From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"9-Volt" redirects here. For the WarioWare character, see List of Wario characters.
A PP3 battery, commonly referred to simply as a nine-volt battery, is shaped as a rounded rectangular prism and has a nominal output of nine volts. Its nominal dimensions are 48 mm × 25 mm × 15 mm (ANSI standard 1604A). It is widely used in smoke detectors and as backup batteries for digital clocks and alarm clocks. However PP3 refers to the type of connection that is on top of the battery or snap. The PP3 connector (snap) consists of two connectors: one circular (male) and a hexagonal (female). The connectors on the battery are the same as on the connector itself -- the circular one connects to the hexagonal and vice versa.
The PP3 appeared when portable transistorised radio receivers became common, and is still called a "transistor" battery by some manufacturers. The Energizer company claims that it introduced this battery type in 1956 .
The battery has both the positive and negative terminals on one end. The negative terminal is fashioned into a snap fitting which mechanically and electrically connects to a mating terminal on the power connector. The power connector has a similar snap fitting on its positive terminal which mates to the battery. This makes battery polarization obvious since mechanical connection is only possible in one configuration. One problem with this style of connection is that it is very easy to connect two batteries together in a short circuit, which quickly discharges both batteries, generating heat and possibly a fire. The wiring usually uses black and red wires, red for positive.
Inside a PP3 there are ordinarily six alkaline or carbon-zinc 1.5 volt (nominal) cells arranged in series. These are either AAAA cells, or special flat, rectangular cells. The exact size of the constituent cells varies from brand to brand -- some brands are slightly longer than others -- as does the manner in which they are joined together. Some brands use soldered tabs on the battery, others press foil strips against the ends of the cells.
Very cheap versions may contain only five 1.5 volt cells. Rechargeable NiCd and NiMH batteries have various numbers of 1.2 volt cells. Lithium versions use three 3 V cells - there is a rechargeable lithium polymer version.