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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. AAAA battery
  2. AAA battery
  3. AA battery
  4. A battery
  5. Absorbent glass mat
  6. Alessandro Volta
  7. Alkaline battery
  8. Alkaline fuel cell
  9. Aluminium battery
  10. Ampere
  11. Atomic battery
  12. Backup battery
  13. Baghdad Battery
  14. Batteries
  15. Battery charger
  16. B battery
  17. Bernard S. Baker
  18. Beta-alumina solid electrolyte
  19. Betavoltaics
  20. Bio-nano generator
  21. Blue energy
  22. Bunsen cell
  23. Car battery
  24. C battery
  25. Clark cell
  26. Concentration cell
  27. Coulomb
  28. 2CR5
  29. Daniell cell
  30. Direct borohydride fuel cell
  31. Direct-ethanol fuel cell
  32. Direct methanol fuel cell
  33. Dry cell
  34. Dry pile
  35. Duracell
  36. Duracell Bunny
  37. Earth battery
  38. Electric charge
  39. Electric current
  40. Electricity
  41. Electrochemical cell
  42. Electrochemical potential
  43. Electro-galvanic fuel cell
  44. Electrolysis
  45. Electrolyte
  46. Electrolytic cell
  47. Electromagnetism
  48. Electromotive force
  49. Energizer Bunny
  50. Energy
  51. Energy density
  52. Energy storage
  53. Flashlight
  54. Float charging
  55. Flow Battery
  56. Formic acid fuel cell
  57. Fuel cell
  58. Fuel cell bus trial
  59. Galvanic cell
  60. Gel battery
  61. Grove cell
  62. Half cell
  63. History of the battery
  64. Hybrid vehicle
  65. Lead-acid battery
  66. Leclanché cell
  67. Lemon battery
  68. List of battery sizes
  69. List of battery types
  70. List of fuel cell vehicles
  71. Lithium battery
  72. Lithium ion batteries
  73. Lithium iron phosphate battery
  74. Lithium polymer cell
  75. LR44 battery
  76. Luigi Galvani
  77. Manganese dioxide
  78. Memory effect
  79. Mercury battery
  80. Metal hydride fuel cell
  81. Methane reformer
  82. Methanol reformer
  83. Michael Faraday
  84. Microbial fuel cell
  85. Molten carbonate fuel cell
  86. Molten salt battery
  87. Nickel-cadmium battery
  88. Nickel-iron battery
  89. Nickel metal hydride
  90. Nickel-zinc battery
  91. Open-circuit voltage
  92. Optoelectric nuclear battery
  93. Organic radical battery
  94. Oxyride battery
  95. Panasonic EV Energy Co
  96. Peukert's law
  97. Phosphoric acid fuel cell
  98. Photoelectrochemical cell
  99. Polymer-based battery
  100. Power density
  101. Power management
  102. Power outage
  103. PP3 battery
  104. Primary cell
  105. Prius
  106. Proton exchange membrane
  107. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
  108. Protonic ceramic fuel cell
  109. Radioisotope piezoelectric generator
  110. Ragone chart
  111. RCR-V3
  112. Rechargeable alkaline battery
  113. Reverse charging
  114. Reversible fuel cell
  115. Searchlight
  116. Secondary cell
  117. Short circuit
  118. Silver-oxide battery
  119. Smart Battery Data
  120. Smart battery system
  121. Sodium-sulfur battery
  122. Solid oxide fuel cell
  123. Super iron battery
  124. Thermionic converter
  125. Trickle charging
  126. Vanadium redox battery
  127. Volt
  128. Voltage
  129. Voltaic pile
  130. Watch battery
  131. Water-activated battery
  132. Weston cell
  133. Wet cell
  134. Zinc-air battery
  135. Zinc-bromine flow battery
  136. Zinc-carbon battery
 



BATTERIES
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_density

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Energy density

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or per unit mass, depending on the context. In some cases it is obvious from context which quantity is most useful: for example, in rocketry, energy per unit mass is the most important parameter, but when studying pressurized gas or magnetohydrodynamics the energy per unit volume is more appropriate. In a few applications (comparing, for example, the effectiveness of hydrogen fuel to gasoline) both figures are appropriate and should be called out explicitly (hydrogen has a higher energy density per unit mass than does gasoline, but a much lower energy density per unit volume in most applications).

Energy density per unit volume has the same physical units as pressure, and in many circumstances is an exact synonym: for example, the energy density of the magnetic field may be expressed as (and behaves as) a physical pressure, and the energy required to compress a gas may be determined by multiplying the pressure of the compressed gas times its final volume.

Note however, that energy density should not be confused with conservation of energy. The energies gained or lost from a system are still conserved, because an equal and opposite energy is gained or lost in another system. In other words, energy has changed form but was never lost or gained.

Energy density in energy storage and in fuel

In energy storage applications, the energy density relates the mass of an energy store to its stored energy. The higher the energy density, the more energy may be stored or transported for the same amount of mass. In the context of fuel selection, the energy density of a fuel is also called the specific energy of that fuel, though in general an engine using that fuel will yield less energy due to inefficiencies and thermodynamic considerations -- hence the specific fuel consumption of an engine will be greater than the reciprocal of the specific energy of the fuel.

Gravimetric and volumetric energy density of some fuels and storage technologies (modified from the Gasoline article): (Note: some values may not be accurate because of isomers or other irregularities)

By dividing by 3.6 the figures for megajoules per kilogram can be converted to kilowatt-hours per kilogram.

Unfortunately, the useful energy available by extraction from an energy store is always less than the energy put into the energy store, due to the laws of thermodynamics.

No single energy storage method boasts the best in specific power, energy density, and energies per unit mass.

Peukert's Law describes how the amount of energy we get out depends how quickly we pull it out.

Energy density of electric and magnetic fields

Electric and magnetic fields store energy. In a vacuum, the (volumetric) energy density (in SI units) is given by:

U = \frac{\varepsilon_0}{2} \mathbf{E}^2 + \frac{1}{2\mu_0} \mathbf{B}^2,

where E is the electric field and B is the magnetic induction. In the context of magnetohydrodynamics, the physics of conductive fluids, the magnetic energy density behaves like an additional pressure that adds to the gas pressure of a plasma.

In normal (linear) substances, the energy density (in SI units) is:

U = \frac{1}{2} ( \mathbf{E} \cdot \mathbf{D} + \mathbf{H} \cdot \mathbf{B} ),

where D is the electric displacement and H is the magnetic field.

Energy density of empty space

In physics, "vacuum energy" or "zero-point energy" is the volumetric energy density of empty space. More recent developments have expounded on the concept of energy in empty space.

Modern physics is commonly classified into two fundamental theories: quantum field theory and general relativity. Quantum field theory takes quantum mechanics and special relativity into account, and it's a theory of all the forces and particles except gravity. General relativity is a theory of gravity, but it is incompatible with quantum mechanics. Currently these two theories have not yet been reconciled into one unified description, though research into "quantum gravity" seeks to bridge this divide.

In general relativity, the cosmological constant is proportional to the energy density of empty space, and can be measured by the curvature of space. It is subsequently related to the age of the universe, as energy expands outwards with time its density changes.

Quantum field theory considers the vacuum ground state not to be completely empty, but to consist of a seething mass of virtual particles and fields. These fields are quantified as probabilities - that is, the likelihood of manifestation based on conditions. Since these fields do not have a permanent existence , they are called vacuum fluctuations. In the Casimir effect, two metal plates can cause a change in the vacuum energy density between them which generates a measurable force.

Some believe that vacuum energy might be the "dark energy" (also called quintessence) associated with the cosmological constant in general relativity, thought to be similar to a negative force of gravity (or antigravity). Observations that the expanding universe appears to be accelerating seem to support the cosmic inflation theory — first proposed by Alan Guth in 1981 — in which the nascent universe passed through a phase of exponential expansion driven by a negative vacuum energy density (positive vacuum pressure).

Energy density of food

Energy density is the amount of energy (kilojoules or calories) per amount of food, with food amount being measured in grams or milliliters of food. Energy density is thus expressed in cal/g, kcal/g, J/g, kJ/g, cal/mL, kcal/mL, J/mL, or kJ/mL. This is the energy released when the food is metabolised by a healthy organism when it ingests the food (see food energy for calculation) and the food is metabolized with oxygen, into waste products such as carbon dioxide and water. Typical values of food energy density for high energy-density foods, such as a hamburger, would be 2.5 kcal/g. Purified fats and oils contain the highest energy densities-- about 9 kcal/g.

See also

 
  • Heat of combustion
  • Zero-point energy - Vacuum energy
  • Virtual particle
  • Cosmological constant
  • Cosmic inflation

References

  1. ^ C. Knowlen, A.T. Mattick, A.P. Bruckner and A. Hertzberg, "High Efficiency Conversion Systems for Liquid Nitrogen Automobiles", Society of Automotive Engineers Inc, 1988.

External references

Zero point energy

  1. Eric Weisstein's world of physics - energy density [41]
  2. Baez physics - Is there a nonzero cosmological constant? [42]; What's the Energy Density of the Vacuum?.
  3. Introductory review of cosmic inflation [43]
  4. An exposition to inflationary cosmology [44]

Density data

  •   "Aircraft Fuels." Energy, Technology and the Environment Ed. Attilio Bisio. Vol. 1. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1995. 257-259

Energy storage

  • table of energy density
  • energy fundamentals
  • Energy Density Field Theory

Energy density of foods

  • http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/Ancient-Africa/mad_ancient_egypt_algebra.html

Books

  • The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins by Alan H. Guth (1998) ISBN 0-201-32840-2
  • Cosmological Inflation and Large-Scale Structure by Andrew R. Liddle, David H. Lyth (2000) ISBN 0-521-57598-2
  • Richard Becker, "Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions", Dover Publications Inc., 1964
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_density"
 

 



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