect for the old woman, who knew music and drank Greek
wine. Moeroe, when she came to Antioch, praised her pupil to the
rich merchants of the city who gave banquets, both as a dancer and
a flute-player. Thais danced and pleased. She accompanied the rich
bankers, when they left the table, into the shady groves on the banks of
the Orontes. She gave herself to all, for she knew nothing of the price
of love. But one night that she had danced before the most fashionable
young men of the city, the son of the pro-consul came to her, radiant
with youth and pleasure, and said, in a voice that seemed redolent of
"Why am I not, Thais, the wreath which crowns your hair, the tunic which
enfolds your beautiful form, the sandal on your pretty foot? I wish you
to tread me under foot as a sandal; I wish my caresses to be your tunic
and your wreath. Come, sweet girl! come to my house, and let us forget
She looked at him whilst he was speaking, and saw that he was handsome.
Suddenly she felt a cold sweat on her face. She turned green as grass;
she reeled; a cloud descended before her eyes. He again implored her to
come with him, but she refused. His ardent looks, his burning words were
vain, and when he took her in his arms to try and drag her away, she
pushed him off rudely. Then he implored her, and shed tears. But a
new, unknown, and invincible passion dominated her heart, and she still
"What madness!" said the guests. "Lollius is noble, handsome, and rich,
and a dancing-girl treats him with scorn!"
Lollius returned home alone that night, quite love-sick. He came in the
morning, pale and red-eyed, and hung flowers at the dancing-girl's door.
But Thais was frightened and troubled; she avoided Lollius, and yet
he was continually in her mind. She suffered, and she did not know the
cause of her complaint. She wondered why she had thus changed, and why
she was melancholy. She recoiled from all her lovers; they were hateful
to her. She loathed the light of day, and lay on her bed all day,
sobbing, and with her head buried in the pillows. Lollius contrived to
gain admittance, and came many times, but neither his pleadings nor his
execrations had any effect on the obdurate girl. In his presence, she
was as timid as a virgin, and would say nothing but--
"I will not! I will not!"
But at the end of a fortnight she gave in, for she knew that she loved
him; she went to his house and lived with him. They were supremely
happy. They passed their days shut up together, gazing into each other's
eyes, and babbling a childish jargon. In the evening, they walked on the
lonely banks of the Orontes, and lost themselves in the laurel woods.
Sometimes they rose at dawn, to go and gather hyacinths on the slopes of
Sulpicus. They drank from the same cup, and he would take a grape from
between her lips with his mouth.
Moeroe came to Lollius, and cried and shrieked that Thais should be
restored to her.
"She is my daughter," she said, "my daughter, who has been torn from me.
My perfumed flower--my own bowels--!"
Lollius gave her a large sum of money, and sent her away. But, as she
came back to demand some more gold staters, the young man had her put
in prison, and the magistrates having discovered that she was guilty of
many crimes, she was condemned to death, and thrown to the wild beasts.
Thais loved Lollius with all the passion of her mind, and the
bewilderment of innocence. She told him, and told him truly from the
bottom of her heart--
"I have never loved any one but you."
"You are not like any other woman."
The spell lasted six months, but it broke at last. Thais suddenly felt
that her heart was empty and lonely. Lollius no longer seemed the same
to her. She thought--
"What can have thus changed me in an instant? How is it that he is now
like any other man, and no longer like himself?"
She left him, not without a secret desire to find Lollius again in
another, as she no longer found him in himself. She thought it would be
less dull to live with someone she had never loved, than with one she
had ceased to love. She appeared, in the company of rich debauchees, at
those sacred feasts at which naked virgins danced in the temples, and
troops of courtesans swam across the Orontes. She took part in all the
pleasures of the fashionable and depraved city; and she assiduously
frequented the theatres, at which clever mimes from all countries
performed amidst the applause of a crowd greedy for excitement.
She carefully observed the mimes, dancers, comedians, and especially the
women, who in tragedies represented goddesses in love with young men, or
mortals loved by the gods. Having discovered the secrets by which they
pleased the audience, she thought to herself that she was more beautiful
and could act better. She went to the manager, and asked to be admitted
into the troupe. Thanks to her beauty, and to the lessons she had
received from old Moeroe, she was received, and appeared on the stage in
the part of Dirce.
She met with but indifferent success, for she was inexperienced, and the
admiration of the spectators had not been aroused by hearing her praises
sung. But after she had played small parts for a few months, the power
of her beauty burst forth with such effect that all the city was moved.
All Antioch crowded to the theatre. The imperial magistrates and the
chief citizens were compelled, by the force of public opinion, to show
themselves there. The porters, sweepers, and dock labourers went without
bread and garlic, that they might pay for their places. Poets composed
epigrams in her honour. Bearded philosophers inveighed against her in
the baths and gymnasia; when her litter passed, Christian priests turned
away their heads. The threshold of her door was wreathed with flowers,
and sprinkled with blood. She received so much money from her lovers
that it was no longer counted, but measured by the medimnus, and all the
treasure hoarded by miserly old men was poured out at her feet. But
she was placid and unmoved. She rejoiced, with quiet pride, in the
admiration of the public and the favour of the gods, and was so much
loved that she loved herself.
After she had several years enjoyed the admiration and affection of the
Antiochians, she was taken with a desire to revisit Alexandria, and show
her glory in that city in which, as a child, she had wandered in want
and shame, hungry and lean as a grasshopper in the middle of a dusty
road. The golden city joyfully welcomed her, and loaded her with fresh
riches; when she appeared in the games it was a triumph. Countless
admirers and lovers came to her. She received them with indifference,
for she at last despaired of meeting another Lollius.
Amongst many others, she met the philosopher Nicias, who desired to
possess her, although he professed to have no desires. In spite of
his riches, he was intelligent and modest. But his delicate wit and
beautiful sentiments failed to charm her. She did not love him and
sometimes his refined irony even irritated her. His perpetual doubts
hurt her, for he believed in nothing, and she believed in everything.
She believed in divine providence, in the omnipotence of evil spirits,
in spells, exorcisms, and eternal justice; she believed in Jesus Christ,
and in the goddess of good of the Syrians; she believed also that
bitches barked when black Hecate passed through the streets, and that a
woman could inspire love by pouring a philtre into a cup wrapped in the
bleeding skin of a sheep. She thirsted for the unknown; she called on
nameless gods, and lived in perpetual expectation. The future frightened
her, and yet she wished to know it. She surrounded herself with priests
of Isis, Chaldean magi, pharmacopolists, and professors of the black
arts, who invariably deceived her, though she never tired of being
deceived. She feared death, and she saw it everywhere. When she yielded
to pleasure, it seemed to her that an icy finger would suddenly touch
her on the bare shoulder, and she turned pale, and cried with terror, in
the arms which embraced her.
Nicias said to her--
"What does it matter, O my Thais, whether we descend to eternal night
with white locks and hollow cheeks, or, whether this very day, now
laughing to the vast sky, shall be our last? Let us enjoy life; we
shall have greatly lived if we have greatly loved. There is no knowledge
except that of the senses; to love is to understand. That which we
do not know does not exist. What good is it to worry ourselves about
She replied angrily--
"I despise men like you, who hope for nothing and fear nothing. I wish
to know! I wish to know!"
In order to understand the secret of life, she set to work to read the
books of the philosophers, but she did not understand them. The further
the years of her childhood receded from her, the more anxious she was
to recall them. She loved to traverse at night, in disguise, the alleys,
squares, and places where she had grown up so miserably. She was sorry
she had lost her parents, and especially that she had not been able
to love them. When she met any Christian priest, she thought of her
baptism, and felt troubled. One night, when enveloped in a long
cloak, and her fair hair hidden under a black hood, she was wandering,
according to custom, about the suburbs of the city, she found
herself--without knowing how she came there--before the poor little
church of St. John the Baptist. They were singing inside the church,
and a bright light glimmered through the chinks of the door. There was
nothing strange in that, as, for the past twenty years, the Christians,
protected by the conqueror of Maxentius, had publicly solemnised their
festivals. But these hymns seemed more like an ardent appeal to the
soul. As if she had been invited to the mysteries, she pushed the
door open with her arm, and entered the building. She found a numerous
assembly of women, children, and old men, on their knees before a tomb,
which stood against the wall. The tomb was nothing but a stone coffer,
roughly sculptured with vine tendrils and bunches of grapes; yet it had
received great honours, and was covered with green palms and wreaths
of red roses. All round, innumerable lights gleamed out of the heavy
shadow, in which the smoke of Arabian gums seemed like the folds of
angels' robes, and the paintings on the walls visions of Paradise.
Priests, clad in white, were prostrate at the foot of the sarcophagus.
The hymns they sang with the people expressed the delight of suffering,
and mingled, in a triumphal mourning, so much joy with so much grief,
that Thais, in listening to them, felt the pleasures of life and the
terrors of death flowing, at the same time, through her re-awakened
When they had finished singing, the believers rose, and walked in single
file to the tomb, the side of which they kissed. They were common men,
accustomed to work with their hands. They advanced with a heavy step,
the eyes fixed, the jaw dropped, but they had an air of sincerity. They
knelt down, each in turn, before the sarcophagus, and put their lips
to it. The women lifted their little children in their arms, and gently
placed their cheek to the stone.
Thais, surprised and troubled, asked a deacon why they did so.
"Do you not know, woman," replied the deacon, "that we celebrate to-day
the blessed memory of St. Theodore the Nubian, who suffered for the
faith in the days of the Emperor Diocletian? He lived virtuously and
died a martyr, and that is why, robed in white, we bear red roses to his
On hearing these words, Thais fell on her knees, and burst into tears.
Half-forgotten recollections of Ahmes returned to her mind. On the
memory of this obscure, gentle, and unfortunate man, the blaze of
candles, the perfume of roses, the clouds of incense, the music of
hymns, the piety of souls, threw all the charms of glory. Thais thought
in the dazzling glare--
"He was good, and now he has become great and glorious. Why is it that
he is elevated above other men? What is this unknown thing which is more
than riches or pleasure?"
She rose slowly, and turned towards the tomb of the saint who had loved
her, those violet eyes, now filled with tears which glittered in the
candle-light; then, with bowed head, humble, slow, and the last, with
those lips on which so many desires hung, she kissed the stone of the
When she returned to her house, she found Nicias, who, with his hair
perfumed, and his tunic thrown open, was reading a treatise on morals
whilst waiting for her. He advanced with open arms.
"Naughty Thais," he said, in a laughing voice, "whilst I was waiting for
you to come, do you know what I saw in this manuscript, written by the
gravest of Stoics? Precepts of virtue and noble maxims: No! On the staid
papyrus, I saw dance thousands and thousands of little Thaises. Each was
no bigger than my finger, and yet their grace was infinite, and all were
the only Thais. There were some who flaunted in mantles of purple and
gold; others, like a white cloud, floated in the air in transparent
drapery. Others again, motionless and divinely nude, the better to
inspire pleasure, expressed no thought. Lastly, there were two, hand in
hand; two so alike that it was impossible to distinguish one from
the other. Both smiled. The first said, 'I am love.' The other, 'I am
Thus speaking, he pressed Thais in his arms, and not noticing the
sullen look in her downcast eyes, he went on adding thought to thought,
heedless of the fact that they were all lost upon her.
"Yes, when I had before my eyes the line in which it was written,
'Nothing should deter you from improving your mind,' I read, 'The kisses
of Thais are warmer than fire, and sweeter than honey.' That is how
a philosopher reads the books of other philosophers--and that is your
fault, you naughty child. It is true that, as long as we are what we
are, we shall never find anything but our own thoughts in the thoughts
of others, and that all of us are somewhat inclined to read books as I
have read this one."
She did not hear him; her soul was still before the Nubian's tomb. As he
heard her sigh, he kissed her on the neck, and said--
"Do not be sad, my child. We are never happy in this world, except when
we forget the world.
"Come, let us cheat life--it is sure to take its revenge. Come, let us
But she pushed him away.
""We" love!" she cried bitterly. ""You" never loved any one. And "I"
do not love "you"! No! I do not love you! I hate you! Go! I hate you!
I curse and despise all who are happy, and all who are rich! Go! Go!
Goodness is only found amongst the unfortunate. When I was a child I
knew a black slave who died on the cross. He was good; he was filled
with love, and he knew the secret of life. You are not worthy to wash
his feet. Go! I never wish to see you again!"
She threw herself on her face on the carpet, and passed the night
sobbing and weeping, and forming resolutions to live, in future, like
Saint Theodore, in poverty and humbleness.
The next day, she devoted herself again to those pleasures to which she
was addicted. As she knew that her beauty, though still intact, would
not last very long, she hastened to derive all the enjoyment and all the
fame she could from it. At the theatre, where she acted and studied more
than ever, she gave life to the imagination of sculptors, painters, and
poets. Recognising that there was in the attitudes, movements, and walk
of the actress, an idea of the divine harmony which rules the spheres,
wise men and philosophers considered that such perfect grace was
a virtue in itself, and said, "Thais also is a geometrician!" The
ignorant, the poor, the humble, and the timid before whom she consented
to appear, regarded her as a blessing from heaven. Yet she was sad
amidst all the praise she received, and dreaded death more than ever.
Nothing was able to set her mind at rest, not even her house and
gardens, which were celebrated, and a proverb throughout the city.
The gardens were planted with trees, brought at great expense from India
and Persia. They were watered by a running brook, and colonnades in
ruins, and imitation rocks, arranged by a skilful artist, were reflected
in a lake, which also mirrored the statues that stood round it. In the
middle of the garden was the Grotto of Nymphs, which owed its name to
three life-size figures of women, which stood on the threshold. They
were represented as divesting themselves of their garments, and about to
bathe. They anxiously turned their heads, fearing to be seen, and looked
as though they were alive. The only light which entered the building
came, tempered and iridescent, through thin sheets of water. All the
walls were hung--as in the sacred grottoes--with wreaths, garlands, and
votive pictures, in which the beauty of Thais was celebrated. There
were also tragic and comic masks, bright with colours; and paintings
representing theatrical scenes or grotesque figures, or fabulous
animals. On a stele in the centre stood a little ivory Eros of wonderful
antique workmanship. It was a gift from Nicias. In one of the bays was a
figure of a goat in black marble, with shining agate eyes. Six alabaster
kids crowded round its teats; but, raising its cloven hoofs and its ugly
head, it seemed impatient to climb the rocks. The floor was covered with
Byzantine carpets, pillows embroidered by the yellow men of Cathay, and
the skins of Libyan lions. Perfumed smoke arose from golden censers.
Flowering plants grew in large onyx vases. And at the far end, in the
purple shadow, gleamed the gold nails on the shell of a huge Indian
tortoise turned upside down, which served as the bed of the actress. It
was here that every day, to the murmur of the water, and amid perfumes
and flowers, Thais reclined softly, and conversed with her friends,
while awaiting the hour of supper, or meditated in solitude on
theatrical art, or on the flight of years.
On the afternoon after the games, Thais was reposing in the Grotto of
Nymphs. She had noticed in her mirror the first signs of the decay of
her beauty, and she was frightened to think that white hair and wrinkles
would at last come. She vainly tried to comfort herself with the
assurance that she could recover her fresh complexion by burning certain
herbs and pronouncing a few magic words. A pitiless voice cried, "You
will grow old Thais; you will grow old." And a cold sweat of terror
bedewed her forehead. Then, on looking at herself again in the mirror
with infinite tenderness, she found that she was still beautiful and
worthy to be loved. She smiled to herself, and murmured, "There is not a
woman in Alexandria who can rival me in suppleness or grace or movement,
or in splendour of arms, and the arms, my mirror, are the real chains of
While she was thus thinking she saw an unknown man--thin, with burning
eyes and unkempt beard, and clad in a richly embroidered robe--standing
before her. She let fall her mirror, and uttered a cry of fright.
Paphnutius stood motionless, and seeing how beautiful she was, he
murmured this prayer from the bottom of his heart--
"Grant, my God, that the face of this woman may not be a temptation, but
may prove salutary to Thy servant."
Then, forcing himself to speak, he said--
"Thais, I live in a far country, and the fame of thy beauty has led me
to thee. It is said that thou art the most clever of actresses and the
most irresistible of women. That which is related of thy riches and thy
love affairs seems fabulous, and calls to mind the old story of Rhodope,
whose marvellous history is known by heart to all the boatmen on the
Nile. Therefore I was seized with a desire to know thee, and I see that
the truth surpasses the rumour. Thou art a thousand times more clever
and more beautiful than is reported. And now that I see thee, I say
to myself, 'It is impossible to approach her without staggering like a
The words were feigned; but the monk, animated by pious zeal, uttered
them with real warmth. Thais gazed, without displeasure, at this strange
being who had frightened her. The rough, wild aspect, and the fiery
glances of his eyes, astonished her. She was curious to learn the state
of life of a man so different from all others she had met. She replied,
with gentle raillery--
"You seem prompt to admire, stranger. Beware that my looks do not
consume you to the bones! Beware of loving me!"
"I love thee, O Thais! I love thee more than my life, and more than
myself. For thee I have quitted the desert; for thee my lips--vowed
to silence--have pronounced profane words; for thee I have seen what I
ought not to have seen, and heard what it was forbidden to me to hear;
for thee my soul is troubled, my heart is open, and the thoughts gush
out like the running springs at which the pigeons drink; for thee I
have walked day and night across sandy deserts teeming with reptiles and
vampires; for thee I have placed my bare foot on vipers and scorpions!
Yes, I love thee! I love thee, but not like those men who, burning with
the lusts of the flesh, come to thee like devouring wolves or furious
bulls. Thou art dear to them as is the gazelle to the lion. Their
ravening lusts will consume thee to the soul, O woman! I love thee in
spirit and in truth; I love thee in God, and for ever and ever; that
which is in my breast is named true zeal and divine charity. I promise
thee better things than drunkenness crowned with flowers or the dreams
of a brief night. I promise thee holy feasts and celestial suppers.
The happiness that I bring thee will never end; it is unheard-of, it
is ineffable, and such that if the happy of this world could only see a
shadow of it they would die of wonder."
Thais laughed mischievously.
"Friend," she said, "show me this wonderful love. Make haste! Long
speeches would be an insult to my beauty; let us not lose a moment. I am
impatient to taste the felicity you announce; but, to say the truth, I
fear that I shall always remain ignorant of it, and that all you have
promised me will vanish in words. It is easier to promise a great
happiness than to give it. Everyone has a talent of some sort. I fancy
that yours is to make long speeches. You speak of an unknown love. It
is so long since kisses were first exchanged that it would be very
extraordinary if there still remained secrets in love. On this subject
lovers know more than philosophers."
"Do not jest, Thais. I bring thee the unknown love."
"Friend, you come too late. I know every kind of love."
"The love that I bring thee abounds with glory, whilst the loves that
thou knowest breed only shame."
Thais looked at him with an angry eye, a frown gathered on her beautiful
"You are very bold, stranger, to offend your hostess. Look at me, and
say if I resemble a creature crushed down with shame. No, I am not
ashamed, and all others who live like me are not ashamed either,
although they are not so beautiful or so rich as I am. I have sown
pleasure in my footsteps, and I am celebrated for that all over the
world. I am more powerful than the masters of the world. I have seen
them at my feet. Look at me, look at these little feet; thousands of men
would pay with their blood for the happiness of kissing them. I am not
very big, and I do not occupy much space on the earth. To those who look
at me from the top of the Serapeium, when I pass in the street, I look
like a grain of rice; but that grain of rice has caused among men,
griefs, despairs, hates, and crimes enough to have filled Tartarus. Are
you not mad to talk to me of shame when all around proclaims my glory?"
"That which is glory in the eyes of men, is infamy before God. O
woman, we have been nourished in countries so different, that it is not
surprising we have neither the same language nor the same thoughts! Yet
Heaven is my witness that I wish to agree with thee, and that it is my
intention not to leave thee until we share the same sentiments. Who will
inspire me with burning words that will melt thee like wax in my breath,
O woman, that the fingers of my desires may mould thee as they wish?
What virtue will deliver thee to me, O dearest of souls, that the spirit
which animates me, creating thee a second time, may imprint on thee a
fresh beauty, and that thou mayest cry, weeping for joy, 'It is only now
that I am born'? Who will cause to gush in my heart a fount of Siloam,
in which thou mayest bathe and recover thy first purity? Who will change
me into a Jordan, the waves of which sprinkled on thee, will give thee
Thais was no longer angry.
"This man," she thought, "talks of life eternal and all that he says
seems written on a talisman. No doubt he is a mage, and knows secret
charms against old age and death," and she resolved to offer herself to
him. Therefore, pretending to be afraid of him, she retired a few steps
to the end of the grotto, and sitting down on the edge of the bed,
artfully pulled her tunic across her breast; then, motionless and mute
and her eyes cast down, she waited. Her long eyelashes made a soft
shadow on her cheeks. Her entire attitude expressed modesty; her naked
feet swung gently, and she looked like a child sitting thinking on the
bank of a brook. But Paphnutius looked at her, and did not move. His
trembling knees hardly supported him, his tongue dried in his mouth, a
terrible buzzing rang in his ears. But all at once his sight failed, and
he could see nothing before him but a thick cloud. He thought that the
hand of Jesus had been laid on his eyes, to hide this woman from them.
Reassured by such succour, strengthened and fortified, he said with a
gravity worthy of an old hermit of the desert--
"If thou givest thyself to me, thinkest thou it is hidden from God?"
She shook her head.
"God? Who forces Him to keep His eye always upon the Grotto of Nymphs?
Let Him go away if we offend Him! But why should we offend Him? Since
He has created us, He can be neither angry nor surprised to see us as He
made us, and acting according to the nature He has given us. A good deal
too much is said on His behalf, and He is often credited with ideas He
never had. You yourself, stranger, do you know His true character? Who
are you that you should speak to me in His name?"
At this question the monk, opening his borrowed robe, showed the
cassock, and said--
"I am Paphnutius, Abbot of Antinoe, and I come from the holy desert. The
hand that drew Abraham from Chaldaea and Lot from Sodom has separated me
from the present age. I no longer existed for the men of this century.
But thy image appeared to me in my sandy Jerusalem, and I knew that
thou wert full of corruption, and death was in thee. And now I am before
thee, woman, as before a grave, and I cry unto thee, 'Thais, arise!'"
At the words, Paphnutius, monk, and abbot, she had turned pale with
fright. And now, with dishevelled hair and joined hands, weeping and
groaning, she dragged herself to the feet of the saint.
"Do not hurt me! Why have you come? What do you want of me? Do not hurt
me! I know that the saints of the desert hate women who, like me, are
made to please. I am afraid that you hate me, and want to hurt me. Go!
I do not doubt your power. But know, Paphnutius, that you should neither
despise me nor hate me. I have never, like many of the men I know,
laughed at your voluntary poverty. In your turn, do not make a crime
of my riches. I am beautiful, and clever in acting. I no more chose my
condition than my nature. I was made for that which I do. I was born to
charm men. And you yourself, did you not say just now that you loved me?
Do not use your science against me. Do not pronounce magic words which
would destroy my beauty, or change me into a statue of salt. Do not
terrify me! I am already too frightened. Do not kill me! I am so afraid
He made a sign to her to rise, and said--
"Child, have no fear. I will utter no word of shame or scorn. I come on
behalf of Him who sat on the edge of the well, and drank of the pitcher
which the woman of Samaria offered to Him; and who, also, when He supped
at the house of Simon, received the perfumes of Mary. I am not without
sin that I should throw the first stone. I have often badly employed
the abundant grace which God has bestowed upon me. It was not anger,
but pity, which took me by the hand to conduct me here. I can, without
deceit, address thee in words of love, for it is the zeal in my heart
which has brought me to thee. I burn with the fire of charity, and if
thy eyes, accustomed only to the gross sights of the flesh, could see
things in their mystic aspect, I should appear unto thee as a branch
broken off the burning bush which the Lord showed on the mountain to
Moses of old, that he might understand true love--that which envelops
us, and which, so far from leaving behind it mere coals and ashes,
purifies and perfumes for ever that which it penetrates."
"I believe you, monk, and no longer fear either deceit or ill-will from
you. I have often heard talk of the hermits of the Thebaid. Marvellous
things have been told concerning Anthony and Paul. Your name is not
unknown to me, and I have heard say that, though you are still young,
you equal in virtue the oldest anchorites. As soon as I saw you, and
without knowing who you were, I felt that you were no ordinary man. Tell
me! can you do for me that which neither the priests of Isis, nor of
Hermes, nor of the celestial Juno, nor the Chaldean soothsayers, nor the
Babylonian magi have been able to effect? Monk, if you love me, can you
prevent me from dying?"
"Woman, whosoever wishes to live shall live. Flee from the abominable
delights in which thou diest for ever. Snatch from the devils, who will
burn it most horribly, that body which God kneaded with His spittle and
animated with his own breath. Thou art consumed with weariness; come,
and refresh thyself at the blessed springs of solitude; come and drink
of those fountains which are hidden in the desert, and which gush forth
to heaven. Careworn soul, come, and possess that which thou desirest!
Heart greedy for joy, come and taste true joys--poverty, retirement,
self-forgetfulness, seclusion in the bosom of God. Enemy of Christ now,
and to-morrow His well-beloved, come to Him! Come, thou whom I have
sought, and thou wilt say, 'I have found love!'"
Thais seemed lost in meditation on things afar.
"Monk," she asked, "if I adjure all pleasures and do penance, is it true
that I shall be born again in heaven, my body intact in all its beauty?"
"Thais, I bring thee eternal life. Believe me, for that which I announce
to thee is the truth."
"Who will assure me that it is the truth?"
"David and the prophets, the Scriptures, and the wonders that thou shalt
"Monk, I should like to believe you, for I must confess that I have not
found happiness in this world. My lot in life is better than that of
a queen, and yet I have many bitternesses and misfortunes, and I am
infinitely weary of my existence. All women envy me, and yet sometimes
I have envied the lot of a toothless old woman who, when I was a child,
sold honey-cakes under one of the city gates. Often has the idea flashed
across my mind that only the poor are good, happy, and blessed, and that
there must be great gladness in living humble and obscure. Monk, you
have agitated a storm in my soul, and brought to the surface that which
lay at the bottom. Who am I to believe, alas! and what is to become of
me--and what is life?"
Whilst she thus spoke, Paphnutius was transfigured; celestial joy beamed
in his face.
"Listen!" he said. "I was not alone when I entered this house. Another
accompanied me, another who stands by my side. Him thou canst not see,
because thy eyes are yet unworthy to behold Him; but soon thou shalt see
Him in all His glorious splendour, and thou wilt say, 'He alone is to be
adored.' But now, if He had not placed His gentle hands before my eyes,
O Thais, I should perhaps have fallen into sin with thee, for of myself
I am but weak and sinful. But He saved us both. He is as good as He is
powerful, and His name is the Saviour. He was promised to the world, by
David and the prophets, worshipped in His cradle by the shepherds and
the magi, crucified by the Pharisees, buried by the holy women, revealed
to the world by the apostles, testified to by the martyrs. And now,
having learned that thou fearest death, O woman, He has come to thy
house to prevent thee from dying. Art Thou not here present with me,
Jesus, at this moment, as Thou didst appear to the men of Galilee, in
those wonderful days when the stars, which came down with thee from
heaven, were so near the earth that the holy innocents could take them
in their hands, when they played in their mothers' arms on the terraces
of Bethlehem? Is it not true, Jesus, that Thou art here present, and
that Thou showest me in reality Thy precious body? Is not Thy face here,
and that tear which flows down Thy cheek a real tear? Yes, the angel of
eternal justice shall receive it, and it shall be the ransom of the soul
of Thais. Art Thou not here, Jesus? Jesus, Thy loving lips open. Thou
canst speak; speak, I hear Thee! And thee, Thais, happy Thais! listen
to what the Saviour Himself says to thee; it is He who speaks, not I.
He says, 'I have sought thee long, O My lost sheep! I have found thee
at last! Fly from Me no more. Let Me take thee by the hands, poor little
one, and I will bear thee on My shoulders to the heavenly fold. Come, My
Thais! come, My chosen one! come, and weep with Me!'"
And Paphnutius fell on his knees, his eyes filled with ecstasy. And then
Thais saw in his face the likeness of the living Christ.
"O vanished days of my childhood!" she sobbed. "O sweet father Ahmes!
good Saint Theodore, why did I not die in thy white mantle whilst thou
didst bear me, in the first dawn of day, yet fresh from the waters of
Paphnutius advanced towards her, crying--
"Thou art baptised! O divine wisdom! O Providence! O great God! I know
now the power which drew me to thee. I know what rendered thee so dear
and so beautiful in my eyes. It was the virtue of the baptismal water,
which made me leave the shadow of God, where I lived, to seek thee in
the poisoned air where men dwell. A drop--a drop, no doubt, of the water
which washed thy body--has been sprinkled in my face. Come, O my sister,
and receive from thy brother the kiss of peace."
And the monk touched with his lips the forehead of the courtesan.
Then he was silent, letting God speak, and nothing was heard in the
Grotto of Nymphs but the sobs of Thais, mingled with the rippling of the
She wept without trying to stop her tears, when two black slaves
appeared, loaded with stuffs, perfumes, and garlands.
"It was hardly the right time to weep," she said, trying to smile.
"Tears redden the eyes and spoil the complexion, and I must sup tonight
with some friends, and want to be beautiful, for there will be women
there quick to spy out marks of care on my face. These slaves come to
dress me. Withdraw, my father, and allow them to do their work. They are
clever and experienced, and I pay them well for their services. You see
that one who wears thick rings of gold, and shows such white teeth. I
took her from the wife of the pro-consul."
Paphnutius had at first a thought of dissuading Thais, as earnestly as
he could, from going to this supper. But he determined to act prudently,
and asked what persons she would meet there.
She replied that there would be the host, old Cotta, the Prefect of the
Fleet, Nicias, and several other philosophers who loved an argument, the
poet Callicrates, the high priest of Serapis, some young men whose chief
amusement was training horses, and lastly some women, of whom there was
little to be said except that they were young. Then, by a supernatural
"Go amongst them, Thais," said the monk. "Go! But I will not leave thee.
I will go with thee to this banquet, and will remain by thy side without
saying a word."
She burst out laughing. And whilst her two black slaves were busy
dressing her, she cried--
"What will they say when they see that I have a monk of the Thebaid for
When, followed by Paphnutius, Thais entered the banqueting-room, the
guests were already, for the most part, assembled, and reclining
on their couches before the horseshoe table, which was covered with
glittering vessels. In the centre of the table stood a silver basin,
surmounted by four figures of satyrs, who poured out from wine-skins
on the boiled fish a kind of pickle in which they floated. When Thais
appeared, acclamations arose from all sides.
Greetings to the sister of the Graces!
To the silent Melpomene, who can express all things with her looks!
Salutation to the well-beloved of gods and men!
To the much desired!
To her who gives suffering and its cure!
To the pearl of Racotis!
To the rose of Alexandria!
She waited impatiently till this torrent of praise had passed, and then
said to Cotta, the host--
"Lucius, I have brought you a monk of the desert, Paphnutius, the Abbot
of Antinoe. He is a great saint, whose words burn like fire."
Lucius Aurelius Cotta, the Prefect of the Fleet, rose, and replied--
"You are welcome, Paphnutius, you who profess the Christian faith. I
myself have some respect of a religion that has now become imperial. The
divine Constantine has placed your co-religionists in the front rank of
the friends of the empire. Latin wisdom ought, in fact, to admit your
Christ into our pantheon. It was a maxim of our forefathers that there
was something divine in every god. But no more of that. Let us drink and
enjoy ourselves while there is yet time."
Old Cotta spoke tranquilly. He had just studied a new model for
a galley, and had finished the sixth book of his history of the
Carthaginians. He felt sure he had not lost his day, and was satisfied
with himself and the gods.
"Paphnutius," he added, "you see here several men who are worthy to be
loved--Hermodorus, the High Priest of Serapis; the philosophers Dorion,
Nicias, and Zenothemis; the poet Callicrates; young Chereas and young
Aristobulus, both sons of dear old comrades; and near them Philina and
Drosea, who deserve to be praised for their beauty."
Nicias embraced Paphnutius, and whispered in his ear--
"I warned you, brother, that Venus was powerful. It is her gentle force
that has brought you here in spite of yourself. Listen: you are a man
full of piety, but if you do not confess that she is the mother of the
gods, your ruin is certain. Do you know that the old mathematician,
Melanthes, used to say, 'I cannot demonstrate the properties of a
triangle without the aid of Venus'?"
Dorion, who had for some seconds been looking at the new-comer, suddenly
clapped his hands and uttered a cry of surprise.
"It is he, friends! His look, his beard, his tunic--it is he himself!
I met him at the theatre whilst our Thais was acting. He was furiously
excited, and spoke with violence, as I can testify. He is an honest man,
but he will abuse us all; his eloquence is terrible. If Marcus is the
Plato of the Christians, Paphnutius is the Demosthenes. Epicurus, in his
little garden, never heard the like."
Philina and Drosea, however, devoured Thais with their eyes. She wore on
her fair hair a wreath of pale violets, each flower of which recalled,
in a paler hue, the colour of her eyes, so that the flowers looked
like softened glances, and the eyes like sparkling flowers. It was the
peculiar gift of this woman; on her everything lived, and was soul and
harmony. Her robe, which was of mauve spangled with silver, trailed in
long folds with a grace that was almost melancholy and was not relieved
by either bracelets or necklaces. The chief charm of her appearance
was her beautiful bare arms. The two friends were obliged to admire, in
spite of themselves the robe and head-dress of Thais, though they said
nothing to her on the subject.
"How beautiful you are!" said Philina. "You could not have been more
so when you came to Alexandria. Yet my mother, who remembers seeing
you then, says there were few women who were worthy to be compared with
"Who is the new lover you have brought?" asked Drosea. "He has a
strange, wild appearance. If there are shepherds of elephants, assuredly
he must resemble one. Where did you find such a wild-looking friend,
Thais? Was it amongst the troglodytes who live under the earth, and are
grimy with the smoke of Hades?"
But Philina put her finger on Drosea's lips.
"Hush! the mysteries of love must remain secret, and it is forbidden to
know them. For my own part, certainly, I would rather be kissed by the
mouth of smoking Etna than by the lips of that man. But our dear
Thais, who is beautiful and adorable as the goddesses, should, like
the goddesses, grant all requests, and not, like us, only those of nice
"Take care, both of you!" replied Thais. "He is a mage and an enchanter.
He hears words that are whispered, and even thoughts. He will tear out
your heart while you are asleep, and put a sponge in its place, and the
next day, when you drink water, you will be choked to death."
She watched them grow pale, then she turned away from them, and sat on a
couch by the side of Paphnutius. The voice of Cotta, kind but imperious,
was suddenly heard above the murmur of conversation.
"Friends, let each take his place! Slaves, pour out the honeyed wine!"
Then, the host raising his cup--
"Let us first drink to the divine Constantine and the genius of the
empire. The country should be put first of all, even above the gods, for
it contains them all."
All the guests raised their full cups to their lips. Paphnutius alone
did not drink, because Constantine had persecuted the Nicaean faith, and
because the country of the Christian is not of this world.
Dorion, having drunk, murmured--
"What is one's country? A flowing river. The shores change, and the
waves are incessantly renewed."
"I know, Dorion," replied the Prefect of the Fleet, "that you care
little for the civic virtues, and you think that the sage ought to hold
himself aloof from all affairs. I think, on the contrary, that an honest
man should desire nothing better than to fill a responsible post in the
State. The State is a noble thing."
Hermodorus, the High Priest of Serapis, spoke next--
"Dorion has asked, 'What is one's country?' I will reply that the altars
of the gods and the tombs of ancestors make one's country. A man is a
fellow-citizen by association of memories and hopes."
Young Aristobulus interrupted Hermodorus.
"By Castor! I saw a splendid horse to-day. It belonged to Demophoon.
It has a fine head, small jaw, and strong forelegs. It carries its neck
high and proud, like a cock."
But young Chereas shook his head.
"It is not such a good horse as you say, Aristobulus. Its hoofs are
thin, and the pasterns are too low; the animal will soon go lame."
They were continuing their dispute, when Drosea uttered a piercing
"Oh! I nearly swallowed a fish-bone, as long and much sharper than a
style. Luckily, I was able to get it out of my throat in time! The gods
"Did you say, Drosea, that the gods loved you?" asked Nicias, smiling.
"Then they must share the same infirmities as men. Love presupposes
unhappiness on the part of whoever suffers from it, and is a proof of
weakness. The affection they feel for Drosea is a great proof of the
imperfection of the gods."
At these words Drosea flew into a great rage.
"Nicias, your remarks are foolish and not to the point. But that is your
character--you never understand what is said, and reply in words devoid
Nicias smiled again.
"Talk away, talk away, Drosea. Whatever you say, we are glad every time
you open your mouth. Your teeth are so pretty!"
At that moment, a grave-looking old man, negligently dressed, walking
slowly, with his head high, entered the room, and gazed at the guests
quietly. Cotta made a sign to him to take a place by his side, on the
"Eucrites," he said, "you are welcome. Have you composed a new treatise
on philosophy this month? That would make, if I calculate correctly, the
ninety-second that has proceeded from the Nile reed you direct with an
Eucrites replied, stroking his silver beard--
"The nightingale was created to sing, and I was created to praise the
DORION. Let us respectfully salute, in Eucrites, the last of the stoics.
Grave and white, he stands in the midst of us like the image of an
ancestor. He is solitary amidst a crowd of men, and the words he utters
are not heard.
EUCRITES. You deceive yourself, Dorion. The philosophy of virtue is not
dead. I have numerous disciples in Alexandria, Rome, and Constantinople.
Many of the slaves, and some of the nephews of Caesar, now know how to
govern themselves, to live independently, and being unconcerned with all
affairs, they enjoy boundless happiness. Many of them have revived, in
their own person, Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. But if it were true
that virtue were for ever extinguished upon the earth, in what way
would the loss of it affect my happiness, since it did not depend on
me whether it existed or perished? Only fools, Dorion, place their
happiness out of their own power. I desire nothing that the gods do not
wish, and I desire all that they do wish. By that means I render myself
like unto them, and share their infallible content. If virtue perishes,
I consent that it should perish, and that consent fills me with joy, as
the supreme effort of my reason or my courage. In all things my wisdom
will copy the divine wisdom, and the copy will be more valuable than the
model; it will have cost greater care and more work.
NICIAS. I understand. You put yourself on the same level as divine
providence. But if virtue consists only in effort, Eucrites, and in that
intense application by which the disciples of Zeno pretend to render
themselves equal to the gods, the frog, which swelled itself out to try
and become as big as the ox, accomplished a masterpiece of stoicism.
EUCRITES. You jest, Nicias, and, as usual, you excel in ridicule. But
if the ox of which you speak is really a god, like Apis, or like that
subterranean ox whose high priest I see here, and if the frog, being
wisely inspired, succeed in equalling it, would it not be, in fact,
more virtuous than the ox, and could you refrain from admiring such a
courageous little animal!
Four servants placed on the table a wild pig, still covered with its
bristles. Little pigs, made of pastry, surrounded the animal, as though
they would suckle, to show that it was a sow.
Zenothemis, turning towards the monk, said--
"Friends, a guest has come hither to join us. The illustrious
Paphnutius, who leads such an extraordinary life of solitude, is our
COTTA. You may even add, Zenothemis, that the place of honour is due to
him, because he came without being invited.
ZENOTHEMIS. Therefore, we ought, my dear Lucius, to make him the more
welcome, and strive to do that which would be most agreeable to him. Now
it is certain that such a man cares less for the perfumes of meat than
for the perfumes of fine thoughts. We shall, doubtless, please him by
discussing the doctrine he professes, which is that of Jesus crucified.
For my own part, I shall the more willingly discuss this doctrine,
because it keenly interests me, on account of the number and the
diversity of the allegories it contains. If one may guess at the
spirit by the letter, it is filled with truths, and I consider that
the Christian books abound in divine revelations. But I should not,
Paphnutius, grant equal merit to the Jewish books. They were inspired
not, as it was said, by the Spirit of God, but by an evil genius. Iaveh,
who dictated them, was one of those spirits who people the lower air,
and cause the greater part of the evils, from which we suffer; but he
surpassed all the others in ignorance and ferocity. On the contrary, the
serpent with golden wings, which twined its azure coils round the tree
of knowledge, was made up of light and love. A combat between these
two powers--the one of light and the other of darkness--was, therefore,
inevitable. It occurred soon after the creation of the world. God had
hardly begun to rest after His labors; Adam and Eve, the first man and
the first woman, lived happy and naked in the Garden of Eden, when Iaveh
conceived--to their misfortune--the design of governing them and all
the generations which Eve already bore in her splendid loins. As he
possessed neither the compass nor the lyre, and was equally ignorant of
the science which commands and the art which persuades, he frightened
these two poor children by hideous apparitions, capricious threats,
and thunder-bolts. Adam and Eve, feeling his shadow upon them, pressed
closer to one another, and their love waxed stronger in fear. The
serpent took pity on them, and determined to instruct them, in order
that, possessing knowledge, they might no longer be misled by lies. Such
an undertaking required extreme prudence, and the frailty of the first
human couple rendered it almost hopeless. The well-intentioned demon
essayed it, however. Without the knowledge of Iaveh--who pretended
to see everything, but, in reality, was not very sharp-sighted--he
approached these two beings, and charmed their eyes by the splendour of
his coat and the brilliancy of his wings. Then he interested their minds
by forming before them, with his body, definite figures, such as the
circle, the ellipse, and the spiral, the wonderful properties of which
have since been recognised by the Greeks. Adam meditated on these
figures more than Eve did. But when the serpent began to speak, and
taught the most sublime truths--those which cannot be demonstrated--he
found that Adam being made of red earth, was of too dull a nature to
understand these subtle distinctions, but that Eve, on the contrary,
being more tender and more sensitive, was easily impressed. Therefore
he conversed with her alone, in the absence of her husband, in order to
initiate her first--
DORION. Permit me, Zenothemis, to interrupt you. I speedily recognised
in the myth you have explained to us an episode in the war of Pallas
Athene against the giants. Iaveh much resembles Typhoon, and Pallas is
represented by the Athenians with a serpent at her side. But what you
have said causes me considerable doubt as to the intelligence or good
faith of the serpent of whom you have spoken. If he had really possessed
knowledge, would he have entrusted it to a woman's little head, which
was incapable of containing it? I should rather consider that he was
like Iaveh, ignorant and a liar, and that he chose Eve because she was
easily seduced, and he imagined that Adam would have more intelligence
ZENOTHEMIS. Learn, Dorion, that it is not by perception and
intelligence, but by sensibility, that the highest and purest truths are
reached. That is why women, who, generally, are less reflective but more
sensitive than men, rise more easily to the knowledge of things divine.
In them is the gift of prophecy, and it is not without reason that
Apollo Citharedes, and Jesus of Nazareth, are sometimes represented
clad, like women, in flowing robes. The initiator was therefore
wise--whatever you may say to the contrary, Dorion--in bestowing light,
not on the duller Adam, but on Eve, who was whiter than milk or the
stars. She freely listened to him, and allowed herself to be led to the
tree of knowledge, the branches of which rose to heaven, and which was
bathed with the divine spirit as with a dew. This tree was covered with
leaves which spoke all the languages of future races of men, and their
united voices formed a perfect harmony. Its abundant fruit gave to the
initiated who tasted it the knowledge of metals, stones, and plants, and
also of physical and moral laws; but this fruit was like fire, and those
who feared suffering and death did not dare to put it to their lips.
Now, as she had listened attentively to the lessons of the serpent, Eve
despised these empty terrors, and wished to taste the fruit which gave
the knowledge of God. But, as she loved Adam, and did not wish him to be
inferior to her, she took him by the hand and led him to the wonderful
tree. Then she picked one of the burning apples, bit it, and proffered
it to her companion. Unfortunately, Iaveh, who was by chance walking
in the garden, surprised them, and seeing that they had become wise, he
fell into a most ungovernable rage. It is in his jealous fits that he is
most to be feared. Assembling all his forces, he created such a turmoil
in the lower air that these two weak beings were terrified. The fruit
fell from the man's hand, and the woman, clinging to the neck of her
luckless husband, said, "I too will be ignorant and suffer with him."
The triumphant Iaveh kept Adam and Eve and all their seed in a condition
of hebetude and terror. His art, which consisted only in being able to
make huge meteors, triumphed over the science of the serpent, who was a
musician and geometrician. He made men unjust, ignorant, and cruel,
and caused evil to reign in the earth. He persecuted Cain and his sons
because they were skilful workmen; he exterminated the Philistines
because they composed Orphic poems, and fables like those of AEsop. He
was the implacable enemy of science and beauty, and for long ages
the human race expiated, in blood and tears, the defeat of the winged
serpent. Fortunately, there arose among the Greeks learned men, such as
Pythagoras, and Plato, who recovered by the force of genius, the figures
and the ideas which the enemy of Iaveh had vainly tried to teach the
first woman. The soul of the serpent was in them; and that is why the
serpent, as Dorion has said, is honoured by the Athenians. Finally, in
these latter days, there appeared, under human form, three celestial
spirits--Jesus of Galilee, Basilides, and Valentinus--to whom it was
given to pluck the finest fruits of that tree of knowledge, whose roots
pass through all the earth, and whose top reaches to the highest heaven.
I have said all this in vindication of the Christians, to whom the
errors of the Jews are too often imputed.
DORION. If I understood you aright, Zenothemis, you said that three
wonderful men--Jesus, Basilides, and Valentinus--had discovered secrets
which had remained hidden from Pythagoras and Plato, and all the
philosophers of Greece, and even from the divine Epicurus, who, however,
has freed men from the dread of empty terrors. You would greatly oblige
me by telling me by what means these three mortals acquired knowledge
which had eluded the most contemplative sages.
ZENOTHEMIS. Must I repeat to you, Dorion, that science and cogitation
are but the first steps to knowledge, and that ecstasy alone leads to
HERMODORUS. It is true, Zenothemis, that the soul is nourished on
ecstasy, as the cicada is nourished on dew. But we may even say more:
the mind alone is capable of perfect rapture. For man is of a threefold
nature, composed of material body, of a soul which is more subtle, but
also material, and of an incorruptible mind. When, emerging from the
body as from a palace suddenly given over to silence and solitude and
flying through the gardens of the soul, the mind diffuses itself in God,
it tastes the delights of an anticipated death, or rather of a future
life, for to die is to live; and in that condition, partaking of divine
purity, it possesses both infinite joy and complete knowledge. It enters
into the unity which is All. It is perfected.
NICIAS. That is very fine; but, to say the truth, Hermodorus, I do not
see much difference between All and Nothing. Words even seem to fail to
make the distinction. Infinity is terribly like nothingness--they are
both inconceivable to the mind. In my opinion perfection costs too dear;
we pay for it with all our being, and to possess it must cease to
exist. That is a calamity from which God Himself is not free, for the
philosophers are doing their best to perfect Him. After all, if we do
not know what it is "not" to be, we are equally ignorant what it is to
"be". We know nothing. It is said that it is impossible for men to agree
on this question. I believe--in spite of our noisy disputes--that it is,
on the contrary, impossible for men not to become some day all at unity
buried under the mass of contradictions, a Pelion on Ossa, which they
themselves have raised.
COTTA. I am very fond of philosophy, and study it in my leisure time.
But I never understand it well, except in Cicero's books. Slaves, pour
out the honeyed wine!
CALLICRATES. It is a singular thing, but when I am hungry I think of
the time when the tragic poets sat at the boards of good tyrants, and my
mouth waters. But when I have tasted the excellent wine that you give
us so abundantly, generous Lucius, I dream of nothing but civil wars and
heroic combats. I blush to live in such inglorious times; I invoke the
goddess of Liberty; and I pour out my blood--in imagination--with the
last Romans on the field of Philippi.
COTTA. In the days of the decline of the Republic my ancestors died with
Brutus--for liberty. But there is reason to suspect that what the
Roman people called liberty was only in reality the right to govern
themselves. I do not deny that liberty is the greatest boon a nation can
have. But the longer I live the more I am persuaded that only a strong
government can bestow it on the citizens. For forty years I have filled
high positions in the State, and my long experience has shown me
that when the ruling power is weak the people are oppressed. Those,
therefore, who--like the great majority of rhetoricians--try to weaken
the government, commit an abominable crime. An autocrat, who governs by
his single will, may sometimes cause most deplorable results; but if
he governs by popular consent there is no remedy possible. Before the
majesty of the Roman arms had bestowed peace upon all the world, the
only nations which were happy were those which were ruled over by
HERMODORUS. For my part, Lucius, I believe that there is no such thing
as a good form of government, and that we shall never discover one,
because the Greeks, who had so many excellent ideas, were never able to
find one. In that respect, therefore, all hope of ultimate success is
taken from us. Unmistakable signs show that the world is about to fall
into ignorance and barbarism. It has been our lot, Lucius, to witness
terrible events. Of all the mental satisfactions which intelligence,
learning, and virtue can give, all that remains is the cruel pleasure of
watching ourselves die.
COTTA. It is true that the rapacity of the people, and the boldness of
the barbarians, are threatening evils. But with a good fleet, a good
army, and plenty of money----
HERMODORUS. What is the use of deceiving ourselves? The dying empire
will become an easy prey to the barbarians. Cities which were built
by Hellenic genius, or Latin patience, will soon be sacked by drunken
savages. Neither art nor philosophy will exist any longer on the earth.
The statues of the gods will be overturned in the temples, and in men's
hearts as well. Darkness will overcome all minds, and the world will
die. Can we believe that the Sarmatians will ever devote themselves to
intelligent work, that the Germani will cultivate music and philosophy,
and that the Quadi and the Marcomani will adore the immortal gods? No!
we are sliding toward the abyss. Our old Egypt, which was the cradle
of the world, will be its burial vault; Serapis, the god of Death, will
receive the last adoration of mortals, and I shall have been the last
priest of the last god.
At this moment a strange figure raised the tapestry, and the guests saw
before them a little hunchback, whose bald skull rose in a point. He was
clad, in the Asiatic fashion, in a blue tunic, and wore round his legs,
like the barbarians, red breeches, spangled with gold stars. On
seeing him, Paphnutius recognised Marcus the Arian, and fearing lest a
thunderbolt should fall from heaven, he covered his head with his arms,
and grew pale with fright. At this banquet of the demons, neither the
blasphemies of the pagans, nor the horrible errors of the philosophers,
had had any effect on him, but the mere presence of the heretic quenched
his courage. He would have fled, but his eyes met those of Thais, and
he felt at once strengthened. He read in her soul that she, who was
predestined to become a saint, already protected him. He seized the
skirt of her long, flowing robe, and inwardly prayed to the Saviour
A murmur of acclamation welcomed the arrival of the personage who had
been called the Christian Plato. Hermodorus was the first to speak.
"Most illustrious Marcus, we rejoice to see you amongst us, and it
may be said that you come at the right moment. We know nothing of the
Christian doctrine, beyond what is publicly taught. Now, it is certain
that a philosopher, like you, cannot think as the vulgar think, and
we are curious to know your opinion of the principal mysteries of the
religion you profess. Our dear friend, Zenothemis, who, as you know,
is always hunting for symbolic meanings, just now questioned the
illustrious Paphnutius concerning the Jewish books. But Paphnutius made
no reply, and we should not be surprised at that, as our guest has made
a vow of silence, and God has sealed his tongue in the desert. But
you Marcus, who have spoken at the Christian synods, and even at
the councils of the divine Constantine, can if you wish, satisfy our
curiosity by revealing to us the philosophic truths which are wrapped up
in the Christian fables. Is not the first of these truths the existence
of an only God--in whom, for my part, I fervently believe?"
MARCUS. Yes, venerable brethren, I believe in an only God, not
begotten--the only Eternal, the origin of all things.
NICIAS. We know, Marcus, that your God created the world. That must
certainly have been a great crisis in His existence. He had already
existed an eternity before He could make up His mind to it. But I must,
in justice, confess that His situation was a most difficult one. He must
continue inactive if He would remain perfect, and must act if He would
prove to Himself His own existence. You assure me that He decided
to act. I am willing to believe you, although it was an unpardonable
imprudence on the part of a perfect God. But tell us, Marcus, how He set
about making the world.
MARCUS. Those who, without being Christians, possess, like Hermodorus
and Zenothemis, the principles of knowledge, are aware that God did not
create the world personally without an intermediary. He gave birth to an
only Son, by whom all things were made.
HERMODORUS. That is quite true, Marcus; and this Son is worshipped under
the various names of Hermes, Mithra, Adonis, Apollo, and Jesus.
MARCUS. I should not be a Christian if I gave Him any other names than
those of Jesus Christ, and Saviour. He is the true Son of God. But He
is not eternal, since He had a beginning; as to thinking that He existed
before He was begotten, we must leave that absurdity to the Nicaean
mules, and the obstinate ass who too long governed the Church of
Alexandria under the accursed name of Athanasius.
At these words Paphnutius, white with horror and his face bedewed with
the sweat of agony made the sign of the cross, but maintained a sublime
"It is clear that the foolish Nicene Creed is a treason against the
majesty of the only God, by compelling Him to share His indivisible
attributes with His own emanation--the Mediator by whom all things were
made. Cease jesting at the true God of the Christians, Nicias, and learn
that, like the lilies of the field, He toils not, neither does He spin.
It was not He who was the worker, it was His only Son, Jesus, who,
having created the world, came afterwards to repair His handiwork. For
the creation could not be perfect, and evil was necessarily mingled with
NICIAS. What is "good," and what is "evil"?
There was a moment's silence, during which Hermodorus, his arm extended
on the cloth, pointed to a little ass in Corinthian metal which bore two
baskets--the one containing white olives, the other black olives.
"You see these olives," he said. "The contrast between the colours is
pleasant to the eye, and we are content that these should be light
and those should be dark. But, if they were endowed with thought and
knowledge, the white would say, It is good for an olive to be white,
it is bad for it to be black; and the black olives would hate the white
olives. We judge better, for we are as much above them as the gods are
above us. For man, who only sees a part of things, evil is an evil; for
God, who understands all things, evil is a good. Doubtless ugliness is
ugly, and not beautiful; but if all were beautiful, the whole would not
be beautiful. It is, then, well that there should be evil, as the second
Plato, far greater than the first, has demonstrated."
EUCRITES. Let us talk more morally. Evil is an evil--not for the world,
of which it cannot destroy the indestructible harmony but for the sinner
who does it, and cannot help doing it.
COTTA. By Jupiter? that is a good argument.
EUCRITES. The world is a tragedy by an excellent poet. God, who composed
it, has intended each of us to play a part in it. If he wills that you
shall be a beggar, a prince, or a cripple, make the best of the part
NICIAS. Assuredly it would be well that the cripple should limp like
Hephaistos: it would be well that the madman should indulge in all the
fury of Ajax, that the incestuous woman should repeat the crimes of
Phaedra, that the traitor should betray, that the rascal should lie, and
the murderer kill, and when the piece was played, all the actor--kings,
just men, bloody tyrants, pious virgins, immodest wives, noble-minded
citizens, and cowardly assassins--should receive from the poet an equal
share in the felicitations.
EUCRITES. You distort my thought, Nicias, and change a beautiful young
girl into a hideous Gorgon. I am sorry for you, if you are so ignorant
of the nature of the gods, of justice, and of the eternal laws.
ZENOTHEMIS. For my part, friends, I believe in the reality of good and
evil. But I am convinced that there is not a single human action--were
it even the kiss of Judas--which does not bear within itself the germ of
redemption. Evil contributes to the ultimate salvation of men, and, in
that respect issues from Good, and shares the merits belonging to
Good. This has been admirably expressed by the Christians, in the myth
concerning the man with red hair, who, in order to betray his master,
gave him the kiss of peace, and by such act assured the salvation of
men. Therefore, nothing is, in my opinion, more unjust and absurd than
the hate with which certain disciples of Paul, the tentmaker, pursue
the most unfortunate of the apostles of Jesus without realising that the
kiss of Iscariot--prophesied by Jesus Himself--was necessary, according
to their own doctrine, for the redemption of men, and that if Judas
had not received the thirty pieces, the divine wisdom would have been
impugned, Providence frustrated, its designs upset, and the world given
over to evil, ignorance, and death.
MARCUS. Divine wisdom foresaw that Judas, though he was not obliged
to give the traitor's kiss, would give it, notwithstanding. It thus
employed the sin of Iscariot as a stone in the marvellous edifice of the
ZENOTHEMIS. I spoke just now, Marcus, as though I believed that the
redemption of men had been accomplished by Jesus crucified, because I
know that such is the belief of the Christians, and I borrowed their
opinion that I might the better show the mistake of those who believe in
the eternal damnation of Judas. But, in reality, Jesus was, in my eyes,
but the precursor of Basilides and Valentinus. As to the mystery of the
redemption, I will tell you, my dear friends--if you are at all curious
to hear it--how it was really accomplished on earth.
The guests made a sign of assent. Like the Athenian virgins with the
baskets sacred to Ceres, twelve young girls, bearing on their heads
baskets filled with pomegranates and apples, entered the room with a
light step, in time to the music of an invisible flute. They placed
the baskets on the table, the flute ceased, and Zenothemis spoke as
"When Eunoia, 'the thought of God,' had created the world, she confided
the government of the earth to the angels. But they did not preserve
the dispassion befitting masters. Seeing that the daughters of men were
fair, they surprised them in the evening by the wellside, and united
themselves to them. From these unions sprang a turbulent race, who
covered the earth with injustice and cruelty, and the dust of the roads
drank up the blood of the innocent. The sight of this caused Eunoia
"'See what I have done!' she sighed, leaning towards the world. 'My
poor children are plunged in misery, and by my fault. Their suffering
is my crime, and I will expiate it. God Himself, who only thinks through
me, would be powerless to restore them to their pristine purity. That
which is done is done, and the creation will remain for ever imperfect.
But, at least, I will not forsake my creatures. If I cannot make them
happy, like me, I can make myself unhappy, like them. Since I committed
the mistake of giving them bodies which dishonour them, I will myself
assume a body like unto theirs, and will go and live amongst them.'
"Having thus spoken, Eunoia descended to the earth, and was incarnate
in the breast of a woman of Argos. She was born small and feeble, and
received the name of Helen. She submitted to all the labours of this
life, but soon grew in grace and beauty, and became the most desired
of women, as she had determined, in order that her mortal body might be
tried by the most supreme defilements. An inert prey to lascivious and
violent men, she suffered rape and adultery, in expiation of all the
adulteries, all the violences, all the iniquities, and caused, by her
beauty, the ruin of nations, that God might pardon the sins of the
universe. And never was the celestial thought, never was Eunoia, so
adorable as in those days when, as a woman, she prostituted herself to
heroes and shepherds. The poets surmised her divinity when they painted
her so peaceful, superb, and fatal, and when they addressed that
invocation to her, 'A soul as serene as a calm upon the waters.'
"Thus was Eunoia led by pity into evil and suffering. She died, and the
Argives still show her tomb--for it was necessary that she should know
death after lust, and taste the bitter fruit she had sown. But, emerging
from the decomposed flesh of Helen, she became incarnate again as
a woman, and again suffered every form of insult and outrage. Thus,
passing from body to body, throughout all the evil ages, she takes upon
her the sins of the world. Her sacrifice will not be in vain. Joined to
us by the bonds of the flesh, loving us, and weeping with us, she will
effect her redemption and ours, and will carry us, clinging to her white
breast, into the peace of the regained paradise."
HERMODORUS. This myth was not unknown to me. I remembered having heard
that, in one of her metamorphoses, the divine Helen lived with the
magician, Simon, in the reign of the Emperor Tiberius. I thought,
however, that her perdition was involuntary, and that she was dragged
down by the angels in their fall.
ZENOTHEMIS. It is true, Hermodorus, that men who were not properly
initiated in the mysteries have imagined that the sad Eunoia was not a
party to her own downfall. But if it were as they assert Eunoia would
not be the expiating courtesan, the victim covered with stains of
all sorts, the bread steeped in the wine of our shame, the pleasant
offering, the meritorious sacrifice, the holocaust, the smoke of which
rises to God. If they were not voluntary, there would be no merit in her
CALLICRATES. Does anyone know, Zenothemis in what country, under what
name, in what adorable form, this ever-renascent Helen is living now?
ZENOTHEMIS. A man would have to be very wise indeed to discover such a
secret. And wisdom, Callicrates, is not given to poets, who live in the
rude world of forms and amuse themselves, like children, with sounds and
CALLICRATES. Beware of offending the gods, impious Zenothemis; the poets
are dear to them. The first laws were dictated in verse by the immortals
themselves, and the oracles of the gods are poems. Hymns have a pleasant
sound to celestial ears. Who does not know that the poets are prophets,
and that nothing is hidden from them? Being a poet myself, and crowned
with Apollo's laurel, I will make known to all the last incarnation of
Eunoia. The eternal Helen is close to us; she is looking at us, and we
are looking at her. You see that woman reclining on the cushions of her
couch--so beautiful and so contemplative--whose eyes shed tears, and
whose lips abound with kisses! It is she! Lovely as in the time of Priam
and the halcyon days of Asia, Eunoia is now called Thais.
PHILINA. What do you say, Callicrates? Our dear Thais knew Paris,
Menelaus, and the Achaians who fought before Ilion! Was the Trojan horse
ARISTOBULUS. Who speaks of a horse?
"I have drunk like a Thracian!" cried Chereas and he rolled under the
Callicrates, raising his cup, cried--
"If we drink like desperate men, we die unavenged!"
Old Cotta was asleep, and his bald head nodded slowly above his broad
For some time past Dorion had seemed to be greatly excited under his
philosophic cloak. He reeled up to the couch of Thais.
"Thais, I love you, although it is unseemly in me to love a woman."
THAIS. Why did you not love me before?
DORION. Because I had not supped.
THAIS. But I, my poor friend, have drunk nothing but water; therefore
you must excuse me if I do not love you.
Dorion did not wait to hear more, but made towards Drosea, who had made
a sign to him in order to get him away from her friend. Zenothemis took
the place he had left, and gave Thais a kiss on the mouth.
THAIS. I thought you more virtuous.
ZENOTHEMIS. I am perfect, and the perfect are subject to no laws.
THAIS. But are you not afraid of sullying your soul in a woman's arms?
ZENOTHEMIS. The body may yield to lust without the soul being concerned.
THAIS. Go away! I wish to be loved with body and soul. All these
philosophers are old goats.
The lamps died out one by one. The pale rays of dawn, which entered
between the openings of the hangings, shone on the livid faces and
swollen eyes of the guests. Aristobulus was sleeping soundly by the side
of Chereas, and, in his dreams, devoting all his grooms to the ravens.
Zenothemis pressed in his arms the yielding Philina; Dorion poured on
the naked bosom of Drosea drops of wine, which rolled like rubies on the
white breast, which was shaking with laughter, and the philosopher
tried to catch these drops with his lips, as they rolled on the slippery
flesh. Eucrites rose, and placing his arm on the shoulder of Nicias, led
him to the end of the hall.
"Friend," he said, smiling, "if you can still think at all--of what are
"I think that the love of women is like a garden of Adonis."
"What do you mean by that?"
"Do you not know, Eucrites, that women make little gardens on the
terraces, in which they plant boughs in clay pots in honour of the lover
of Venus? These boughs flourish a little time, and then fade."
"What does that signify, Nicias? That it is foolish to attach importance
to that which fades?"
"If beauty is but a shadow, desire is but a lightning flash. What
madness it is, then, to desire beauty! Is it not rational, on the
contrary, that that which passes should go with that which does not
endure, and that the lightning should devour the gliding shadow?"
"Nicias, you seem to me like a child playing at knuckle-bones. Take my
advice--be free! By liberty only can you become a man."
"How can a man be free, Eucrites, when he has a body?"
"You shall see presently, my son. Presently you will say, 'Eucrites was
The old man spoke, leaning against a porphyry pillar, his face lighted
by the first rays of dawn. Hermodorus and Marcus had approached, and
stood before him by the side of Nicias; and all four, regardless of the
laughter and cries of the drinkers, conversed on things divine. Eucrites
expresses himself so wisely and eloquently, that Marcus said--
"You are worthy to know the true God."
"The true God is in the heart of the wise man."
Then they spoke of death.
"I wish," said Eucrites, "that it may find me occupied in correcting
my faults, and attentive to all my duties. In the face of death I will
raise my pure hands to heaven, and I will say to the gods, 'Your
images, gods, that you have placed in the temple of my soul, I have not
profaned; I have hung there my thoughts, as well as garlands, fillets,
and wreaths. I have lived according to your providence. I have lived
Thus speaking, he raised his arms to heaven, and he remained thoughtful
a moment. Then he continued, with extreme joy--
"Separate thyself from life, Eucrites, like the ripe olive which falls;
returning thanks to the tree which bore thee, and blessing the earth,
At these words, drawing from the folds of his robe a naked dagger, he
plunged it into his breast.
Those who listened to him sprang forward to seize his hand, but the
steel point had already penetrated the heart of the sage. Eucrites had
already entered into his rest. Hermodorus and Nicias bore the pale and
bleeding body to one of the couches, amidst the shrill shrieks of the
women, the grunts of the guests disturbed in their sleep, and the heavy
breathing of the couples hidden in the shadow of the tapestry. Cotta,
an old soldier, who slept lightly, woke, approached the corpse, examined
the wound, and cried--
"Call Aristaeus, my physician!"
Nicias shook his head.
"Eucrites is no more," he said. "He wished to die as others wish to
love. He has, like all of us, obeyed his inexpressible desire. And, lo,
now he is like unto the gods, who desire nothing."
Cotta struck his forehead.
"Die! To want to die when he might still serve the State! What
Paphnutius and Thais remained motionless and mute, side by side, their
souls overflowing with disgust, horror, and hope.
Suddenly the monk seized the hand of the actress, and stepping over the
drunkards, who had fallen close to the lascivious couples, and treading
in the wine and blood spilt upon the floor, he led her out of the house.
The sun had risen over the city. Long colonnades stretched on both sides
of the deserted street, and at the end shone the dome of Alexander's
tomb. Here and there on the pavement lay broken wreaths and extinguished
torches. Fresh wafts of the sea could be felt in the air. Paphnutius,
with a look of disgust, tore off his rich robe and trampled the
fragments under his feet.
"Thou hast heard them, my Thais!" he cried. "They have spat forth every
sort of folly and abomination. They dragged the Divine Creator of all
things down the gemonies(*) of the devils of hell, impudently denied the
existence of Good and Evil, blasphemed Jesus, and exalted Judas. And the
most infamous of all, the jackal of darkness, the stinking beast, the
Arian full of corruption and death, opened his mouth like a yawning
sepulchre. My Thais, thou hast seen these filthy snails crawling towards
thee and defiling thee with their sticky sweat; thou hast seen others,
like brutes, sleeping under the heels of their slaves; thou hast seen
them coupling like beasts on the carpet they had fouled with their
vomit; thou hast seen a foolish old man shed a blood yet viler than
the wine which flowed at his debauch, and at the end of the orgie throw
himself in the face of the unforeseen Christ. Praise be to God! Thou
hast seen error and recognised how hideous it was. Thais, Thais, Thais,
recall to mind the follies of these philosophers, and say if thou wilt
go mad with them! Remember the looks, the gestures, the laughs of their
fitting companions, those two lascivious and malicious strumpets, and
say if thou wilt remain like unto them."
(*) Steps on the Aventine Hill, leading to the Tiber, to
which the bodies of executed criminals were dragged to be
thrown into the river. The word is now obsolete, but was
employed by Ben Jonson (Sejanus) and Massinger (The Roman
Thais, her heart stirred with horror and disgust at all she had seen
and heard that night, and feeling the indifference and brutality, the
malicious jealousy of women, the heavy weight of useless hours, sighed.
"I am weary to death, O my father! Where shall I find rest? I feel
that my face is burning, my head empty, and my arms are so tired that I
should not have the strength to seize happiness were it within reach of
Paphnutius gazed at her with loving pity.
"Courage, O my sister! The hour of rest rises for thee, white and pure
as the vapours thou seest rise from the gardens and waters."
They were near the house of Thais, and could see, above the wall, the
tops of the sycamore and fir trees, which surrounded the Grotto of
Nymphs, tremble in the morning breeze. In front of them was a public
square, deserted, and surrounded with steles and votive statues, and
having at each end a semicircular marble seat, supported by figures of
monsters. Thais fell on one of these seats. Then, looking anxiously at
the monk, she asked--
"What must I do?"
"Thou must," replied the monk, "follow Him who has come to seek thee. He
will separate thee from this present life, as the vintager gathers
the cluster that would have rotted on the tree, and bears it to the
wine-press to change it into perfumed wine. Listen! there is, a dozen
hours from Alexandria, towards the west, not far from the sea, a
nunnery, the rules of which, a masterpiece of wisdom, deserve to be put
in lyric verse and sung to the sound of the theorbo and tambourines.
It may truly be said that the women who are there, submissive to these
rules, have their feet upon earth and their faces in heaven. They desire
to be poor, that Jesus may love them, modest, that He may gaze upon
them; chaste that He may wed them. He visits them every day in the
guise of a gardener, His feet bare, His beautiful hands open--even as He
showed Himself to Mary at the entrance of the tomb. I will conduct thee
this very day to this nunnery, my Thais, and soon, commingling with
these holy women, thou wilt share in their heavenly conversation. They
await thee as a sister. On the threshold of the convent, their mother,
the pious Albina, will give thee the kiss of peace and will say, 'My
daughter, thou art welcome!'"
The courtesan uttered a cry of amazement.
"Albina! a daughter of the Caesars! The great niece of the Emperor
"She herself! Albina, who, born in the purple, has donned the serge,
and a daughter of the masters of this world, has risen to the rank of
servant of Jesus Christ. She will be thy mother."
Thais rose and said--
"Take me to the house of Albina."
And Paphnutius, completing his victory--
"Surely I will conduct thee thither, and there I will place thee in a
cell, where thou shalt weep for thy sins. For it is not fitting that
thou shouldst mingle with the daughters of Albina until thou art
cleansed from thy sins. I will seal the door, and there, a happy
prisoner, thou wilt wait in tears till Jesus Himself come, as a sign of
pardon, to break the seal that I have placed. And doubt not that He will
come, Thais, and how the flesh of thy soul will tremble when thou shalt
feel the fingers of Light placed upon thy eyes to dry thy tears!"
Thais said a second time--
"Take me, my father, to the house of Albina."
His heart filled with joy, Paphnutius gazed around him, and tasted,
almost without fear, the pleasure of contemplating the works of
creation; his eyes drank in with joy God's light, and unknown breezes
fanned his cheeks. Suddenly, seeing at one of the corners of the public
square the little door which led to Thais' house, and remembering that
the trees, whose foliage he had been admiring, shaded the courtesan's
garden, he thought of all the impurities which there sullied the air,
to-day so light and pure, and his soul was so grieved that bitter tears
sprang to his eyes.
"Thais," he said, "we must fly without looking back. But we must not
leave behind us the instruments, the witnesses, the accomplices of thy
past crimes; those heavy hangings, those beds, carpets, perfume censers
and lamps, which would proclaim thy infamy! Dost thou wish that,
animated by the demons, and carried by the evil spirit that is in them,
those accursed belongings should pursue thee even to the desert? It is
but too true that there are tables which bring ruin, seats which serve
as the instruments of devils, which act, speak, strike the ground, and
pass through the air. Let all perish which has seen thy shame! Hasten,
Thais, and, whilst the city is yet asleep, order thy slaves to make,
in the centre of this place, a pile, upon which we will burn all the
abominable riches thy dwelling contains."
"Do as you will, my father," she said. "I know that spirits often dwell
in inanimate objects. At night some articles of furniture talk, either
by giving knocks at regular intervals or by emitting little flashes of
light as signals. And even more. Have you remarked, my father, at the
entrance to the Grotto of Nymphs, on the right, a statue of a naked
woman about to bathe? One day I saw, with my own eyes, that statue turn
its head like a living person, and then return to its ordinary attitude.
I was terrified. Nicias, to whom I related this prodigy, laughed at
me; yet there must be some magic in that statue, for it inspired with
violent desires a certain Dalmatian, who was insensible to my beauty.
It is certain that I have lived amongst enchanted things, and that I
was exposed to the greatest perils, for men have been strangled by the
embraces of a bronze statue. Yet it would be a pity to destroy valuable
works made with rare skill, and to burn my carpets and tapestry would be
a great loss. The beautiful colours of some of them are truly wonderful,
and they cost much money to those who gave them to me. I also possess
cups, statues, and pictures of great price. I do not think they ought to
perish. But you know what is necessary. Do as you will, my father."
Thus saying, she followed the monk to the little door at which so many
garlands and wreaths had been hung, and, when it was opened, she told
the porter to call together all the slaves in the house. Four Indians,
who were employed in the kitchen, were the first to appear. They were
all four yellow men, and each had but one eye. It had cost Thais much
trouble, and given her amusement, to get together these four slaves
of the same race, and all afflicted with the same infirmity. When they
attended at table they excited the curiosity of the guests, and Thais
made them relate the story of their lives. These four waited in silence.
Their assistants followed them. Then came the stablemen, the huntsmen,
the litter-bearers, and the running footmen with muscles like iron, two
gardeners hirsute as Priapus, six ferocious looking negroes, three Greek
slaves--one a grammarian, another a poet, and the third a singer. They
all stood, ranged in order, on the public square, and were presently
joined by the negresses--curious, suspicious, rolling big round eyes,
and each with a huge mouth slit to her earrings. Lastly, adjusting their
veils and languidly dragging their feet, which were shackled with light
gold chains, appeared six sulky-looking, beautiful white slave-girls.
When they were all assembled, Thais, pointing to Paphnutius, said--
"Do whatever this man commands you; for the spirit of God is in him, and
if you disobey him you will fall dead."
For she had heard, and really believed, that the earth would open and
swallow up in flames and smoke any impious wretch whom a saint of the
desert struck with his staff.
Paphnutius sent away the women and the Greek men-slaves, and said to the
"Bring wood to the middle of this place, make a huge fire, and throw
into it pell-mell all that there is in the house and grotto."
They were astonished, and stood motionless, looking at their mistress.
And they still stood inactive and silent, and pressed against each
other, elbow to elbow, suspecting that the order was a joke.
"Obey!" said the monk.
Several of them were Christians. They understood the command, and went
to the house to fetch wood and torches. The others were not indisposed
to imitate them, for, being poor, they hated riches and had a natural
instinct for destruction. Whilst they were building the pile, Paphnutius
said to Thais--
"I thought at one time of fetching the treasurer of one of the churches
of Alexandria (if there still remain one worthy of the name of church,
and that is not defiled by the Arian beasts) and giving him thy goods,
woman, that he might distribute them to widows, and change the proceeds
of crime into the treasure of justice. But such a thought did not come
from God, and I cast it from me, for assuredly it would be a great
offence to the well-beloved of Jesus Christ to offer them the spoils
of thy lust. Thais, all that thou hast touched must be devoured by
the fire, even to its very soul. Thanks be to Heaven, these tunics and
veils, which have seen kisses more innumerable than the waves of the
sea, will only feel now the lips and tongues of the flames. Hasten,
slaves! More wood! More links and torches! And thou, woman, return to
thy house, strip thyself of thy shameful robes, and ask of the most
humble of thy slaves, as an undeserving favour, the tunic that she puts
on when she scrubs the floors."
Thais obeyed. Whilst the Indians knelt down and blew the embers, the
negroes threw on the pile coffers of ivory, ebony, or cedar, which broke
open and let out wreaths, garlands, and necklaces. The smoke rose in a
dark column, as in the holocausts of the old religion. Then the fire,
which had been smouldering, burst out suddenly with a roar as of some
monstrous animal, and the almost invisible flames began to devour their
valuable prey. The slaves worked more eagerly; they joyfully dragged out
rich carpets, veils embroidered with silver, and flowered tapestry. They
staggered under the weight of tables, couches, thick cushions, and
beds with gold nails. Three strong Ethiopians came hugging the coloured
statues of the nymphs, one of which had been loved as though it were a
mortal; and they looked like huge apes carrying off women. And when the
beautiful naked forms fell from the arms of these monsters, and were
broken on the stones, a deep groan was heard.
At that moment Thais appeared, her hair unloosed and streaming over her
shoulders, barefooted, and clad in a clumsy coarse garment which seemed
redolent with divine voluptuousness merely from having touched her body.
Behind her came a gardener, carrying, half hidden in his long beard, an
She made a sign to the man to stop, and approaching Paphnutius, showed
him the little god.
"My father," she asked, "should this also be thrown into the flames? It
is of marvellous antique work, and is worth a hundred times its weight
in gold. Its loss would be irreparable, for there is not a sculptor in
the world capable of making such a beautiful Eros. Remember also, my
father, that this child is Love, and he should not be harshly treated.
Believe me, Love is a virtue, and if I have sinned, it is not through
him, my father, but against him. Never shall I regret aught that he has
caused me to do, and I deplore only those things I have done contrary to
his commands. He does not allow women to give themselves to those who
do not come in his name. For that reason he ought to be honoured. Look,
Paphnutius, how pretty this little Eros is! With what grace he hides
himself in the gardener's beard! One day Nicias, who loved me then,
brought it to me and said, 'It will remind you of me.' But the roguish
boy did not remind me of Nicias, but of a young man I knew at Antioch.
Enough riches have been destroyed upon this pile, my father! Preserve
this Eros, and place it in some monastery. Those who see it will
turn their hearts towards God, for love leads naturally to heavenly
The gardener, already believing that the little Eros was saved, smiled
on it as though it had been a child, when Paphnutius, snatching the god
from the arms which held it, threw it into the flames, crying--
"It is enough that Nicias has touched it to make it replete with every
sort of poison!"
Then, seizing by armfuls the sparkling robes, the purple mantles, the
golden sandals, the combs, strigils, mirrors, lamps, theorbos, and
lyres, he threw them into this furnace, more costly than the funeral
pile of Sardanapalus, whilst, drunken with the rage of destruction, the
slaves danced round, uttering wild yells amid a shower of sparks and
One by one, the neighbours, awakened by the noise, opened the windows,
and rubbing their eyes, looked out to see whence the smoke came. Then
they came down, half dressed, and drew near the fire.
"What does it mean?" they wondered.
Amongst them were merchants from whom Thais had often bought perfumes
and stuffs, and they looked on anxiously with long, yellow faces, unable
to comprehend what was going on. Some young debauchees, who, returning
from a supper, passed by there, preceded by their slaves, stopped, their
heads crowned with flowers, their tunics floating, and uttered loud
cries. Attracted by curiosity, the crowd increased unceasingly, and soon
it was known that Thais had been persuaded by the Abbot of Antinoe to
burn her riches and retire to a nunnery.
The shopkeepers thought to themselves--
"Thais is going to leave the city; we shall sell no more to her; it is
dreadful to think of. What will become of us without her? This monk has
driven her mad. He is ruining us. Why let him do it? What is the use of
the laws? Are there no magistrates in Alexandria? Thais does not think
about us and our wives and our poor children. It is a public scandal.
She ought to be compelled to stay in the city."
The young men, on their part, also thought--
"If Thais is going to renounce acting and love, our chief amusements
will be taken from us. She was the glory, delight, and honour of the
stage. She was the joy even of those who had never possessed her. The
women we loved, we loved in her. There were no kisses given in which she
was altogether absent, for she was the joy of all voluptuaries, and the
mere thought that she breathed amongst us excited us to pleasure."
Thus thought the young men, and one of them, named Cerons, who had held
her in his arms, cried out upon the abduction, and blasphemed against
Christ. In every group the conduct of Thais was severely criticised.
"It is a shameful flight!"
"A cowardly desertion!"
"She is taking the bread out of our mouths."
"She is robbing our children."
"She ought at least to pay for the wreaths I have sold to her."
"And the sixty robes she has ordered of me."
"She owes money to everybody."
"Who will represent Iphigenia, Electra, and Polyxena when she is gone?
The handsome Polybia herself will not make such a success as she has
"Life will be dull when her door is closed."
"She was the bright star, the soft moon of the Alexandrian sky."
All the most notorious mendicants of the city--cripples, blind men,
and paralytics--had by this time assembled in the place; and crawling
through the remnants of the riches, they groaned--
"How shall we live when Thais is no longer here to feed us? Every day
the fragments from her table fed two hundred poor wretches, and her
lovers, when they quitted her, threw us as they passed handfuls of
Some thieves, too, also mingled with the crowd, and created a deafening
clamour, and pushed their neighbours, to increase disorder, and take
advantage of the tumult to filch some valuable object.
Old Taddeus, who sold Miletan wool and Tarentan linen, and to whom Thais
owed a large sum of money, alone remained calm and silent in the
midst of the uproar. He listened and watched, and gently stroking his
goat-beard, seemed thoughtful. At last he approached young Cerons, and
pulling him by the sleeve, whispered--
"You are the favoured lover of Thais, handsome youth; show yourself, and
do not allow this monk to carry her off."
"By Pollux and his sister, he shall not!" cried Cerons. "I will speak
to Thais, and without flattering myself, I think she will listen to me
rather than to that sooty-faced Lapithan. Place! Place, dogs!"
And striking with his fist the men, upsetting the old women and treading
on the young children, he reached Thais, and taking her aside--
"Dearest girl," he said, "look at me, remember, and tell me truly if you
But Paphnutius threw himself between Thais and Cerons.
"Impious wretch!" he cried, "beware and touch her not; she is
sacred--she belongs to God."
"Get away, baboon!" replied the young man furiously. "Let me speak to my
sweetheart, or if not I will drag your obscene carcase by the beard to
the fire, and roast you like a sausage."
And he put his hand on Thais. But, pushed away by the monk with
unexpected force, he staggered back four paces and fell at the foot of
the pile amongst the scattered ashes.
Old Taddeus, meanwhile, had been going from one to the other, pulling
the ears of the slaves and kissing the hands of the masters, inciting
each and all against Paphnutius, and had already formed a little band
resolutely determined to oppose the monk who would steal Thais from
Cerons rose, his face black, his hair singed, and choking with smoke
and rage. He blasphemed against the gods, and threw himself amongst the
assailants, behind whom the beggars crawled, shaking their crutches.
Paphnutius was soon enclosed in a circle of menacing fists, raised
sticks, and cries of death.
"To the ravens with the monk! to the ravens!"
"No; throw him in the fire! Burn him alive!"
Seizing his fair prey, he pressed her to his heart.
"Impious men," he cried in a voice of thunder, "strive not to tear the
dove from the eagle of the Lord. But rather copy this woman, and like
she turn your filth into gold. Imitate her example, and renounce the
false wealth which you think you hold and which holds you. Hasten!
the day is at hand, and divine patience begins to grow weary. Repent,
confess your sins, weep and pray. Walk in the footsteps of Thais. Hate
your offenses, which are as great as hers. Which of you, poor or rich,
merchants, soldiers, slaves or eminent citizens, would dare to say,
before God, that he was better than a prostitute? You are all nothing
but living filth, and it is by a miracle of divine goodness that you do
not suddenly turn into streams of mire."
Whilst he spoke flames shot from his eyes; an it seemed as though live
coals came from his lips and those who surrounded him were obliged to
hear him in spite of themselves.
But old Taddeus did not remain idle. He picked up stones and oyster
shells, which he hid in the skirt of his tunic, and not daring to throw
them himself slipped them into the hands of the beggars. Soon the stones
began to fly, and a well-directed shell cut Paphnutius' face. The blood,
which flowed down the dark face of the martyr, dropped in a new baptism
on the head of the penitent, and Thais, half stifled in the monk's
embrace and her delicate skin scratched by the coarse cassock, felt a
thrill of horror and fright.
At that moment a man elegantly dressed, and with a wreath of wild celery
on his head, opened a road for himself through the furious crowd, and
"Stop! Stop! This monk is my brother!"
It was Nicias, who, having closed the eyes of the philosopher Eucrites,
was passing through the square to return to his house, and saw, without
very much surprise (for nothing astonished him), the smoking pile, Thais
clad an a serge cassock, and Paphnutius being stoned.
"Stop, I tell you; spare my old fellow-scholar; respect the beloved head
But, being only used to subtle disquisitions with philosophers, he did
not possess that imperious energy which commands vulgar minds. He was
not listened to. A shower of stones and shells fell on the monk, who,
protecting Thais with his body, praised the Lord whose goodness turned
his wounds into caresses. Despairing of making himself heard, and
feeling but too sure that he could not save his friend either by force
or persuasion, Nicias resigned himself to the will of the gods--in
whom he had little confidence--when the idea occurred to him to use a
stratagem which his contempt for men had suddenly suggested to him. He
took from his girdle his purse, which was full of gold and silver, for
he was a pleasure-loving and charitable man, and running up to the men
who were throwing the stones, he chinked the money in their ears. At
first they paid no attention to him, their fury being too great; but
little by little their looks turned towards the chinking gold, and soon
their arms dropped and no longer menaced their victim. Seeing that he
had attracted their eyes and minds, Nicias opened his purse and threw
some pieces of gold and silver amongst the crowd. The more greedy
of them stooped to pick it up. The philosopher, pleased at his first
success, adroitly threw deniers and drachmas here and there. At the
sound of the pieces of money rattling on the pavement, the persecutors
of Paphnutius threw themselves on the ground. Beggars, slaves, and
tradespeople scrambled after the money, whilst, grouped round Cerons,
the patricians watched the struggle and laughed heartily. Cerons
himself quite forgot his wrath. His friends encouraged the rivals, chose
competitors, and made bets, and urged on the miserable wretches as they
would have done fighting dogs. A cripple without legs having succeeded
in seizing a drachma, the applause was frenetic. The young men
themselves began to throw money, and nothing was to be seen in the
square but a multitude of backs, rising and falling like waves of the
sea, under a shower of coins. Paphnutius was forgotten.
Nicias ran up to him, covered him with his cloak, and dragged him and
Thais into by-streets where they were safe from pursuit. They ran for
some time in silence, and when they thought they were out of reach
of their enemies, they ceased running, and Nicias said, in a tone of
raillery in which a little sadness was mingled--
"It is finished then! Pluto ravishes Proserpine, and Thais will follow
my fierce-looking friend whithersoever he will lead her."
"It is true, Nicias," replied Thais, "that I am tired of living with men
like you, smiling, perfumed, kindly egoists. I am weary of all I know,
and I am, therefore, going to seek the unknown. I have experienced joy
that was not joy, and here is a man who teaches me that sorrow is true
joy. I believe him, for he knows the truth."
"And I, sweetheart," replied Nicias, smiling, "I know the truths. He
knows but one, I know them all. I am superior to him in that respect,
but to tell the truth, it doesn't make me any the prouder nor any the
Then, seeing that the monk was glaring fiercely at him--
"My dear Paphnutius, do not imagine that I think you extremely absurd,
or even altogether unreasonable. And if I were to compare your life with
mine, I could not say which is preferable in itself. I shall presently
go and take the bath which Crobyle and Myrtale have prepared for me;
I shall eat the wing of a Phasian pheasant; then I shall read--for the
hundredth time--some fable by Apuleius or some treatise by Porphyry.
You will return to your cell, where, leaning like a tame camel, you will
ruminate on--I know not what--formulas of incarnations you have long
chewed and rechewed, and in the evening you will swallow some radishes
without any oil. Well, my dear friend, in accomplishing these acts, so
different apparently, we are both obeying the same sentiment, the only
motive for all human actions; we are both seeking our own pleasure, and
striving to attain the same end--happiness, the impossible happiness.
It would be folly on my part to say you were wrong, dear friend, even
though I think myself in the right.
"And you, my Thais, go and enjoy yourself, and be more happy still, if
it be possible, in abstinence and austerity than you have been in riches
and pleasure. On the whole, I should say you were to be envied. For
if in our whole lives, Paphnutius and I have pursued but one kind of
pleasurable satisfaction, you in your life, dear Thais, have tasted
diverse joys such as it is rarely given to the same person to know.
I should really like to be for one hour, a saint like our dear friend
Paphnutius. But that is not possible. Farewell, then, Thais! Go where
the secret forces of nature and your destiny conduct you! Go, and take
with you, whithersoever you go, the good wishes of Nicias! I know
that is mere foolishness, but can I give you anything more than barren
regrets and vain wishes in payment for the delicious illusions which
once enveloped me when I was in your arms, and of which only the shadow
now remains to me? Farewell, my benefactress! Farewell, goodness that is
ignorant of its own existence, mysterious virtue, joy of men! Farewell
to the most adorable of the images that nature has ever thrown--for some
unknown reasons--on the face of this deceptive world!"
Whilst he spoke, deep wrath had been brewing in the monk's heart, and it
now broke forth in imprecations.
"Avaunt, cursed wretch! I scorn thee and hate thee. Go, child of hell, a
thousand times worse than those poor lost ones who just now threw stones
and insults at me! They knew not what they did, and the grace of God,
which I implored for them, may some day descend into their hearts. But
thou, detestable Nicias, thou art but a perfidious venom and a bitter
poison. Thy mouth breathes despair and death. One of thy smiles contains
more blasphemy than issues in a century from the smoking lips of Satan.
Nicias looked at him.
"Farewell, my brother," he said, "and may you preserve until your life's
end your store of faith, hate, and love. Farewell, Thais! It is in vain
that you will forget me, because I shall ever remember you."
On quitting them he walked thoughtfully through the winding streets in
the vicinity of the great cemetery of Alexandria, which are peopled
by the makers of funeral urns. Their shops were full of clay figures
painted in bright colours and representing gods and goddesses, mimes,
women, winged sprites, &c., such as were usually buried with the dead.
He fancied that perhaps some of the little images which he saw there
might be the companions of his eternal sleep; and it seemed to him that
a little Eros, with its tunic tucked up, laughed at him mockingly. He
looked forward to his death, and the idea was painful to him. To cure
his sadness he tried to philosophise, and reasoned thus--
"Assuredly," he said to himself, "time has no reality. It is a simple
illusion of our minds. Then, if it does not exist, how can it bring
death to me? Does that mean that I shall live for ever? No, but I
conclude therefrom that my death is, always has been, as it always will
be. I do not feel it yet, but it is in me, and I ought not to fear it,
for it would be folly to dread the coming of that which has arrived. It
exists, like the last page of a book I read and have not finished."
This argument occupied him all the rest of the way, but without making
him more cheerful; and his mind was filled with dismal thoughts when he
arrived at the door of his house and heard the merry laughter of Crobyle
and Myrtale, who were playing at tennis whilst they were waiting for
Paphnutius and Thais left the city by the Gate of the Moon, and followed
"Woman," said the monk, "all that great blue sea could not wash away thy
He spoke with scorn and anger.
"More filthy than a bitch or a sow, thou hast prostituted to pagans and
infidels a body which the Eternal had intended for a tabernacle, and thy
impurities are such that, now that thou knowest the truth, thou canst
not unite thy lips or join thy hands without a horror of thyself rising
in thy heart."
She followed him meekly, over stony roads, under a burning sun. Her
knees ached from fatigue, and her throat was parched with thirst.
But, far from feeling any of the pity which softens the hearts of the
profane, Paphnutius rejoiced at these propitiatory sufferings of the
flesh which had so sinned. So infuriated was he with holy zeal that he
would have liked to cut with rods the body that had preserved its beauty
as a shining witness to its infamy. His meditations augmented his pious
fury, and remembering that Thais had received Nicias in her bed, that
idea seemed so horrible to him that his blood all flowed back to his
heart, and his breast felt ready to burst. His curses were stifled in
his throat, and he could only grind his teeth. He sprang forward
and stood before her, pale, terrible, and filled with the Spirit of
God--looked into her very soul, and then spat in her face.
She calmly wiped her face and continued to walk on. He followed, glaring
at her in pious anger, as if she had been hell itself. He was thinking
how he could avenge Christ in order that Christ should not avenge
Himself, when he saw a drop of blood that had dripped from the foot of
Thais on the sand. Then a hitherto unknown influence entered his opened
heart, sobs rose to his lips, he wept, he ran and knelt before her,
called her his sister, and kissed her bleeding feet. He murmured a
hundred times, "My sister, my sister, my mother, O most holy!"
"Angels of heaven, receive carefully this drop of blood, and bear it
before the throne of the Lord. And may a miraculous anemone blossom
on the sand sprinkled with the blood of Thais, that those who see the
flower may recover purity of heart and feeling. O holy, holy, most holy
As he prayed and prophesied thus, a lad passed on an ass. Paphnutius
ordered him to descend, seated Thais on the ass, and led it by the
bridle. Towards evening they came to a canal shaded by fine trees; he
tied the ass to the trunk of a date palm, and sitting on a mossy stone
he shared with Thais a loaf, which they ate with salt and hyssop. They
drank fresh water in their hands, and talked of things eternal. She
"I have never drunk water so pure nor breathed an air so light, and I
feel that God floats in the breezes that pass."
"Look! it is the evening, O my sister. The blue shadows of night cover
the hills. But soon thou wilt see shining in the dawn the tabernacles
of Light; soon thou wilt behold shine forth the roses of the eternal
They journeyed all night, and, while the crescent moon gleamed on the
silver crests of the waves, they sang psalms and hymns. When the sun
rose, the Libyan desert stretched before them like a huge lion-skin. At
the edge of the desert, and close to a few palm-trees, some white huts
shimmered in the morning light.
"Are those the tabernacles of Light, father?" asked Thais.
"Even so, my daughter and my sister. Yonder is the House of Salvation,
where I will confine you with my own hands."
Soon they saw a number of women busy around the buildings, like
bees round their hives. There were some who baked bread, or prepared
vegetables; many were spinning wool, and the light of heaven shone upon
them like a smile of God. Others meditated in the shade of the tamarisk
trees; their white hands hung by their sides, for, being filled with
love, they had chosen the part of Magdalen, and performed no work but
prayer, contemplation, and ecstasy. They were, therefore, called the
Marys, and were clad in white. Those who worked with their hands were
called the Marthas, and wore blue robes. All wore the hood,
but the younger ones allowed a few curls to show on their
foreheads--unintentionally, it is to be presumed, since it was forbidden
by the rules. A very old lady, tall and white, walked from cell to cell,
leaning on a staff of hard wood. Paphnutius approached her respectfully,
kissed the hem of her veil, and said--
"The peace of the Lord be with thee, venerable Albina. I have brought
to the hive, of which thou art queen, a bee I found lost on a flowerless
road. I took it in the palm of my hand, and revived it with my breath. I
give it to thee."
And he pointed to the actress, who knelt down before the daughter of the
Albina cast a piercing glance on Thais, ordered her to rise, kissed her
on the forehead, and then, turning to the monk--
"We will place her," she said, "amongst the Marys."
Paphnutius then related how Thais had been brought to the House of
Salvation, and asked that she should be at once confined in a cell.
The abbess consented, and led the penitent to a hut, which had remained
empty since the death of the virgin Laeta, who had sanctified it. In
this narrow chamber there was but a bed, a table, and a pitcher, and
Thais when she crossed the threshold, felt filled with ineffable joy.
"I wish to close the door myself," said Paphnutius, "and put thereon a
seal, which Jesus will come and break with His own hands."
He went to the side of the spring, and took a handful of wet clay, mixed
with it a little spittle and a hair from his head, and plastered it
across the chink of the door. Then, approaching the window, near which
Thais stood peaceful and happy, he fell on his knees and praised the
Lord three times.
"How beautiful are the feet of her who walketh in the paths of
righteousness! How beautiful are her feet, and how resplendent her
He rose, lowered his hood over his eyes, and walked away slowly.
Albina called one of her virgins.
"My daughter," she said, "take to Thais those things which are needful
for her--bread, water, and a flute with three holes."
PART THE THIRD -- THE EUPHORBIA
Paphnutius had returned to the holy desert. He took, near Athribis,
the boat which went up the Nile to carry food to the monastery of Abbot
Serapion. When he disembarked, his disciples advanced to meet him with
great demonstrations of joy. Some raised their arms to heaven; others,
prostrate on the ground, kissed the Abbot's sandals. For they knew
already what the saint had accomplished in Alexandria. The monks
generally received, by rapid and unknown means, information concerning
the safety or glory of the Church. News spread through the desert with
the rapidity of the simoon.
When Paphnutius strode across the sand, his disciples followed
him, praising the Lord. Flavian, who was the oldest member of the
brotherhood, was suddenly seized with a pious frenzy and began to sing
an inspired hymn--
"O blessed day! Now is our father restored to us.
He has returned laden with fresh merits, of which we reap the
For the virtues of the father are the wealth of the children, and
the sanctity of the Abbot illuminates every cell.
Paphnutius, our father, has given a new spouse to Jesus Christ.
By his wondrous art, he has changed a black sheep into a white
And now, behold, he has returned to us, laden with fresh merits.
Like unto the bee of the Arsinoetid, heavy with the nectar of
Even as the ram of Nubia, which could hardly bear the weight of its
Let us celebrate this day by mingling oil with our food."
When they came to the door of the Abbot's cell, they fell on their
knees, and said--
"Let our father bless us, and give each of us a measure of oil to
celebrate his return."
Paul the Fool, who alone had remained standing, asked, "Who is this
man?" and did not recognise Paphnutius. But no one paid any attention
to what he said, as he was known to be devoid of intelligence, though
filled with piety.
The Abbot of Antinoe, locked in his cell, thought--
"I have at last regained the haven of my repose and happiness. I have
returned to my fortress of contentment. But how is it that this roof of
rushes, so dear to me, does not receive me as a friend, and the walls
say not to me, 'Thou art welcome.' Nothing has changed, since my
departure, in this abode I have chosen. There is my table and my bed.
There is the mummy's head which has so often inspired me with salutary
thoughts; and there is the book in which I have so often sought
conceptions of God. And yet nothing that I left is here. The things
appear grievously despoiled of their customary charm, and it seems to
me as though I saw them to-day for the first time. When I look at that
table and couch, that in former days I made with my own hands, that
black, dried head, these rolls of papyrus filled with the sayings of
God, I seem to see the belongings of a dead man. After having known them
all so well, I know them no longer. Alas! since nothing around me has
really changed, it is I who am no longer what I was. I am another. I am
the dead man! What has happened, my God? What has been taken from me?
What is left unto me? And who am I?"
And it especially perplexed him to find, in spite of himself, that his
cell was small, whereas, when viewed by the eye of faith, he ought to
consider it immense, because the infinitude of God began there.
He began to pray, with his face against the ground, and felt a little
happier. He had hardly been an hour in prayer, when a vision of Thais
passed before his eyes. He returned thanks to God--
"Jesus! it is Thou who hast sent her. I acknowledge in that Thy
wonderful goodness; Thou wouldst please me, reassure me and comfort me
by the sight of her whom I have given to Thee. Thou; presentest her to
my eyes with her smile now disarmed; her grace, now become innocent; her
beauty from which I have extracted the sting. To please me, my God, thou
showest her to me as I have prepared and purified her for Thy designs,
as one friend pleasantly reminds another of the rich gift he has
received from him. Therefore I see this woman with delight, being
assured that the vision comes from Thee. Thou dost not forget that I
have given her to Thee, Jesus. Keep her, since she pleases Thee, and
suffer not her beauty to give joy to any but Thyself."
He could not sleep all night, and he saw Thais more distinctly than he
had seen her in the Grotto of Nymphs. He commended himself, saying--
"What I have done, I have done to the glory of God."
Yet, to his great surprise, his heart was not at ease. He sighed.
"Why art thou sad, O my soul, and why dost thou trouble me?"
And his mind was still perturbed. Thirty days he remained in that
condition of sadness which precedes the sore trials of a solitary monk.
The image of Thais never left him day or night. He did not try to banish
it, because he still thought it came from God, and was the image of a
saint. But one morning she visited him in a dream, her hair crowned with
violets, and her very gentleness seemed so formidable, that he uttered a
cry of fright, and woke in an icy sweat. His eyes were still heavy with
sleep, when he felt a moist warm breath on his face. A little jackal,
its two paws placed on the side of the bed, was panting its stinking
breath in his face, and grinning at him.
Paphnutius was greatly astonished, and it seemed to him as though a
tower had given way under his feet. And, in fact, he had fallen, for his
self-confidence had gone. For some time he was incapable of thought
and when he did recover himself, his meditations only increased his
"It is one of two things," he said to himself; "either this vision, like
the preceding ones, came from God, and was a good vision, and it is my
natural perversity which has misrepresented it, as wine turns sour in
a dirty cup. I have, by my unworthiness, changed instruction into
reproach, of which this diabolical jackal immediately took advantage.
Or else this vision came, not from God, but, on the contrary, from the
devil, and was evil. In that case I should doubt whether the former ones
had, as I thought, a celestial origin. I am therefore incapable of that
discernment which is necessary for the ascetic. In either case it is
plain that God is no longer with me,--of which I feel the effects,
though I cannot explain the cause."
He reasoned in this way, and anxiously asked--
"Just God, what trials dost Thou appoint for Thy servants if the
apparitions of Thy saints are a danger for them? Give me to discern, by
an intelligible sign, that which comes from Thee, and that which comes
from the other."
And as God, whose designs are inscrutable, did not see fit to enlighten
his servant, Paphnutius, lost in doubt, resolved not to think of Thais
any more. But his resolutions were vain. Though absent, she was ever
with him. She gazed at him whilst he read, or meditated, or prayed, or
met his eyes wherever he looked. Her imaginary approach was heralded by
a slight sound, such as is made by a woman's dress when she walks, and
the visions had more verisimilitude than reality itself, which moves and
is confused, whereas the phantoms which are caused by solitude are fixed
and unchangeable. She came under various appearances--sometimes pensive,
her head crowned with her last perishable wreath, clad as at the banquet
at Alexandria, in a mauve robe spangled with silver flowers; sometimes
voluptuously in a cloud of light veils, and bathed in the warm shadows
of the Grotto of Nymphs; sometimes in a serge cassock, pious and radiant
with celestial joy; sometimes tragic, her eyes swimming in the terrors
of death, and showing her bare breast bedewed with the blood from her
pierced heart. What disturbed him the most in these visions was that
the wreaths, tunics, and veils, that he had burned with his own hands,
should thus return; it became evident to him that these things had an
imperishable soul, and he cried--
"Lo, all the countless souls of the sins of Thais come upon me!"
When he turned away his head, he felt that Thais was behind him, and
that made him feel still more uneasy. His torture was cruel. But as
his soul and body remained pure in the midst of all his temptations, he
trusted in God, and gently complained to Him.
"My God, if I went so far to seek her amongst the Gentiles, it was for
Thy sake, and not for mine. It would not be just that I should suffer
for what I have done in Thy behalf. Protect me, sweet Jesus! My Saviour,
save me! Suffer not the phantom to accomplish that which the body
could not. As I have triumphed over the flesh, suffer not the shadow
to overthrow me. I know that I am now exposed to greater dangers than
I ever ran. I feel and know that the dream has more power than the
reality. And how could it be otherwise, since it is itself but a higher
reality? It is the soul of things. Plato, though he was but an idolater,
has testified to the real existence of ideas. At that banquet of demons
to which Thou accompaniedst me, Lord, I heard men--sullied with crimes
truly, but certainly not devoid of intelligence--agree to acknowledge
that we see real objects in solitude, meditation, and ecstasy; and Thy
Scriptures, my God, many times affirm the virtue of dreams, and the
power of visions formed either by Thee, great God, or by Thy adversary."
There was a new man in him and now he reasoned with God, but God did not
choose to enlighten him. His nights were one long dream, and his days
did not differ from his nights. One morning he awoke uttering sighs,
such as issue, by moonlight, from the tombs of the victims of crimes.
Thais had come, showing her bleeding feet, and whilst he wept, she had
slipped into his couch. There was no longer any doubt; the image of
Thais was an impure image.
His heart filled with disgust, he leaped out of his profaned couch, and
hid his face in his hands that he might not see the daylight. The hours
passed, but they did not remove his shame. All was quiet in the cell.
For the first time for many long days, Paphnutius was alone. The phantom
had at last left him, and even its absence seemed dreadful. Nothing,
nothing to distract his mind from the recollection of the dream. Full of
horror, he thought--
"Why did I not drive her away? Why did I not tear myself from her cold
arms and burning knees?"
He no longer dared to pronounce the name of God near that horrible
couch, and he feared that his cell being profaned, the demons might
freely enter at any hour. His fears did not deceive him. The seven
little jackals, which had never crossed the threshold, entered in a
file, and went and hid under the bed. At the vesper hour, there came an
eighth, the stench of which was horrible. The next day, a ninth joined
the others, and soon there were thirty, then sixty, then eighty. They
became smaller as they multiplied, and being no bigger than rats, they
covered the floor, the couch, and the stool. One of them jumped on the
little table by the side of the bed, and standing with its four feet
together on the death's head, looked at the monk with burning eyes. And
every day fresh jackals came.
To expiate the abominable sin of his dream, and flee from impure
thoughts, Paphnutius determined to leave his cell, which had now become
polluted, go far into the desert, and practise unheard-of austerities,
strange labours, and fresh works of grace. But before putting his design
into action, he went to see old Palemon and ask his advice.
He found him in his garden watering his lettuces. It was the evening.
The blue Nile flowed at the foot of violet hills. The good old man was
walking slowly, in order not to frighten a pigeon that had perched on
"The Lord be with thee, brother Paphnutius," he said. "Admire his
goodness; He sends me the animals that He has created that I may
converse with them of His works, and praise Him in the birds of the air.
Look at this pigeon; note the changing hues of its neck, and say, is
it not a beautiful work of God? But have you not come to talk with me,
brother, on some pious subject? If so, I will put down my watering-pot,
and listen to you."
Paphnutius told the old man about his journey, his return, the visions
of his days and the dreams of his nights,--without omitting the sinful
one--and the pack of jackals.
"Do you not think, father," he added, "that I ought to bury myself in
the desert, and perform some extraordinary austerities that would even
astonish the devil?"
"I am but a poor sinner," replied Palemon, "and I know little about men,
having passed all my life in this garden, with gazelles, little hares
and pigeons. But it seems to me, brother, that your distemper comes
from your having passed too suddenly from the noisy world to the calm of
solitude. Such sudden transitions can but do harm to the health of the
soul. You are, brother, like a man who exposes himself, almost at the
same time, to great heat and great cold. A cough shakes him, and fever
torments him. In your place, brother Paphnutius, instead of retiring
at once into some awful desert, I should take such amusements as are
fitting to a monk and a holy abbot. I should visit the monasteries in
the neighbourhood. Some of them are wonderful, it is said. That of
Abbot Serapion contains, I have been told, a thousand four hundred and
thirty-two cells, and the monks are divided into as many legions as
there are letters in the Greek alphabet. I am even informed that a
certain analogy is observed between the character of the monks and the
shape of the letter by which they are designated, and that, for example,
those who are placed under Z have a tortuous character, whilst those
under I have an upright mind. If I were you, brother, I should go and
assure myself of this with my own eyes, and I should know no rest
until I had seen such a wonderful thing. I should not fail to study the
regulations of the various communities which are scattered along the
banks of the Nile, so as to be able to compare one with another. Such
study is befitting a religious man like yourself. You have heard say,
no doubt, that Abbot Ephrem has drawn up for his monastery pious
regulations of great beauty. With his permission, you might make a copy
of them, as you are a skilful penman. I could not do so, for my hands,
accustomed to wield the spade, are too awkward to direct the thin reed
of the scribe over the papyrus. But you have the knowledge of letters,
brother, and should thank God for it, for beautiful writing cannot be
too much admired. The work of the copyist and the reader is a great
safeguard against evil thoughts. Brother Paphnutius, why do you not
write out the teachings of our fathers, Paul and Anthony? Little by
little you would recover, in these pious works, peace of soul and mind;
solitude would again become pleasant to your heart, and soon you would
be in a condition to recommence those ascetic works which your journey
has interrupted. But you must not expect much benefit from excessive
penitence. When he was amongst us, our Father Anthony used to say,
'Excessive fasting produces weakness, and weakness begets idleness.
There are some monks who ruin their body by fasts improperly prolonged.
Of them it may be said that they plunge a dagger into their own breast,
and deliver themselves up unresistingly into the power of the devil.'
So said the holy man, Anthony. I am but a foolish old man, but, by the
grace of God, I have remembered what our father told us."
Paphnutius thanked Palemon and promised to think over his advice. When
he had passed the fence of reeds which enclosed the little garden,
he turned round and saw the good old gardener engaged in watering his
salads, whilst the pigeon walked about on his bent back, and at that
sight Paphnutius felt ready to weep.
On returning to his cell, he found there a strange turmoil, as though
it were filled with grains of sand blown about by a strong wind, and
on looking closer, he saw these moving bodies were myriads of little
jackals. That night he saw in a dream, a high stone column surmounted by
a human face, and he heard a voice which said--
"Ascend this pillar!"
On awaking, he felt confident that this dream had been sent from heaven.
He called his disciples, and addressed them in these words--
"My beloved sons, I must leave you, and go where God sends me. During my
absence obey Flavian as you would me, and take care of our brother Paul.
Bless you. Farewell."
As he strode away, they remained prostrate on the ground, and when they
raised their heads, they saw his tall dark figure on the sandy horizon.
He walked day and night until he reached the ruins of the temple,
formerly built by the idolaters, in which he had slept amongst the
scorpions and sirens on his former strange journey. The walls, covered
with magic signs, were still standing. Thirty immense columns, which
terminated in human heads or lotus flowers, still supported a heavy
stone entablature. But, at one end of the temple, a pillar had shaken
off its old burden, and stood isolated. It had for its capital the head
of a woman which smiled, with long eyes and rounded cheeks, and on her
forehead cow's horns.
Paphnutius, on seeing it, recognised the column which had been shown him
in his dream, and he calculated that it was thirty-two cubits high. He
went to the neighbouring village, and ordered a ladder of that height to
be made; and when the ladder was placed against the pillar, he ascended,
knelt down on the top, and said to the Lord--
"Here, then, O God, is the abode Thou hast chosen for me. May I remain
here, in Thy Grace, until the hour of my death."
He had brought no provisions with him, trusting in divine providence,
and expecting that charitable peasants would give him all that he
needed. And, in fact, the next day, about the ninth hour, women came
with their children, bringing bread, dates, and fresh water, which the
boys carried to the top of the column.
The top of the pillar was not large enough to allow the monk to lie at
full length, so that he slept with his legs crossed and his head on
his breast, and sleep was a more cruel torture to him than his wakeful
hours. At dawn the ospreys brushed him with their wings, and he awoke
filled with pain and terror.
It happened that the carpenter who had made the ladder feared God.
Disturbed at the thought that the saint was exposed to the sun and rain,
and fearing that he might fall in his sleep, this pious man constructed
a roof and a railing on the top of the column.
Soon the report of this extraordinary existence spread from village to
village, and the labourers of the valley came on Sundays, with their
wives and children, to look at the stylite. The disciples of Paphnutius,
having learned with surprise the place of this wonderful retreat, came
to him, and obtained from him permission to build their huts at the foot
of the column. Every morning they came and stood in a circle round the
master, and received from him the words of instruction.
"My sons," he said to them, "continue like those little children whom
Jesus loved. That is the way of salvation. The sin of the flesh is the
source and origin of all sins; they spring from it as from a parent.
Pride, avarice, idleness, anger, and envy are its dearly beloved
progeny. I have seen this in Alexandria; I have seen rich men carried
away by the vice of lust, which, like a river with a turbid flood, swept
them into the gulf of bitterness."
The abbots Ephrem and Serapion, being informed of his strange
proceeding, wished to behold him with their own eyes. Seeing from
afar, on the river, the triangular sail which was bringing them to him,
Paphnutius could not prevent himself from thinking that God had made him
an example to all solitary monks. The two abbots, when they saw him, did
not conceal their surprise; and, having consulted together, they agreed
in condemning such an extraordinary penance, and exhorted Paphnutius to
"Such a mode of life is contrary to all usage," they said; "it is
peculiar, and against all rules."
But Paphnutius replied--
"What is the monastic life if not peculiar? And ought not the deeds of
a monk to be as eccentric as he is himself? It was a sign from God
that caused me to ascend here; it is a sign from God that will make me
Every day religious men came to join the disciples of Paphnutius, and
they built for themselves shelters round the aerial hermitage. Several
of them, to imitate the saint, mounted the ruins of the temple; but,
being reproved by their brethren, and conquered by fatigue, they soon
gave up these attempts.
Pilgrims flocked from all parts. There were some who had come long
distances, and were hungry and thirsty. The idea occurred to a poor
widow of selling fresh water and melons. Against the foot of the column,
behind her bottles of red clay, her cups and her fruit under an awning
of blue-and-white striped canvas, she cried, "Who wants to drink?"
Following the example of this widow, a baker brought some bricks and
made an oven close by, in the hope of selling loaves and cakes to
visitors. As the crowd of visitors increased unceasingly, and the
inhabitants of the large cities of Egypt began to come, some man, greedy
of gain, built a caravanserai to lodge the guests and their servants,
camels, and mules. Soon there was, in front of the column, a market to
which the fishermen of the Nile brought their fish, and the gardeners
their vegetables. A barber, who shaved people in the open air, amused
the crowd with his jokes. The old temple, so long given over to silence
and solitude was filled with countless sights and sounds of life. The
innkeepers turned the subterranean vaults into cellars and nailed on the
old pillars signs surmounted by the figure of the holy Paphnutius, and
bearing this inscription in Greek and Egyptian--""Pomegranate wine, fig
wine, and genuine Cilician beer sold here"." On the walls, sculptured
with pure and graceful carvings, the shop-keepers hung ropes of onions,
and smoked fish, dead hares, and the carcases of sheep. In the evening,
the old occupants of the ruins, the rats, scuttled in a long row to the
river, whilst the ibises, suspiciously craning their necks, perched on
the high cornices, to which rose the smoke of the kitchens, the shouts
of the drinkers, and the cries of the tapsters. All around, builders
laid out streets, and masons constructed convents, chapels, and
churches. By the end of six months a city was established with a
guardhouse, a tribunal, a prison, and a school, kept by an old blind
The pilgrims were innumerable. Bishops and other Church dignitaries,
came, full of admiration. The Patriarch of Antioch, who chanced to be in
Egypt at that time, came with all his clergy. He highly approved of the
extraordinary conduct of the stylite, and the heads of the Libyan Church
followed, in the absence of Athanasius, the opinion of the Patriarch.
Having learned which, Abbots Ephrem and Serapion came to the feet of
Paphnutius to apologise for their former mistrust. Paphnutius replied--
"Know, my brothers, that the penance I endure is barely equal to the
temptations which are sent me, the number and force of which astound
me. A man, viewed externally, is but small, and, from the height of the
pillar to which God has called me, I see human beings moving about like
ants. But, considered internally, man is immense; he is as large as
the world, for he contains it. All that is spread before me--these
monasteries, these inns, the boats on the river, the villages, and what
I see in the distance of fields, canals, sand, and mountains--is nothing
in respect to what is in me. I carry in my heart countless cities
and illimitable deserts. And evil--evil and death--spread over this
immensity, cover them all, as night covers the earth. I am, in myself
alone, a universe of evil thoughts."
He spoke thus because the desire for woman was in him.
The seventh month, there came from Alexandria, Bubastis and Sais, women
who had long been barren, hoping to obtain children by the intercession
of the holy man and the virtues of his pillar. They rubbed their sterile
bodies against the stone. There followed a procession, as far as the
eye could reach, of chariots, palanquins, and litters, which stopped
and pushed and jostled below the man of God. From them came sick people
terrible to see. Mothers brought to Paphnutius young boys whose limbs
were twisted, their eyes starting, their mouth foaming, their voices
hoarse. He laid his hands upon them. Blind men approached, groping with
their hands, and raising towards him a face pierced with two bleeding
holes. Paralytics displayed before him the heavy immobility, the deadly
emaciation, and the hideous contractions of their limbs; lame men showed
him their club feet; women with cancer, holding their bosoms with both
hands, uncovered before him their breasts devoured by the invisible
vulture. Dropsical women, swollen like wine skins were placed on
the ground before him. He blessed them. Nubians, afflicted with
elephantiasis, advanced with heavy steps and looked at him with
streaming eyes and expressionless countenances. He made the sign of the
cross over them. A young girl of Aphroditopolis was brought to him on
a litter; after having vomited blood, she had slept for three days. She
looked like a waxen image, and her parents, who thought she was dead,
had placed a palm leaf on her breast. Paphnutius having prayed to God,
the young girl raised her head and opened her eyes.
As the people reported everywhere the miracles which the saint had
performed, unfortunate persons afflicted with that disease which
the Greeks call "the divine malady," came from all parts of Egypt in
incalculable legions. As soon as they saw the pillar, they were seized
with convulsions, rolled on the ground, writhed, and twisted themselves
into a ball. And--though it is hardly to be believed--the persons
present were in their turn seized with a violent delirium, and imitated
the contortions of the epileptics. Monks and pilgrims, men and women,
wallowed and struggled pell-mell, their limbs twisted, foaming at the
mouth, eating handfuls of earth and prophesying. And Paphnutius at the
top of his pillar felt a thrill of horror pass through him, and cried to
"I am the scapegoat, and I take upon me all the impurities of these
people, and that is why, Lord, my body is filled with evil spirits."
Every time that a sick person went away healed, the people applauded,
carried him in triumph, and ceased not to repeat--
"We behold another well of Siloam!"
Hundreds of crutches already hung round the wonderful column; grateful
women suspended wreaths and votive images there. Some of the Greeks
inscribed distiches, and as every pilgrim carved his name, the stone
was soon covered as high as a man could reach with an infinity of Latin,
Greek, Coptic, Punic, Hebrew, Syrian, and magic characters.
When the feast of Easter came there was such an affluence of people to
this city of miracles that old men thought that the days of the ancient
mysteries had returned. All sorts of people, in all sorts of costumes,
were to be seen there; the striped robes of the Egyptians, the burnoose
of the Arabs, the white drawers of the Nubians, the short cloak of
the Greeks, the long toga of the Romans, the scarlet breeches of the
barbarians, the gold-spangled robes of the courtesans. A veiled woman
would pass on an ass, preceded by black eunuchs, who cleared a passage
for her by the free use of their sticks. Acrobats, having spread a
carpet on the ground, juggled and performed skilful tricks before
a circle of silent spectators. Snake-charmers unrolled their living
girdles. A glittering, dusty, noisy, chattering crowd! The curses of
the camel-drivers beating the animals; the cries of the hawkers who
sold amulets against leprosy and the evil eye; the psalmody of the
monks reciting verses of the Bible; the shrieking of the women who were
prophesying; the shouting of the beggars singing old songs of the harem;
the bleating of sheep; the braying of asses; the sailors calling tardy
passengers; all these confused noises caused a deafening uproar, over
which dominated the strident voices of the little naked negro boys,
running about everywhere selling fresh dates.
And all these human beings stifled under the white sky, in a heavy
atmosphere laden with the perfumes of women, the odour of negroes, the
fumes of cooking and the smoke of gums, which the devotees bought of the
shepherds to burn before the saint.
When night came, fires, torches, and lanterns were lighted everywhere,
and nothing was to be seen but red shadows and black shapes. Standing
amidst a circle of squatting listeners, an old man, his face lighted
by a smoky lamp, related how, formerly, Bitiou had enchanted his heart,
torn it from his breast, placed it in an acacia, and then transformed
himself into a tree. He made gestures, which his shadow repeated with
absurd exaggerations, and the audience uttered cries of admiration. In
the taverns, the drinkers, lying on couches, called for beer and wine.
Dancing girls, with painted eyes and bare stomachs, performed before
them religious or lascivious scenes. In retired corners, young men
played dice or other games, and old men followed prostitutes. Above
all these rose the solitary, unchanging column; the head with the cow's
horns gazed into the shadow, and above it Paphnutius watched between
heaven and earth. All at once the moon rose over the Nile, like the bare
shoulder of a goddess. The hills gleamed with blue light, and Paphnutius
thought he saw the body of Thais shinning in the glimmer of the waters
amidst the sapphire night.
The days passed, and the saint still lived on his pillar. When the rainy
season came, the waters of heaven, filtering through the cracks in
the roof, wetted his body; his stiff limbs were incapable of movement.
Scorched by the sun, and reddened by the dew, his skin broke; large
ulcers devoured his arms and legs. But the desire of Thais still
consumed him inwardly, and he cried--
"It is not enough, great God! More temptations! More unclean thoughts!
More horrible desires! Lord, lay upon me all the lusts of men, that I
may expiate them all! Though it is false that the Greek bitch took upon
herself all the sins of the world, as I heard an impostor once declare,
yet there is a hidden meaning in the fable, the truth of which I now
recognise. For it is true that the sins of the people enter the soul of
the saints, and are lost there as in a well. Thus it is that the souls
of the just are polluted with more filth than is ever found in the soul
of the sinner. And, for that reason, I praise Thee, O my God, for having
made me the cesspool of the world."
One day, a rumour ran through the holy city, and even reached the ears
of the hermit: a very great personage, a man occupying a high position,
the Prefect of the Alexandrian fleet, Lucius Aurelius Cotta, was about
to visit the city--was, indeed, now on his way.
The news was true. Old Cotta, who was inspecting the canals and the
navigation of the Nile, had many times expressed a desire to see the
stylite and the new city, to which the name of Stylopolis had been
given. The Stylopolitans saw the river covered with sails one morning.
Cotta appeared on board a golden galley hung with purple, and followed
by all his fleet. He landed, and advanced, accompanied by a secretary
carrying his tablets, and Aristaeus, his physician, with whom he liked
A numerous suite walked behind him, and the shore was covered with
"laticlaves"(*) and military uniforms. He stopped, some paces from the
column, and began to examine the stylite, wiping his face meanwhile with
the skirt of his toga. Being of a naturally curious disposition, he
had observed many things in the course of his long voyages. He liked to
remember them, and intended to write, after he had finished his Punic
history, a book on the remarkable things he had witnessed. He seemed
much interested by the spectacle before him.
(*) The "laticlave" was a toga, with a broad purple band,
worn by Roman senators as the distinguishing mark of their
"This is very curious!" he said, puffing and blowing. "And--which is a
circumstance worthy of being recorded--this man was my guest. Yes, this
monk supped with me last year, after which he carried off an actress."
Turning to his secretary--
"Note that, my son, on my tablets; also the dimensions of the column,
not omitting the shape of the top of it."
Then, wiping his face again--
"Persons deserving of belief have assured me that this monk has not left
his column for a single moment since he mounted it a year ago. Is that
"That which is possible to a lunatic or a sick man," replied Aristaeus,
"would be impossible to a man sound in body and mind. Do you know,
Lucius, that sometimes diseases of the mind or body give to those
afflicted by them a strength which healthy men do not possess? For, as
a matter of fact, there is no such thing as good health or bad health.
There are only different conditions of the organs. Having studied what
are called maladies, I have come to consider them as necessary forms of
life. I take pleasure in studying them in order to be able to conquer
them. Some of them are worthy of admiration, and conceal, under apparent
disorder, profound harmonies; for instance, a quartan fever is certainly
a very pretty thing! Sometimes certain affections of the body cause a
rapid augmentation of the faculties of the mind. You know Creon? When he
was a child, he stuttered and was stupid. But, having cracked his skull
by tumbling off a ladder, he became an able lawyer, as you are aware.
This monk must be affected in some hidden organ. Moreover, this kind of
existence is not so extraordinary as it appears to you, Lucius. I may
remind you that the gymnosophists of India can remain motionless, not
merely for a year, but during twenty, thirty, or forty years."
"By Jupiter!" cried Cotta, "that is a strange madness. For man was born
to move and act, and idleness is an unpardonable crime, because it is
an injury to the State. I do not know of any religion in which such an
objectionable practice is permitted, though it possibly may be in some
of the Asiatic creeds. When I was Governor of Syria, I found "phalli"
erected in the porches at the city of Hera. A man ascended, twice a
year, and remained there for a week. The people believed that this man
talked with the gods, and interceded with them for the prosperity of
Syria. The custom appeared senseless to me; nevertheless I did nothing
to put it down. For I consider that a functionary ought not to interfere
with the manners and customs of the people, but on the contrary, to see
that they are preserved. It is not the business of the government to
force a religion on a people, but to maintain that which exists, which,
whether good or bad, has been regulated by the spirit of the time,
the place, and the race. If it endeavours to put down a religion, it
proclaims itself revolutionary in its spirit, and tyrannical in its
acts, and is justly detested. Besides, how are you to raise yourself
above the superstitions of the vulgar, except by understanding them and
tolerating them? Aristaeus, I am of opinion that I should leave this
nephelo-coccygian(*) in the air, exposed only to the indignities the
birds shower on him. I should not gain anything by having him pulled
down, but I should by taking note of his thoughts and beliefs."
(*) Nephelo-coccygia, the cloud-city built by the cuckoos,
in the "Birds" of Aristophanes.
He puffed, coughed, and placed his hand on the secretary's shoulder.
"My child, note down that, amongst certain sects of Christians, it is
considered praiseworthy to carry off courtesans and live upon columns.
You may add that these customs are evidence of the worship of genetic
divinities. But on this point we ought to question him himself."
Then, raising his head, and shading his eyes with his hand, to keep off
the sun, he shouted--
"Hallo, Paphnutius! If you remember that you were once my guest, answer
me. What are you doing up there? Why did you go up, and why do you stay
there? Has this column any phallic signification in your mind?"
Paphnutius, considering Cotta as nothing but an idolater, did not deign
to reply. But his disciple, Flavian, approached, and said--
"Illustrious Sir, this holy man takes the sins of the world upon him,
and cures diseases."
"By Jupiter! Do you hear, Aristaeus?" cried Cotta. "This
nephelo-coccygian practises medicine, like you. What do you think of so
high a rival?"
Aristaeus shook his head.
"It is very possible that he may cure certain diseases better than I
can; such, for instance, as epilepsy, vulgarly called the divine malady,
although all maladies are equally divine, for they all come from the
gods. But the cause of this disease lies, partly, in the imagination,
and you must confess, Lucius, that this monk, perched up on the head of
a goddess, strikes the minds of the sick people more forcibly than I,
bending over my mortars and phials in my laboratory, could ever do.
There are forces, Lucius, infinitely more powerful than reason and
"What are they?" asked Cotta.
"Ignorance and folly," replied Aristaeus.
"I have rarely seen a more curious sight," continued Cotta, "and I hope
that some day an able writer will relate the foundation of Stylopolis.
But even the most extraordinary spectacles should not keep, longer
than is befitting, a serious and busy man from his work. Let us go and
inspect the canals. Farewell, good Paphnutius! or rather, till our
next meeting! If ever you should come down to earth again, and revisit
Alexandria, do not fail to come and sup with me."
These words, heard by all present, passed from mouth to mouth, and
being repeated by the believers, added greatly to the reputation of
Paphnutius. Pious minds amplified and transformed them, and it was
stated that Paphnutius, from the top of his pillar, had converted
the Prefect of the Fleet to the faith of the apostles and the Nicaean
fathers. The believers found a figurative meaning in the last words
uttered by Aurelius Cotta; to them, the supper to which this important
personage had invited the ascetic, was a holy communion, a spiritual
repast, a celestial banquet. The story of this meeting was embroidered
with wonderful details, which those who invented were the first to
believe. It was said that when Cotta, after a long argument, had
embraced the truth, an angel had come from heaven to wipe the sweat from
his brow. The physician and secretary of the Prefect of the Fleet had
also, it was asserted, been converted at the same time. And, the miracle
being public and notorious, the deacons of the principal churches of
Libya recorded it amongst the authentic facts. After that, it could be
said, without any exaggeration, that the whole world was seized with a
desire to see Paphnutius, and that, in the West as well as the East, all
Christians turned their astonished eyes towards him. The most celebrated
cities of Italy sent deputations to him, and the Roman Caesar, the
divine Constantine who favoured the Christian religion, wrote him a
letter which the legates brought to him with great ceremony. But one
night, whilst the budding city at his feet slept in the dew, he heard a
voice, which said--
"Paphnutius, thou art become celebrated by thy works and powerful by thy
word. God has raised thee up for His glory. He has chosen thee to work
miracles, heal the sick, convert the Pagans, enlighten sinners, confound
the Arians, and establish peace in the Church."
"God's will be done!"
The voice continued--
"Arise, Paphnutius, and go seek in his palace the impious Constans, who,
far from imitating the wisdom of his brother, Constantine, inclines
to the errors of Arius and Marcus. Go! The bronze gates shall fly open
before thee, and thy sandals shall resound on the golden floor of the
basilica before the throne of the Caesars, and thy awe-inspiring voice
shall change the heart of the son of Constantinus. Thou shalt reign over
a peaceful and powerful Church. And, even as the soul directs the
body, so shall the Church govern the empire. Thou shalt be placed above
senators, comites, and patricians. Thou shalt repress the greed of the
people, and check the boldness of the barbarians. Old Cotta, knowing
that thou art the head of the government, will seek the honour of
washing thy feet. At thy death thy "cilicium" shall be taken to the
patriarch of Alexandria, and the great Athanasius, white with glory,
shall kiss it as the relic of a saint. Go!"
"Let the will of God be accomplished!"
And making an effort to stand up, he prepared to descend. But the voice,
divining his intention, said--
"Above all, descend not by the ladder. That would be to act like an
ordinary man, and to be unconscious of the gifts that are in thee. A
great saint, like thee, ought to fly through the air. Leap! the angels
are there to support thee. Leap, then!"
"The will of God be done, on earth as it is in heaven."
Extending his long arms like the ragged wings of a huge sick bird, he
was about to throw himself down, when, suddenly, a hideous mocking laugh
rang in his ears. Terrified, he asked--
"Who laughs thus?"
"Ah? ah!" screamed the voice, "we are yet but at the beginning of our
friendship; thou wilt some day be better acquainted with me. My friend,
it was I who caused thee to ascend here, and I ought to be satisfied at
the docility with which thou hast accomplished my wishes. Paphnutius, I
am pleased with thee."
Paphnutius murmured, in a voice stifled by fear--
"Avaunt, avaunt! I know thee now; thou art he who carried Jesus to a
pinnacle of the temple, and showed him all the kingdoms of this world."
He fell, affrighted, on the stone.
"Why did I not know this sooner?" he thought. "More wretched than the
blind, deaf, and paralysed who trust in me, I have lost all knowledge of
things supernatural, and am more depraved than the maniacs who eat
earth and approach dead bodies. I can no longer distinguish between
the clamours of hell and the voices of heaven. I have lost even the
intuition of the new-born child, who cries when its nurse's breast is
taken from it, of the dog that scents out its master's footsteps, of the
plant that turns towards the sun. I am the laughing-stock of the devils.
So, then, it is Satan who led me here. When he elevated me on this
pedestal, lust and pride mounted with me. It is not the magnitude of my
temptations which terrifies me. Anthony, on his mountain, suffers the
same. I wish that all their swords may pierce my flesh, before the eyes
of the angels. I have even learned to like my sufferings. But God does
not speak to me, and His silence astonishes me. He has left me--and I
had but Him to look to. He leaves me alone in the horror of His absence.
He flies from me. I will follow after Him. This stone burns my feet. Let
me leave quickly, and come up with God."
With that he seized the ladder which stood against the column, put his
feet on it, and having descended a rung, found himself face to face with
the monster's head; she smiled strangely. He was certain then that what
he had taken for the site of his rest and glory, was but the diabolical
instrument of his trouble and damnation. He hastily descended and
touched the soil. His feet had forgotten their use, and he reeled. But,
feeling on him the shadow of the cursed column, he forced himself to
run. All slept. He traversed, without being seen, the great square
surrounded by wine-shops, inns, and caravanserias, and threw himself
into a by-street which led towards the Libyan Hills. A dog pursued him,
barking, and stopped only at the edge of the desert. Paphnutius went
through a country where there was no road but the trail of wild beasts.
Leaving behind him the huts abandoned by the coiners, he continued all
night and all day his solitary flight.
At last, almost ready to expire with hunger, thirst, and fatigue, and
not knowing if God was still far from him, he came to a silent city
which extended from right to left, and stretched away till it was lost
in the blue horizon. The buildings, which were widely separated and like
each other, resembled pyramids cut off at half their height. They were
tombs. The doors were broken, and in the shadow of the chambers could
be seen the gleaming eyes of hyaenas and wolves who brought forth their
young there, whilst the dead bodies lay on the threshold, despoiled
by robbers, and gnawed by the wild beasts. Having passed through this
funeral city, Paphnutius fell exhausted before a tomb which stood near a
spring surrounded by palm trees. This tomb was much ornamented, and, as
there was no door to it, he saw inside it a painted chamber, in which
"Here," he sighed, "is the abode I have chosen; the tabernacle of my
repentance and penitence."
He dragged himself to it, drove out the reptiles with his feet, and
remained prostrate on the stone floor for eighteen hours, at the end
of which time he went to the spring, and drank out of his hand. Then he
plucked some dates and some stalks of lotus, the seeds of which he
ate. Thinking this kind of life was good, he made it the rule of his
existence. From morning to night he never lifted his forehead from the
One day, whilst he was thus prostrated, he heard a voice which said--
"Look at these images, that thou mayest learn."
Then, raising his head, he saw, on the walls of the chamber, paintings
which represented lively and domestic scenes. They were of very old
work, and marvellously lifelike. There were cooks who blew the fire,
with their cheeks all puffed out; others plucked geese, or cooked
quarters of sheep in stew-pans. A little farther, a hunter carried on
his shoulders a gazelle pierced with arrows. In one place, peasants were
sowing, reaping, or gathering. In another, women danced to the sounds
of viols, flutes, and harp. A young girl played the theorbo. The lotus
flower shone in her hair, which was neatly braided. Her transparent
dress let the pure forms of her body be seen. Her bosom and mouth were
perfect. The face was turned in profile, and the beautiful eye looked
straight before her. The whole figure was exquisite. Paphnutius having
examined it, lowered his eyes, and replied to the voice--
"Why dost thou command me to look at these images? No doubt they
represent the terrestrial life of the idolater whose body rests here,
under my feet, at the bottom of a well, in a coffin of black basalt.
They recall the life of a dead man, and are, despite their bright
colours, the shadows of a shadow. The life of a dead man! O vanity!"
"He is dead, but he lived," replied the voice; "and thou wilt die, and
wilt not have lived."
From that day, Paphnutius had not a moment's rest. The voice spoke to
him incessantly. The girl with the theorbo looked fixedly at him from
underneath the long lashes of her eye. At last she also spoke--
"Look. I am mysterious and beautiful. Love me. Exhaust in my arms the
love which torments you. What use is it to fear me? You cannot escape
me; I am the beauty of woman. Whither do you think to fly from me,
senseless fool? You will find my likeness in the radiancy of flowers,
and in the grace of the palm trees, in the flight of pigeons, in the
bounds of the gazelle, in the rippling of brooks, in the soft light of
the moon, and if you close your eyes, you will find me within yourself.
It is a thousand years since the man who sleeps here, swathed in linen,
in a bed of black stone, pressed me to his heart. It is a thousand years
since he received the last kiss from my mouth, and his sleep is yet
redolent with it. You know me well, Paphnutius. How is it you have not
recognised me? I am one of the innumerable incarnations of Thais. You
are a learned monk, and well skilled in the knowledge of things. You
have travelled, and it is by travel a man learns the most. Often a day
passed abroad will show more novelties than ten years passed at home.
You have heard that Thais lived formerly in Argos, under the name of
Helen. She had another existence in Thebes Hecatompyle. And I was Thais
of Thebes. How is it you have not guessed it? I took, when I was alive,
a large share in the sins of this world, and now reduced here to the
condition of a shadow, I am still quite capable of taking your sins
upon me, beloved monk. Whence comes your surprise? It was certain that,
wherever you went, you would find Thais again."
He struck his forehead against the pavement, and uttered a cry of
terror. And every night the player of the theorbo left the wall,
approached him, and spoke in a clear voice mingled with soft breathing.
And as the holy man resisted the temptations she gave him, she said to
"Love me; yield, friend. As long as you resist me I shall torment you.
You do not know what the patience of a dead woman is. I shall wait, if
necessary, till you are dead. Being a sorceress, I shall put into your
lifeless body a spirit who will reanimate it, and who will not refuse me
what I have asked in vain of you. And think, Paphnutius, what a strange
situation when your blessed soul sees, from the height of heaven, its
own body given up to sin. God, who has promised to return you this body
after the day of judgment and the end of time, will Himself be much
puzzled. How can He place in celestial glory a human form inhabited by
a devil, and guarded by a sorceress? You have not thought of that
difficulty. Nor God either, perhaps. Between ourselves, He is not very
knowing. Any ordinary magician can easily deceive Him, and if He had not
His thunder, and the cataracts of heaven, the village urchins would pull
His beard. He has certainly not as much sense as the old serpent, His
adversary. He, indeed, is a wonderful artist. If I am so beautiful, it
is because he adorned me with all my attractions. It was he who taught
me how to braid my hair, and to make for myself rosy fingers with agate
nails. You have misunderstood him. When you came to live in this tomb,
you drove out with your feet the serpents which were here, without
troubling yourself to know whether they were of his family, and you
crushed their eggs. I am afraid, my poor friend, you will have a
troublesome business on your hands. You were warned, however, that he
was a musician and a lover. What have you done? You have quarrelled with
science and beauty. You are altogether miserable, and Iaveh does not
come to your help. It is not probable that he will come. Being as
great as all things, he cannot move for want of space, and if, by an
impossibility, he made the least movement, all creation would be pushed
out of place. My handsome hermit, give me a kiss."
Paphnutius was aware that great prodigies are performed by magic arts.
He thought--not without much uneasiness--
"Perhaps the dead man buried at my feet knows the words written in that
mysterious book which exists hidden, not far from here, at the bottom of
a royal tomb. By virtue of these words, the dead, taking the form which
they had upon earth, see the light of the sun and the smiles of women."
His chief fear was that the girl with the theorbo and the dead man might
come together, as they did in their lifetime, and that he should see
them unite. Sometimes he thought he heard the sound of kissing.
He was troubled in his mind, and now, in the absence of God he feared
to think as much as to feel. One evening, when he was kneeling prostrate
according to his custom, an unknown voice said to him--
"Paphnutius, there are on earth more people than you imagine, and if I
were to show you what I have seen, you would die of astonishment. There
are men with a single eye in the middle of their forehead. There are
men who have but one leg, and advance by jumps. There are men who change
their sex, and the females become males. There are men-trees, who shoot
out roots in the ground. And there are men with no head, with two eyes,
a nose, and a mouth in their breast. Can you honestly believe that Jesus
Christ died for the salvation of these men?"
Another time he had a vision. He saw, in a strong light, a broad road,
rivulets, and gardens. On the road, Aristobulus and Chereas passed at
a gallop on their Syrian horses, and the joyous ardour of the race
reddened the cheeks of the two young men. Beneath a portico, Callicrates
recited his verses; satisfied pride trembled in his voice and shone in
his eyes. In the garden, Zenothemis picked apples of gold, and caressed
a serpent with azure wings. Clad in white, and wearing a shining mitre,
Hermodorus meditated beneath a sacred persea, which bore, instead
of flowers, small heads of pure profile, wearing, like the Egyptian
goddesses, vultures, hawks, or the shining disk of the moon; whilst
in the background, by the side of a fountain, Nicias studied, on an
armillary sphere, the harmonious movements of the stars.
Then a veiled woman approached the monk, holding in her hand a branch of
myrtle. She said to him--
"Look! Some seek eternal beauty, and place their ephemeral life in
the infinite. Others live without much thought. But by that alone they
submit to fair Nature, and they are happy and beautiful in the joy of
living only, and give glory to the supreme artist of all things; for man
is a noble hymn to God. All think that happiness is innocent, and that
pleasure is permitted to man. Paphnutius, if they are right, what a dupe
you have been!"
And the vision vanished.
Thus was Paphnutius tempted unceasingly in body and mind. Satan never
gave him a minute's repose. The solitude of the tomb was more peopled
than the streets of a great city. The devils shouted with laughter, and
millions of imps, evil genii, and phantoms imitated all the ordinary
transactions of life. In the evening, when he went to the spring,
satyrs and nymphs capered round him, and tried to drag him into their
lascivious dances. The demons no longer feared him. They loaded him with
insults, obscene jests, and blows. One day a devil, no longer than his
arm, stole the cord he wore round his waist.
He said to himself--
"Thought, whither hast thou led me?"
And he resolved to work with his hands, in order to give his mind that
rest of which it had need. Near the spring, some banana trees, with
large leaves, grew under the shade of the palms. He cut the stalks, and
carried them to the tomb. He crushed them with a stone, and reduced them
to fibres, as he had seen ropemakers do. For he intended to make a cord,
to replace that which the devil had stolen. The demons were somewhat
displeased at this; they ceased their clamour, and the girl with the
theorbo no longer continued her magic arts, but remained quietly on the
wall. The courage and faith of Paphnutius increased whilst he pounded
the banana stems.
"With Heaven's help," he said to himself, "I shall subdue the flesh. As
to my soul, its confidence is still unshaken. In vain do the devils, and
that accursed woman, try to instil into my mind doubts as to the nature
of God. I will reply to them, by the mouth of the Apostle John, 'In the
beginning was the Word, and the Word was God.' That I firmly believe,
and that which I believe is absurd, I believe still more firmly. In fact
it should be absurd. If it were not so, I should not believe; I should
know. And it is not that which we know which gives eternal life; it is
faith only that saves."
He exposed the separated fibres to the sun and the dew, and every
morning he took care to turn them, to prevent them rotting; and he
rejoiced to find that he had become as simple as a child. When he had
twisted his cord, he cut reeds to make mats and baskets. The sepulchral
chamber resembled a basket-maker's workshop, and Paphnutius could pass
without difficulty from work to prayer. Yet still God was not merciful
to him, for one night he was awakened by a voice which froze him with
horror, for he guessed that it was the voice of the dead man.
The voice called quickly, in a light whisper--
"Helen! Helen! come and bathe with me! come quickly!"
A woman, whose mouth was close to the monk's ear, replied--
"Friend, I cannot rise; a man is lying on me."
Paphnutius suddenly perceived that his cheek rested on a woman's breast.
He recognised the player of the theorbo, who, partly relieved of his
weight, raised her breast. He clung tightly to the sweet, warm, perfumed
body, and consumed with the desire of damnation, he cried--
"Stay, stay, my heavenly one!"
But she was already standing on the threshold. She laughed, and her
smile gleamed in the silver rays of the moon.
"Why should I stay?" she said. "The shadow of a shadow is enough for a
lover endowed with such a lively imagination. Besides, you have sinned.
What more was needed?"
Paphnutius wept in the night, and when the dawn came, he murmured a
prayer that was a meek complaint--
"Jesus, my Jesus, why hast Thou forsaken me! Thou seest the danger in
which I am. Come, and help me, sweet Saviour. Since Thy Father no longer
loves me, and does not hear me, remember that I have but Thee. From Him
nothing is to be hoped; I cannot comprehend Him, and He cannot pity me.
But Thou was born of a woman, and that is why I trust in Thee. Remember
that Thou wast a man. I pray to Thee, not because Thou art God of God,
Light of light, very God of very God, but because Thou hast lived poor
and humble on this earth where now I suffer, because Satan has tempted
Thy flesh, because the sweat of agony has bedewed Thy face. It is to Thy
humanity that I pray, Jesus, my brother Jesus!"
When he had thus prayed, wringing his hands, a terrible peal of laughter
shook the walls of the tomb, and the voice which rang in his ears on the
top of the column, said jeeringly--
"That is a prayer worthy of the breviary of Marcus, the heretic.
Paphnutius is an Arian! Paphnutius is an Arian!"
As though thunderstruck, the monk fell senseless.
When he reopened his eyes, he saw around him monks wearing black hoods,
who poured water on his temples, and recited exorcisms. Many others were
standing outside, carrying palm leaves.
"As we passed through the desert," said one of them, "we heard cries
issuing from this tomb, and, having entered, we found you lying
unconscious on the floor. Doubtless the devils had thrown you down, and
had fled at our approach."
Paphnutius, raising his head, asked in a feeble voice--
"Who are you, my brothers? And why do you carry palms in your hands? Is
it for my burial?"
One of them replied--
"Brother, do you not know that our father, Anthony, now a hundred and
five years old, having been warned of his approaching end, has come
down from Mount Colzin, to which he had retired, to bless his numerous
spiritual children? We are going with palm leaves to greet our holy
father. But how is it, brother, that you are ignorant of such a great
event? Can it be possible that no angel came to this tomb to inform
"Alas!" replied Paphnutius, "I am not worthy of such a favour, and the
only denizens of this abode are demons and vampires. Pray for me. I am
Paphnutius, Abbot of Antinoe, the most wretched of the servants of God."
At the name of Paphnutius, all waved their palm leaves and murmured his
praises. The monk who had previously spoken, cried in surprise--
"Can it be that thou art that holy Paphnutius, celebrated for so many
works that it was supposed he would some day equal the great Anthony
himself? Most venerable, it was thou who convertedst to God the
courtesan, Thais, and who, raised upon a high column, was carried away
by the seraphs. Those who watched by night, at the foot of the pillar,
saw thy blessed assumption. The wings of the angels encircled thee in
a white cloud, and with thy right hand extended thou didst bless the
dwellings of man. The next day, when the people saw thou wert no longer
there, a long groan rose to the summit of the discrowned pillar. But
Flavian, thy disciple, reported the miracle, and took thy place as the
head. But a foolish man, of the name of Paul, tried to contradict the
general opinion. He asserted that he had seen thee, in a dream, carried
away by the devils; the people wanted to stone him, and it was a miracle
that he escaped death. I am Zozimus, abbot of these solitary monks whom
thou seest prostrate at thy feet. Like them, I kneel before thee, that
thou mayest bless the father with the children. Then thou shalt relate
to us the marvels which God has deigned to accomplish by thy means."
"Far from having favoured me as thou believest," replied Paphnutius,
"the Lord has tried me with terrible temptations. I was not carried away
by angels. But a shadowy wall is raised in front of my eyes, and moves
before me. I have lived in a dream. Without God all is a dream. When I
made my journey to Alexandria, I heard, in a short space of time, many
discourses, and I learned that the army of errors was innumerable. It
pursues me, and I am compassed about with swords."
"Venerable father, we must remember that the saints, and especially the
solitary saints, undergo terrible trials. If thou wast not carried to
heaven by the seraphs, it is certain that the Lord granted that favour
to thy image, for Flavian, the monks, and the people were witnesses of
Paphnutius resolved to go and receive the blessing of Anthony.
"Brother Zozimus," he said, "give me one of these palm leaves, and let
us go and meet our father."
"Let us go," replied Zozimus; "military order is most befitting for
monks, who are God's soldiers. Thou and I, being abbots, will march in
front, and the others shall follow us, singing psalms."
They set out on their march, and Paphnutius said--
"God is unity, for He is the truth, which is one. The world is many,
because it is error. We should turn away from all the sights of nature,
even those which appear the most innocent. Their diversity renders them
pleasant, which is a sign that they are evil. For that reason, I cannot
see a tuft of papyrus by the side of still waters without my soul
being imbued with melancholy. All things that the senses perceive are
detestable. The least grain of sand brings danger. Everything tempts us.
Woman is but a combination of all the temptations scattered in the thin
air, on the flowering earth, in the clear waters. Happy is he whose soul
is a sealed vase! Happy is he who knows how to be deaf, dumb, and blind,
and who knows nothing of the world, in order that he may know God!"
Zozimus, having meditated upon these words, replied as follows--
"Venerable father, it is fitting that I should avow my sins to thee,
since thou hast shown me thy soul. Thus we shall confess to each
other, according to the apostolic custom. Before I was a monk, I led
an abominable life. At Madaura, a city celebrated for its courtesans,
I sought out all kinds of worldly love. Every night I supped in company
with young debauchees and female flute players, and I took home with me
the one who pleased me the best. A saint like thee could never imagine
to what a pitch the fury of my desires carried me. Suffice it to
say that it spared neither matrons nor nuns, and spread adultery and
sacrilege everywhere. I excited my senses with wine, and was justly
known as the heaviest drinker in Madaura. Yet I was a Christian, and,
in all my follies, kept my faith in Jesus crucified. Having devoured my
substance in riotous living, I was beginning to feel the first attacks
of poverty, when I saw one of my companions in pleasure suddenly struck
with a terrible disease. His knees could not sustain him; his twitching
hands refused to obey him; his glazed eyes closed. Only horrible groans
came from his breast. His mind, heavier than his body, slumbered. To
punish him for having lived like a beast, God had changed him into a
beast. The loss of my property had already inspired me with salutary
reflections, but the example of my friend was of yet greater efficacy;
it made such an impression on my heart that I quitted the world and
retired into the desert. There I have enjoyed for twenty years a peace
that nothing has troubled. I work with my monks as weaver, architect,
carpenter, and even as scribe, though, to say the truth, I have little
taste for writing, having always preferred action to thought. My days
are full of joy, and my nights without dreams, and I believe that the
grace of the Lord is in me, because, even in the midst of the most
frightful sins, I have never lost hope."
On hearing these words, Paphnutius lifted his eyes to heaven and
"Lord, Thou lookest with kindness upon this man polluted by adultery,
sacrilege, and so many crimes, and Thou turnest away from me, who have
always kept Thy commandments! How inscrutable is Thy justice, O my God!
and how impenetrable are Thy ways!"
Zozimus extended his arms.
"Look, venerable father! On both sides of the horizon are long, black
files that look like emigrant ants. They are our brothers, who, like us,
are going to meet Anthony."
When they came to the place of meeting, they saw a magnificent
spectacle. The army of monks extended, in three ranks, in an immense
semicircle. In the first rank stood the old hermits of the desert, cross
in hand, and with long beards that almost touched the ground. The monks,
governed by the abbots Ephrem and Serapion, and also all the cenobites
of the Nile, formed the second line. Behind them appeared the ascetics,
who had come from their distant rocks. Some wore, on their blackened
and dried-up bodies, shapeless rags; others had for their only clothes,
bundles of reeds held together by withies. Many of them were naked, but
God had covered them with a fell of hair as thick as a sheep's fleece.
All held branches of palm; they looked like an emerald rainbow, or they
might have been also compared to the host of the elect--the living walls
of the city of God.
Such perfect order reigned in the assembly, that Paphnutius found,
without difficulty, the monks he governed. He placed himself near them,
after having taken care to hide his face under his hood, that he
might remain unknown, and not disturb them in their pious expectation.
Suddenly, an immense shout arose--
"The saint!" they all cried. "The saint! Behold the great saint, against
whom hell has not prevailed, the well-beloved of God! Our father,
Then a great silence followed, and every forehead was lowered to the
From the summit of a dune, in the vast void space, Anthony advanced,
supported by his beloved disciples, Macarius and Amathas. He walked
slowly, but his figure was still upright, and showed the remains of a
superhuman strength. His white beard spread over his broad chest, his
polished skull reflected the rays of sunlight like the forehead of
Moses. The keen gaze of the eagle was in his eyes; the smile of a child
shone on his round cheek. To bless his people, he raised his arms, tired
by a century of marvellous works, and his voice burst forth for the last
time, with the words of love.
"How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, and thy tabernacles, O Israel!"
Immediately, from one end to the other of the living wall, like a peal
of harmonious thunder, the psalm, "Blessed is the man that feareth the
Lord," broke forth.
Accompanied by Macarius and Amathas, Anthony passed along the ranks of
the old hermits, anchorites, and cenobites. This seer, who had beheld
heaven and hell; this hermit, who from a cave in the rock, governed
the Christian Church; this saint, who had sustained the faith of the
martyrs; this scholar, whose eloquence had paralysed the heretics, spoke
tenderly to each of his sons, and bade them a kindly farewell, on the
eve of the blessed death, which God, who loved him, had at last promised
He said to the abbots Ephrem and Serapion--
"You command large armies, and you are both great generals. Therefore,
you shall put on in heaven an armour of gold, and the Archangel Michael
shall give you the title of kiliarchs of his hosts."
Perceiving the old man Philemon, he embraced him, and said--
"Behold, the kindest and best of all my children. His soul exhales a
perfume as sweet as the flower of the beans he sows every year."
To Abbot Zozimus he addressed these words--
"Thou hast never mistrusted divine goodness, and therefore the peace
of the Lord is in thee. The lily of thy virtues has flowered upon the
dunghill of thy corruption."
To all he spoke words of unerring wisdom.
To the old hermits he said--
"The apostle saw, round the throne of God, eighty old men seated, clad
in white robes, and wearing crowns on their heads."
To the young men--
"Be joyful; leave sadness to the happy ones of this world."
Thus he passed along the front of his filial army, exhorting and
comforting. Paphnutius, seeing him approach, fell on his knees, his
heart torn by fear and hope.
"My father! my father!" he cried in his agony. "My father! come to my
help, for I perish. I have given to God the soul of Thais; I have lived
upon the top of a column, and in the chamber of a tomb. My forehead,
unceasingly in the dust, has become horny as a camel's knee. And yet God
has gone from me. Bless me, my father, and I shall be saved; shake the
hyssop, and I shall be washed, and I shall shine as the snow."
Anthony did not reply. He turned to the monks of Antinoe those eyes
whose looks no man could sustain. He gazed for a long time at Paul,
called the Fool; then he made a sign to him to approach. And, as all
were astonished that the saint should address himself to a man who was
not in his senses, Anthony said--
"God has granted to him more grace than to any of you. Lift thy eyes, my
son Paul, and tell me what thou seest in heaven."
Paul the Fool raised his eyes; his face shone, and his tongue was
"I see in heaven," he said, "a bed adorned with hangings of purple
and gold. Around it three virgins keep constant watch that no soul may
approach it, except the chosen one for whom the bed is prepared."
Believing that this bed was the symbol of his glorification, Paphnutius
had already begun to return thanks to God. But Anthony made a sign
to him to be silent, and to listen to the Fool, who murmured in his
"The three virgins speak to me; they say unto me: 'A saint is about to
quit the earth; Thais of Alexandria is dying. And we have prepared the
bed of her glory, for we are her virtues--Faith, Fear, and Love.'"
"Sweet child, what else seest thou?"
Paul gazed vacantly from the zenith to the nadir, and from west to east,
when suddenly his eyes fell on the Abbot of Antinoe. His face grew pale
with a holy terror, and his eyeballs reflected invisible flames.
"I see," he murmured, "three demons, who, full of joy, prepare to seize
that man. One of them is like unto a tower, one to a woman, and one to
a mage. All three bear their name, marked with red-hot iron; the first
on the forehead, the second on the belly, the third on the breast, and
those names are--Pride, Lust, and Doubt. I have finished."
Having spoken thus, Paul, with haggard eyes and hanging jaw, returned to
his old simple ways.
And, as the monks of Antinoe looked anxiously at Anthony, the saint
pronounced these words--
"God has made known His just judgment. Let us bow to Him and hold our
He passed. He bestowed blessings as he went. The sun, now descended to
the horizon, enveloped him in its glory, and his shadow, immeasurably
elongated by a miracle from heaven, unrolled itself behind him like an
endless carpet, as a sign of the long remembrance this great saint would
leave amongst men.
Upright, but thunderstruck, Paphnutius saw and heard nothing more. One
word alone rang in his ears, "Thais is dying!" The thought had never
occurred to him. Twenty years had he contemplated a mummy's head, and
yet the idea that death would close the eyes of Thais astonished him
"Thais is dying!" An incomprehensible saying! "Thais is dying!" In those
three words what a new and terrible sense! "Thais is dying!" Then why
the sun, the flowers, the brooks, and all creation? "Thais is dying!"
What good was all the universe? Suddenly he sprang forward. "To see her
again, to see her once more!" He began to run. He knew not where he was,
or whither he went, but instinct conducted him with unerring certainty;
he went straight to the Nile. A swarm of sails covered the upper waters
of the river. He sprang on board a barque manned by Nubians, and lying
in the forepart of the boat, his eyes devouring space, he cried, in
grief and rage--
"Fool, fool, that I was, not to have possessed Thais whilst there was
yet time! Fool to have believed that there was anything else in the
world but her! Oh, madness! I dreamed of God, of the salvation of my
soul, of life eternal--as if all that counted for anything when I had
seen Thais! Why did I not feel that blessed eternity was in a single
kiss of that woman, and that without her life was senseless, and no more
than an evil dream? Oh, stupid fool! thou hast seen her, and thou hast
desired the good things of the other world! Oh, coward! thou hast seen
her, and thou hast feared God! God! heaven! what are they? And what have
they to offer thee which are worth the least tittle of that which she
would have given thee? Oh, miserable, senseless fool, who sought divine
goodness elsewhere than on the lips of Thais! What hand was upon thy
eyes? Cursed be he who blinded thee then! Thou couldst have bought, at
the price of thy damnation, one moment of her love, and thou hast not
done it! She opened to thee her arms--flesh mingled with the perfume of
flowers--and thou wast not engulfed in the unspeakable enchantments of
her unveiled breast. Thou hast listened to the jealous voice which
said to thee, 'Refrain!' Dupe, dupe, miserable dupe! Oh, regrets! Oh,
remorse! Oh, despair! Not to have the joy to carry to hell the memory of
that never-to-be-forgotten hour, and to cry to God, 'Burn my flesh, dry
up all the blood in my veins, break all my bones, thou canst not take
from me the remembrance which sweetens and refreshes me for ever and
ever!' . . . Thais is dying! Preposterous God, if thou knewest how I
laugh at Thy hell! Thais is dying, and she will never be mine--never!
And as the boat came down the river with the current, he remained whole
days lying on his face, and repeating--
"Never! never! never!"
Then, at the idea that she had given herself to others, and not to him;
that she had poured forth an ocean of love, and he had not wetted his
lips therein, he stood up, savagely wild, and howled with grief. He tore
his breast with his nails, and bit the flesh of his arms. He thought--
"If I could but kill all those she has loved!"
The idea of these murders filled him with delicious fury. He dreamed of
killing Nicias slowly and leisurely, looking him full in the eyes whilst
he murdered him. Then suddenly his fury melted away. He wept, he sobbed.
He became feeble and meek. An unknown tenderness softened his soul.
He longed to throw his arms round the neck of the companion of his
childhood and say to him, "Nicias, I love thee, because thou hast loved
her. Talk to me about her. Tell me what she said to thee." And still,
without ceasing, the iron of that phrase entered into his soul--"Thais
"Light of day, silvery shadows of night stars, heavens, trees with
trembling crests, savage beasts, domestic animals, all the anxious
souls of men, do you not hear? 'Thais is dying!' Disappear, ye lights,
breezes, and perfumes! Hide yourselves, ye shapes and thoughts of the
universe! 'Thais is dying!' She was the beauty of the world, and all
that drew near to her grew fairer in the reflection of her grace. The
old man and the sages who sat near her, at the banquet at Alexandria,
how pleasant they were, and how fascinating was their conversation! A
host of brilliant thoughts sprang to their lips, and all their ideas
were steeped in pleasure. And it was because the breath of Thais was on
them that all they said was love, beauty, truth. A delightful impiety
lent its grace to their discourse. They thoroughly expressed all human
splendour. Alas! all that is but a dream. Thais is dying! Oh, how easy
it will be to me to die of her death! But canst thou only die, withered
embryo, fetus steeped in gall and scalding tears? Miserable abortion,
dost thou think thou canst taste death, thou who hast never known life?
If only God exists, that he may damn me. I hope for it--I wish it. God,
I hate Thee--dost Thou hear? Overwhelm me with Thy damnation. To compel
Thee to, I spit in Thy face. I must find an eternal hell, to exhaust the
eternity of rage which consumes me."
The next day, at dawn, Albina received the Abbot of Antinoe at the
"Thou art welcome to our tabernacles of peace, venerable father, for no
doubt, thou comest to bless the saint thou hast given us. Thou knowest
that God, in his mercy, has called her to Him; how couldst thou fail to
know tidings that the angels have carried from desert to desert? It
is true that Thais is about to meet her blessed death. Her labours are
accomplished, and I ought to inform thee, in a few words, as to her
conduct whilst she was still amongst us. After thy departure, when she
was confined in a cell sealed with thy seal, I sent her, with her
food, a flute, similar to those which girls of her profession play at
banquets. I did that to prevent her from falling into a melancholy mood,
and that she should not show less skill and talent before God than she
had shown before men. In this I showed prudence and foresight, for all
day long Thais praised the Lord upon the flute, and the virgins, who
were attracted by the sound of this invisible flute, said, 'We hear the
nightingale of the heavenly groves, the dying swan of Jesus crucified.'
Thus did Thais perform her penance, when, after sixty days, the door
which thou hadst sealed opened of itself, and the clay seal was broken
without being touched by any human hand. By that sign I knew that
the trial thou hadst imposed upon her was at an end, and that God had
pardoned the sins of the flute-player. From that time she has shared
the ordinary life of my nuns, working and praying with them. She was an
example to them by the modesty of her acts and words, and seemed like a
statue of purity amongst them. Sometimes she was sad; but those clouds
soon passed. When I saw that she was really drawn towards God by faith,
hope, and love, I did not hesitate to employ her talent, and even her
beauty, for the improvement of her sisters. I asked her to represent
before us the actions of the famous women and wise virgins of the
Scriptures. She acted Esther, Deborah, Judith, Mary, the sister of
Lazarus, and Mary, the mother of Jesus. I know, venerable father, that
thy austere mind is alarmed at the idea of these performances. But thou
thyself wouldest have been touched if thou hadst seen her in these pious
scenes, shedding real tears, and raising to heaven arms graceful as palm
leaves. I have long governed a community of women, and I make it a rule
never to oppose their nature. All seeds give not the same flowers. Not
all souls are sanctified in the same way. It must also not be forgotten
that Thais gave herself to God whilst she was still beautiful, and such
a sacrifice is, if not unexampled, at least very rare. This beauty--her
natural vesture--has not left her during the three months' fever of
which she is dying. As, during her illness, she has incessantly asked to
see the sky, I have her carried every morning into the courtyard, near
the well, under the old fig tree, in the shade of which the abbesses of
this convent are accustomed to hold their meetings. Thou wilt find her
there, venerable father; but hasten, for God calls her, and this night
a shroud will cover that face which God made both to shame and to edify
Paphnutius followed her into a courtyard flooded with the morning light.
On the edge of the brick roofs, the pigeons formed a string of pearls.
On a bed, in the shade of the fig tree, Thais lay quite white, her arms
crossed. By her side stood veiled women, reciting the prayers for the
""Have mercy, upon me, O God, according to Thy loving kindness:
according unto the multitude of Thy tender mercies blot out my
He called her--
She raised her eyelids, and turned the whites of her eyes in the
direction of the voice.
Albina made a sign to the veiled women to retire a few paces.
"Thais!" repeated the monk.
She raised her head; a light breath came from her pale lips.
"Is it thou, my father? . . . Dost thou remember the water of the
spring, and the dates that we picked? . . . That day, my father, love
was born in my heart--the love of life eternal."
She was silent, and her head fell back.
Death was upon her, and the sweat of the last agony bedewed her
forehead. A pigeon broke the still silence with its plaintive cooing.
Then the sobs of the monk mingled with the psalms of the virgins.
""Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin. For
I acknowledge my transgressions: and my sin is ever before me.""
Suddenly Thais sat up in the bed. Her violet eyes opened wide, and with
a rapt gaze, her arms stretched towards the distant hills, she said in a
clear, fresh voice--
"Behold them--the roses of the eternal dawn!"
Her eyes shone; a slight flush suffused her face. She had revived, more
sweet and more beautiful than ever. Paphnutius knelt down, and threw his
long black arms around her.
"Do not die!" he cried, in a strange voice, which he himself did not
recognise. "I love thee! Do not die! Listen, my Thais. I have deceived
thee? I was but a wretched fool. God, heaven--all that is nothing. There
is nothing true but this worldly life, and the love of human beings. I
love thee! Do not die! That would be impossible--thou art too precious!
Come, come with me! Let us fly? I will carry thee far away in my arms.
Come, let us love! Hear me, O my beloved, and say, 'I will live; I wish
to live.' Thais, Thais, arise!"
She did not hear him. Her eyes gazed into infinity.
"Heaven opens. I see the angels, the prophets, and the saints. . . . The
good Theodore is amongst them, his hands filled with flowers; he smiles
on me and calls me. . . . Two angels come to me. They draw near. . . .
How beautiful they are! I see God!"
She uttered a joyful sigh, and her head fell back motionless on the
pillow. Thais was dead.
Paphnutius held her in a last despairing embrace; his eyes devoured her
with desire, rage, and love.
Albina cried to him--
"Avaunt, accursed wretch!"
And she gently placed her fingers on the eyelids of the dead girl.
Paphnutius staggered back, his eyes burning with flames and feeling the
earth open beneath his feet.
The virgins chanted the song of Zacharias:
""Blessed be the Lord God of Israel.""
Suddenly their voices stayed in their throat. They had seen the monk's
face, and they fled in affright, crying--
"A vampire! A vampire!"
He had become so repulsive, that passing his hand over his face, he felt
his own hideousness.
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