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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. AAAA battery
  2. AAA battery
  3. AA battery
  4. A battery
  5. Absorbent glass mat
  6. Alessandro Volta
  7. Alkaline battery
  8. Alkaline fuel cell
  9. Aluminium battery
  10. Ampere
  11. Atomic battery
  12. Backup battery
  13. Baghdad Battery
  14. Batteries
  15. Battery charger
  16. B battery
  17. Bernard S. Baker
  18. Beta-alumina solid electrolyte
  19. Betavoltaics
  20. Bio-nano generator
  21. Blue energy
  22. Bunsen cell
  23. Car battery
  24. C battery
  25. Clark cell
  26. Concentration cell
  27. Coulomb
  28. 2CR5
  29. Daniell cell
  30. Direct borohydride fuel cell
  31. Direct-ethanol fuel cell
  32. Direct methanol fuel cell
  33. Dry cell
  34. Dry pile
  35. Duracell
  36. Duracell Bunny
  37. Earth battery
  38. Electric charge
  39. Electric current
  40. Electricity
  41. Electrochemical cell
  42. Electrochemical potential
  43. Electro-galvanic fuel cell
  44. Electrolysis
  45. Electrolyte
  46. Electrolytic cell
  47. Electromagnetism
  48. Electromotive force
  49. Energizer Bunny
  50. Energy
  51. Energy density
  52. Energy storage
  53. Flashlight
  54. Float charging
  55. Flow Battery
  56. Formic acid fuel cell
  57. Fuel cell
  58. Fuel cell bus trial
  59. Galvanic cell
  60. Gel battery
  61. Grove cell
  62. Half cell
  63. History of the battery
  64. Hybrid vehicle
  65. Lead-acid battery
  66. Leclanché cell
  67. Lemon battery
  68. List of battery sizes
  69. List of battery types
  70. List of fuel cell vehicles
  71. Lithium battery
  72. Lithium ion batteries
  73. Lithium iron phosphate battery
  74. Lithium polymer cell
  75. LR44 battery
  76. Luigi Galvani
  77. Manganese dioxide
  78. Memory effect
  79. Mercury battery
  80. Metal hydride fuel cell
  81. Methane reformer
  82. Methanol reformer
  83. Michael Faraday
  84. Microbial fuel cell
  85. Molten carbonate fuel cell
  86. Molten salt battery
  87. Nickel-cadmium battery
  88. Nickel-iron battery
  89. Nickel metal hydride
  90. Nickel-zinc battery
  91. Open-circuit voltage
  92. Optoelectric nuclear battery
  93. Organic radical battery
  94. Oxyride battery
  95. Panasonic EV Energy Co
  96. Peukert's law
  97. Phosphoric acid fuel cell
  98. Photoelectrochemical cell
  99. Polymer-based battery
  100. Power density
  101. Power management
  102. Power outage
  103. PP3 battery
  104. Primary cell
  105. Prius
  106. Proton exchange membrane
  107. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
  108. Protonic ceramic fuel cell
  109. Radioisotope piezoelectric generator
  110. Ragone chart
  111. RCR-V3
  112. Rechargeable alkaline battery
  113. Reverse charging
  114. Reversible fuel cell
  115. Searchlight
  116. Secondary cell
  117. Short circuit
  118. Silver-oxide battery
  119. Smart Battery Data
  120. Smart battery system
  121. Sodium-sulfur battery
  122. Solid oxide fuel cell
  123. Super iron battery
  124. Thermionic converter
  125. Trickle charging
  126. Vanadium redox battery
  127. Volt
  128. Voltage
  129. Voltaic pile
  130. Watch battery
  131. Water-activated battery
  132. Weston cell
  133. Wet cell
  134. Zinc-air battery
  135. Zinc-bromine flow battery
  136. Zinc-carbon battery
 



BATTERIES
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battery_charger

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Battery charger

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
 This charger charges the battery until it reaches a specific voltage and then it trickle charges the battery until it is removed.
This charger charges the battery until it reaches a specific voltage and then it trickle charges the battery until it is removed.
A simple charger equivalent to a AC-DC wall adapter. It applies 300mA to the battery at all times, which damages the battery if left connected too long.
A simple charger equivalent to a AC-DC wall adapter. It applies 300mA to the battery at all times, which damages the battery if left connected too long.

A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a cell or (rechargeable) battery by forcing an electric current through it.

The charge current depends upon the technology and capacity of the battery being charged. For example, the current that should be applied to recharge a 12 V car battery will be very different to the current for a mobile phone battery.

Types of battery chargers

Simple

A simple charger works by connecting a constant DC power source to the battery being charged. The simple charger does not alter its output based on time or the charge on the battery. This simplicity means that a simple charger is inexpensive, but there is a tradeoff in quality. Typically, a simple charger takes longer to charge a battery to prevent severe over-charging. Even so, a battery left in a simple charger for too long will be weakened or destroyed due to over-charging.

Timer-based

The output of a timer charger is terminated after a pre-determined time. Timer chargers were the most common type for Ni-Cd cells in the late 1990s for example.

Often a timer charger and set of batteries could be bought as a bundle and the charger time was set to suit those batteries. If batteries of lower capacity were charged then they would be overcharged, and if batteries of higher capacity were charged they would be only partly charged. With the trend for battery technology to increase capacity year on year, an old timer charger would only partly charge the newer batteries.

Intelligent

Output current depends upon the battery's state. An intelligent charger may monitor the battery's voltage, temperature and/or time under charge to determine the optimum charge current at that instant. Charging is terminated when a combination of the voltage, temperature and/or time indicates that the battery is fully charged.

For Ni-Cd and NiMH batteries, the voltage over the battery increases slowly during the charging process, until the battery is fully charged. After that, the voltage decreases, which indicates to an intelligent charger that the battery is fully charged. Such chargers are often labeled as a ΔV charger, indicating that they monitor the voltage change.

Fast

Fast chargers, made by VARTA[1] and other companies, make use of control circuitry in the batteries being charged to rapidly charge the batteries without damaging the cells' elements. Most such chargers have a cooling fan to help keep the temperature of the cells under control. Most are also capable of acting as a standard overnight charger if used with standard NiMH cells that do not have the special control circuitry.

USB-based

Since the Universal Serial Bus specification provides for a five-volt power supply, it's possible to use a USB receptable as a power source for recharging batteries. Products based on this approach include chargers designed to charge standard NiMH cells[2], and custom NiMH batteries with built-in USB plugs and circuitry which eliminate the need for a separate charger.[3]

 

"Short circuiting"

A short circuit (connecting the output terminals together) does not usually damage a simple battery charger. For that reason it is a suitable source of DC voltage for experimentation. It may, however, require an external capacitor to be connected across its output terminals in order to "smooth" the voltage sufficiently, which may be thought of as a DC voltage plus a "ripple" voltage added to it. To see the difference between connecting and not connecting a capacitor, connect also an oscilloscope across the output terminals. Note that there may be an internal resistance connected to limit the short circuit current, and the value of that internal resistance may have to be taken into consideration in experiments.

Pay-per-charge kiosk, illustrating the variety of mobile phone charger connectors.
Pay-per-charge kiosk, illustrating the variety of mobile phone charger connectors.

Mobile phone charger

Battery chargers for mobile phones and other devices are notable in that they come in a wide variety of connector-styles and voltages, most of which are not compatible with other manufactuers' phones or even different models of phones from a single manufacturer. In many cases, although a connector may be the same for devices from the same brand or compatible with a device from another brand, the actual charging parameters may differ – using a charger just because it has the "right" connector may result in an inadequate charge or even permanently damage the device.[4]

Users of publicly accessible charging kiosks must be able to cross-reference connectors with device brands/models and individual charge parameters and thus ensure delivery of the correct charge for their mobile device. A database-driven system is one solution, and is being incorporated into some of the latest designs of charging kiosks.

There are also human-powered chargers sold on the market, which typically consists of a dynamo powered by a hand crank and extension cords. [5] There are also solar chargers.[6]

China is making a national standard on mobile phone chargers using USB port.[7]


 

References

  1. ^ http://www.en.varta-consumer.com/15minutes?&, from a VARTA website
  2. ^ http://www.everfast.com.hk/catalog/usb-stick-battery-charger-aa-nano-usb-battery-charger-aa-aa-p-78.html
  3. ^ http://www.usbcell.com/support/faqsection/5, from a Moixa Energy website
  4. ^ The charge of the mobile phone brigade, a July 2004 opinion column from The Age
  5. ^ an example of a commercialised human-powered charger
  6. ^ example of solar charger
  7. ^ China to work out national standard for mobile phone chargers
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battery_charger"
 

 



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