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DISPONIBILI
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NATURE
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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. AAAA battery
  2. AAA battery
  3. AA battery
  4. A battery
  5. Absorbent glass mat
  6. Alessandro Volta
  7. Alkaline battery
  8. Alkaline fuel cell
  9. Aluminium battery
  10. Ampere
  11. Atomic battery
  12. Backup battery
  13. Baghdad Battery
  14. Batteries
  15. Battery charger
  16. B battery
  17. Bernard S. Baker
  18. Beta-alumina solid electrolyte
  19. Betavoltaics
  20. Bio-nano generator
  21. Blue energy
  22. Bunsen cell
  23. Car battery
  24. C battery
  25. Clark cell
  26. Concentration cell
  27. Coulomb
  28. 2CR5
  29. Daniell cell
  30. Direct borohydride fuel cell
  31. Direct-ethanol fuel cell
  32. Direct methanol fuel cell
  33. Dry cell
  34. Dry pile
  35. Duracell
  36. Duracell Bunny
  37. Earth battery
  38. Electric charge
  39. Electric current
  40. Electricity
  41. Electrochemical cell
  42. Electrochemical potential
  43. Electro-galvanic fuel cell
  44. Electrolysis
  45. Electrolyte
  46. Electrolytic cell
  47. Electromagnetism
  48. Electromotive force
  49. Energizer Bunny
  50. Energy
  51. Energy density
  52. Energy storage
  53. Flashlight
  54. Float charging
  55. Flow Battery
  56. Formic acid fuel cell
  57. Fuel cell
  58. Fuel cell bus trial
  59. Galvanic cell
  60. Gel battery
  61. Grove cell
  62. Half cell
  63. History of the battery
  64. Hybrid vehicle
  65. Lead-acid battery
  66. Leclanché cell
  67. Lemon battery
  68. List of battery sizes
  69. List of battery types
  70. List of fuel cell vehicles
  71. Lithium battery
  72. Lithium ion batteries
  73. Lithium iron phosphate battery
  74. Lithium polymer cell
  75. LR44 battery
  76. Luigi Galvani
  77. Manganese dioxide
  78. Memory effect
  79. Mercury battery
  80. Metal hydride fuel cell
  81. Methane reformer
  82. Methanol reformer
  83. Michael Faraday
  84. Microbial fuel cell
  85. Molten carbonate fuel cell
  86. Molten salt battery
  87. Nickel-cadmium battery
  88. Nickel-iron battery
  89. Nickel metal hydride
  90. Nickel-zinc battery
  91. Open-circuit voltage
  92. Optoelectric nuclear battery
  93. Organic radical battery
  94. Oxyride battery
  95. Panasonic EV Energy Co
  96. Peukert's law
  97. Phosphoric acid fuel cell
  98. Photoelectrochemical cell
  99. Polymer-based battery
  100. Power density
  101. Power management
  102. Power outage
  103. PP3 battery
  104. Primary cell
  105. Prius
  106. Proton exchange membrane
  107. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
  108. Protonic ceramic fuel cell
  109. Radioisotope piezoelectric generator
  110. Ragone chart
  111. RCR-V3
  112. Rechargeable alkaline battery
  113. Reverse charging
  114. Reversible fuel cell
  115. Searchlight
  116. Secondary cell
  117. Short circuit
  118. Silver-oxide battery
  119. Smart Battery Data
  120. Smart battery system
  121. Sodium-sulfur battery
  122. Solid oxide fuel cell
  123. Super iron battery
  124. Thermionic converter
  125. Trickle charging
  126. Vanadium redox battery
  127. Volt
  128. Voltage
  129. Voltaic pile
  130. Watch battery
  131. Water-activated battery
  132. Weston cell
  133. Wet cell
  134. Zinc-air battery
  135. Zinc-bromine flow battery
  136. Zinc-carbon battery
 



BATTERIES
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luigi_Galvani

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Luigi Galvani

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Luigi Galvani - Italian physician famous for making frog's legs twitch.
Luigi Galvani - Italian physician famous for making frog's legs twitch.

Luigi Galvani (September 9, 1737 – December 4, 1798) was an Italian physician and physicist who lived and died in Bologna. In 1771, he discovered that the muscles of dead frogs twitched when struck by a spark.[1] He was a pioneer in modern obstetrics, and discovered that muscle and nerve cells produce electricity.

Early life

Galvani attended Bologna's medicine school and became a medical doctor just like his father. In 1764 he married the only daughter of the professor at the University of Bologna. In 1772 Galvani became president of the university.

Frog legs

The electrochemical behavior of two dissimilar metals [(zinc (Z) and copper (C)] in a bimetallic arch, in contact with the electrolytes of tissue, produces an electric stimulating current that elicits muscular contraction.
The electrochemical behavior of two dissimilar metals [(zinc (Z) and copper (C)] in a bimetallic arch, in contact with the electrolytes of tissue, produces an electric stimulating current that elicits muscular contraction.[2]

In about 1766, Galvani began investigating the action of electricity upon the muscles of frogs. By observing the twitching in the muscles of frog legs suspended by copper hooks on an iron rail, Galvani was led to the invention of the metallic arc. The arc was made of two different metals, such than when one metal was placed in contact with a frog’s nerve and the other in contact with a muscle, a contraction would occur.[3]

Statue of Galvani in Bologna.
Statue of Galvani in Bologna.

In 1783, according to popular version of the story, Galvani dissected a frog at a table where he had been conducting experiments with static electricity, Galvani's assistant touched an exposed sciatic nerve of the frog with a metal scalpel, which had picked up a charge.[citation needed] At that moment, they saw sparks in an electricity machine and the dead frog's leg kick as if in life. The observation made Galvani the first investigator to appreciate the relationship between electricity and animation — or life. This finding provided a basis for the current understanding that electrical energy (carried by ions), and not air or fluid as in earlier balloonist theories, is the impetus behind muscle movement. He is typically credited with the discovery of bioelectricity.

Galvani coined the term animal electricity to describe whatever it was that activated the muscles of his specimens. Along with contemporaries, he regarded their activation as being generated by an electrical fluid that is carried to the muscles by the nerves. The phenomenon was dubbed "galvanism", after Galvani, on the suggestion of his peer and sometime intellectual adversary Alessandro Volta.

Animal electricity vs. heat electricity

Galvani's investigations led shortly to the invention of an early battery, but not by Galvani, who did not perceive electricity as separable from biology. Galvani did not see electricity as the essence of life, which he regarded vitalistically. Galvani believed that the animal electricity came from the muscle. Galvani's associate Alessandro Volta, in opposition, reasoned that the animal electricity was a physical phenomenon, i.e. a metallic electricity.

While, as Galvani believed, all life is indeed electrical, specifically that all living things are made of cells and every cell has a cell potential, biological electricity has the same chemical underpinnings as the flow of current between electrochemical cells, and thus can be recapitulated in a way outside the body. Volta's intuition was correct. Volta, essentially, objected to Galvani’s conclusions about “animal electric fluid,” but the two scientists disagreed respectfully and Volta coined the term galvanism for a direct current of electricity produced by chemical action.[4]

Thus, owing to an argument between the two, in regards to the source or cause of the electricity, Volta built the first battery in order to specifically disprove his associate's theory. Volta's "pile" became known therefore as a voltaic pile

Later life

Lucia, Galvani's wife died in 1790 at age 47. Luigi died eight years later at the age of 55.

Miscellaneous

  • Galvani's report of his investigations were mentioned specifically by Mary Shelley as part of the summer reading list leading up to an ad hoc ghost story contest on a rainy day in Switzerland—and the resultant novel "Frankenstein"—and its electrically reanimated construct.
  • Galvani's name also survives in the Galvanic cell, the galvanometer and galvanization.
  • Galvani crater, on the Moon, is also named after him.

References

  1. ^ Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) – Eric Weisstein’s World of Scientific Biolgraph.
  2. ^ Malmivuo, J., & Plonsey, R. (1995). Bioelectromagnatism: Principles and applications of bioelectric and biomagnetic fields. New York: Oxford University Press., Ch.1
  3. ^ Luigi Galvani – NNDB
  4. ^ Luigi Galvini – IEEE Virtual Museum.

See Also

  • Galvanization

Further reading

  • Kandel E.R., Schwartz, J.H., Jessell, T.M. (2000). Principles of Neural Science, 4th ed., p.6. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Luigi Galvani

External links

  • Luigi Galvani (Overview) - Corrosion Doctors
  • Luigi Galvani - Theory of Animal Electricity
  • Luigi Galvani - About.com
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luigi_Galvani"

 



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