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  1. AAAA battery
  2. AAA battery
  3. AA battery
  4. A battery
  5. Absorbent glass mat
  6. Alessandro Volta
  7. Alkaline battery
  8. Alkaline fuel cell
  9. Aluminium battery
  10. Ampere
  11. Atomic battery
  12. Backup battery
  13. Baghdad Battery
  14. Batteries
  15. Battery charger
  16. B battery
  17. Bernard S. Baker
  18. Beta-alumina solid electrolyte
  19. Betavoltaics
  20. Bio-nano generator
  21. Blue energy
  22. Bunsen cell
  23. Car battery
  24. C battery
  25. Clark cell
  26. Concentration cell
  27. Coulomb
  28. 2CR5
  29. Daniell cell
  30. Direct borohydride fuel cell
  31. Direct-ethanol fuel cell
  32. Direct methanol fuel cell
  33. Dry cell
  34. Dry pile
  35. Duracell
  36. Duracell Bunny
  37. Earth battery
  38. Electric charge
  39. Electric current
  40. Electricity
  41. Electrochemical cell
  42. Electrochemical potential
  43. Electro-galvanic fuel cell
  44. Electrolysis
  45. Electrolyte
  46. Electrolytic cell
  47. Electromagnetism
  48. Electromotive force
  49. Energizer Bunny
  50. Energy
  51. Energy density
  52. Energy storage
  53. Flashlight
  54. Float charging
  55. Flow Battery
  56. Formic acid fuel cell
  57. Fuel cell
  58. Fuel cell bus trial
  59. Galvanic cell
  60. Gel battery
  61. Grove cell
  62. Half cell
  63. History of the battery
  64. Hybrid vehicle
  65. Lead-acid battery
  66. Leclanché cell
  67. Lemon battery
  68. List of battery sizes
  69. List of battery types
  70. List of fuel cell vehicles
  71. Lithium battery
  72. Lithium ion batteries
  73. Lithium iron phosphate battery
  74. Lithium polymer cell
  75. LR44 battery
  76. Luigi Galvani
  77. Manganese dioxide
  78. Memory effect
  79. Mercury battery
  80. Metal hydride fuel cell
  81. Methane reformer
  82. Methanol reformer
  83. Michael Faraday
  84. Microbial fuel cell
  85. Molten carbonate fuel cell
  86. Molten salt battery
  87. Nickel-cadmium battery
  88. Nickel-iron battery
  89. Nickel metal hydride
  90. Nickel-zinc battery
  91. Open-circuit voltage
  92. Optoelectric nuclear battery
  93. Organic radical battery
  94. Oxyride battery
  95. Panasonic EV Energy Co
  96. Peukert's law
  97. Phosphoric acid fuel cell
  98. Photoelectrochemical cell
  99. Polymer-based battery
  100. Power density
  101. Power management
  102. Power outage
  103. PP3 battery
  104. Primary cell
  105. Prius
  106. Proton exchange membrane
  107. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
  108. Protonic ceramic fuel cell
  109. Radioisotope piezoelectric generator
  110. Ragone chart
  111. RCR-V3
  112. Rechargeable alkaline battery
  113. Reverse charging
  114. Reversible fuel cell
  115. Searchlight
  116. Secondary cell
  117. Short circuit
  118. Silver-oxide battery
  119. Smart Battery Data
  120. Smart battery system
  121. Sodium-sulfur battery
  122. Solid oxide fuel cell
  123. Super iron battery
  124. Thermionic converter
  125. Trickle charging
  126. Vanadium redox battery
  127. Volt
  128. Voltage
  129. Voltaic pile
  130. Watch battery
  131. Water-activated battery
  132. Weston cell
  133. Wet cell
  134. Zinc-air battery
  135. Zinc-bromine flow battery
  136. Zinc-carbon battery

This article is from:

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Dry cell

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A dry cell is a galvanic electrochemical cell with a pasty electrolyte. A common dry cell is the zinc-carbon battery sometimes called the dry Leclanché cell, with a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts, the same nominal voltage as the alkaline battery (since both use the same zinc-manganese metal combination). Multiple cells are commonly connected in series within a single case or battery compartment within a device to form a dry battery (or dry cell battery) of greater voltage than is provided by one cell. A well known dry battery is the 9-volt "transistor radio battery" (PP3 battery) which is internally constructed of a standard stack of six carbon-zinc or alkaline cells, or three lithium cells.

A wet cell, on the other hand, is a cell with a liquid electrolyte, such as the lead-acid batteries in most automobiles.


See Carbon-zinc battery

For the cheapest carbon-zinc variety, a zinc outer casing (anode) contains a layer of NH4Cl with ZnCl2 aqueous paste separated by a paper layer from a mixture of powdered carbon & manganese (IV) oxide (MnO2) which is packed around a carbon rod (cathode). As the cell runs, manganese ions are reduced from an oxidation state of +4 to +3, collecting electrons from the carbon rod, while the zinc metal cathode is oxidized to Zn2+ ions, producing the electrons. So the electrons travel outside the cell, from the zinc casing (the negative end or anode) through contacts and wires to the carbon rod (which is in contact with the manganese dioxide powder, the actual cathode material, and so is positive).

In so-called alkaline cells (see alkaline battery), some of the electrolyte in the paste is replaced with an alkaline paste of potassium hydroxide. However, the essential transfer of electrons from zinc to manganese still powers the cell.

The standard carbon-zinc dry cell is relatively cheap, and until recently, has been the most common type of cell (only recently being replaced in most uses by the alkaline type). It was the first commercial portable battery (technically, a battery is made of two or more cells) and therefore the dry cell had a large impact on society, as it contributed to the development of flashlights (torches) and portable radios.

Timeline of portable battery cell invention history

  • 1800 - Alessandro Volta invents the voltaic pile and discovers the first practical method of generating low voltage high current electricity. Constructed of alternating discs of zinc and copper with pieces of cardboard soaked in brine between the metals, the voltaic pile is the first "wet cell battery."
  • 1836 - Englishman, John Frederic Daniell invented the Daniell cell that used two electrolytes: copper sulfate and zinc sulfate. The Daniel Cell is safer and less corrosive then the Volta cell.
  • 1859 - French inventor, Gaston Planté developed the first practical storage lead-acid battery that could be recharged (secondary battery). This type of battery is primarily used in cars today.
  • 1866 - French engineer, Georges Leclanché patented the carbon-zinc wet cell battery called the Leclanché cell. It is assembled in a porous pot. The positive electrode consists of crushed manganese dioxide with a little carbon mixed in. The negative pole is a zinc rod. The cathode is packed into the pot, and a carbon rod was inserted to act as a current collector. The anode or zinc rod and the pot were then immersed in an ammonium chloride solution. The liquid acted as the electrolyte, readily seeping through the porous cup, acting as electrolyte, and making contact with the cathode material.
  • 1868 - Twenty thousand of Georges Leclanche's cells were now being used with telegraph equipment.
  • 1881 - J.A. Thiebaut patents the first battery with both the negative electrode and porous pot placed in a zinc cup.
  • 1885 - Japanese clockmaker, Senzou Yai invented the first dry cell battery.
  • 1887 - Carl Gassner invented the first commercially successful dry cell battery (zinc-carbon cell). It is very similar to the wet cell design, but simply with less water in the paste, and with the entire assembly sealed water-tight.
  • 1899 - Waldmar Jungner invents the first nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery.
  • 1901 - Thomas Edison invents the alkaline storage battery.
  • 1949 - Lewis Urry invents the small alkaline battery.

Modern alkaline battery (cell)

Lewis Urry developed the small alkaline battery in 1949, working for the Eveready Battery Co. at their research laboratory in Parma, Ohio. Alkaline batteries use a different electrolyte, and last five to eight times as long as zinc-carbon cells, their predecessors. At the time, this was not considered patentable invention.

External links

  • [1] A history of batteries.
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