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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. AAAA battery
  2. AAA battery
  3. AA battery
  4. A battery
  5. Absorbent glass mat
  6. Alessandro Volta
  7. Alkaline battery
  8. Alkaline fuel cell
  9. Aluminium battery
  10. Ampere
  11. Atomic battery
  12. Backup battery
  13. Baghdad Battery
  14. Batteries
  15. Battery charger
  16. B battery
  17. Bernard S. Baker
  18. Beta-alumina solid electrolyte
  19. Betavoltaics
  20. Bio-nano generator
  21. Blue energy
  22. Bunsen cell
  23. Car battery
  24. C battery
  25. Clark cell
  26. Concentration cell
  27. Coulomb
  28. 2CR5
  29. Daniell cell
  30. Direct borohydride fuel cell
  31. Direct-ethanol fuel cell
  32. Direct methanol fuel cell
  33. Dry cell
  34. Dry pile
  35. Duracell
  36. Duracell Bunny
  37. Earth battery
  38. Electric charge
  39. Electric current
  40. Electricity
  41. Electrochemical cell
  42. Electrochemical potential
  43. Electro-galvanic fuel cell
  44. Electrolysis
  45. Electrolyte
  46. Electrolytic cell
  47. Electromagnetism
  48. Electromotive force
  49. Energizer Bunny
  50. Energy
  51. Energy density
  52. Energy storage
  53. Flashlight
  54. Float charging
  55. Flow Battery
  56. Formic acid fuel cell
  57. Fuel cell
  58. Fuel cell bus trial
  59. Galvanic cell
  60. Gel battery
  61. Grove cell
  62. Half cell
  63. History of the battery
  64. Hybrid vehicle
  65. Lead-acid battery
  66. Leclanché cell
  67. Lemon battery
  68. List of battery sizes
  69. List of battery types
  70. List of fuel cell vehicles
  71. Lithium battery
  72. Lithium ion batteries
  73. Lithium iron phosphate battery
  74. Lithium polymer cell
  75. LR44 battery
  76. Luigi Galvani
  77. Manganese dioxide
  78. Memory effect
  79. Mercury battery
  80. Metal hydride fuel cell
  81. Methane reformer
  82. Methanol reformer
  83. Michael Faraday
  84. Microbial fuel cell
  85. Molten carbonate fuel cell
  86. Molten salt battery
  87. Nickel-cadmium battery
  88. Nickel-iron battery
  89. Nickel metal hydride
  90. Nickel-zinc battery
  91. Open-circuit voltage
  92. Optoelectric nuclear battery
  93. Organic radical battery
  94. Oxyride battery
  95. Panasonic EV Energy Co
  96. Peukert's law
  97. Phosphoric acid fuel cell
  98. Photoelectrochemical cell
  99. Polymer-based battery
  100. Power density
  101. Power management
  102. Power outage
  103. PP3 battery
  104. Primary cell
  105. Prius
  106. Proton exchange membrane
  107. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
  108. Protonic ceramic fuel cell
  109. Radioisotope piezoelectric generator
  110. Ragone chart
  111. RCR-V3
  112. Rechargeable alkaline battery
  113. Reverse charging
  114. Reversible fuel cell
  115. Searchlight
  116. Secondary cell
  117. Short circuit
  118. Silver-oxide battery
  119. Smart Battery Data
  120. Smart battery system
  121. Sodium-sulfur battery
  122. Solid oxide fuel cell
  123. Super iron battery
  124. Thermionic converter
  125. Trickle charging
  126. Vanadium redox battery
  127. Volt
  128. Voltage
  129. Voltaic pile
  130. Watch battery
  131. Water-activated battery
  132. Weston cell
  133. Wet cell
  134. Zinc-air battery
  135. Zinc-bromine flow battery
  136. Zinc-carbon battery
 



BATTERIES
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium_battery

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Lithium battery

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
CR2032 lithium battery
CR2032 lithium battery

Lithium batteries are primary batteries that have lithium metal or lithium compounds as an anode. Depending on the design and chemical compounds used lithium cells can produce voltages from 1.5V to about 3V, twice the voltage of an ordinary zinc-carbon battery or alkaline cell. Lithium batteries are used in many portable consumer electronic devices, and are widely used in industry.

Description

The term "lithium battery" refers to a family of different chemistries, comprising many types of cathodes and electrolytes. One type of lithium cell having a large energy density is the lithium-thionyl chloride cell. In this cell, a liquid mixture of thionyl chloride and lithium tetrachloroaluminate acts as the cathode and electrolyte respectively. A porous carbon material serves as a cathode current collector which receives electrons from the external circuit. However, lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are generally not sold to the consumer market, and find more use in commercial/industrial applications, or are installed into devices where no consumer replacement is performed. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are well suited to extremely low-current applications where long life is necessary, e.g. wireless alarm systems.

The most common type of lithium cell used in consumer applications uses metallic lithium as anode and manganese dioxide as cathode, with a salt of lithium dissolved in an organic solvent.

Disassembled CR2016 battery Leftmost: Anode cup, upside down, spent lithium partially scratched off Left: Separator, a thin layer of porous material soaked with electrolyte - lithium salt in an organic solvent Right: Cathode, a tablet of manganese dioxide Rightmost: Cathode can, with current collector (carbon layer) on its bottom and a gasket around its inner edge. Damaged by clumsy opening attempt.
Disassembled CR2016 battery
Leftmost: Anode cup, upside down, spent lithium partially scratched off
Left: Separator, a thin layer of porous material soaked with electrolyte - lithium salt in an organic solvent
Right: Cathode, a tablet of manganese dioxide
Rightmost: Cathode can, with current collector (carbon layer) on its bottom and a gasket around its inner edge. Damaged by clumsy opening attempt.


 

Chemistries

The liquid organic electrolyte is usually a solution of an ion-forming inorganic lithium compound in a mixture of a high-permittivity solvent (eg. propylene carbonate) and a low-viscosity solvent (eg. dimethoxyethane).

Applications

Lithium batteries find application in many long-life, critical devices, such as cardiac pacemakers and other implantable electronic medical devices. These devices use specialized lithium-iodide batteries designed to last 15 or more years. But for other, less critical applications such as in toys, the lithium battery may actually outlast the toy. In such cases, an expensive lithium battery is not cost-efficient.

Lithium batteries can be used in place of ordinary alkaline cells in many devices, such as clocks and cameras. Although they are more costly, lithium cells will provide much longer life, thereby minimizing battery replacement. However, attention must be given to the higher voltage developed by the lithium cells before using them as a drop-in replacement in devices that normally use ordinary cells.

Small lithium batteries are very commonly used in small, portable electronic devices, such as PDAs, watches, thermometers, and calculators, as backup batteries in computers and communication equipment, and in remote car locks. They are available in many shapes and sizes, with a common variety being the a 3 volt "coin" type manganese variety, typically 20 mm in diameter and 1.6-4 mm thick. The heavy electrical demands of many of these devices make lithium batteries a particularly attractive option. In particular, lithium batteries can easily support the brief, heavy current demands of devices such as digital cameras, and they maintain a higher voltage for a longer period than alkaline cells.

Some other lithium batteries use a platinum-iridium alloy instead of more usual compounds. These batteries are generally not preferred, as their cost is high and they tend to be fragile.

Safety issues and regulation

Rapid-discharge issues

Lithium batteries can provide extremely high currents and can discharge very rapidly when short-circuited. Although this is useful in applications where high currents are required, a too-rapid discharge of a lithium battery can result in overheating of the battery, rupture, and even explosion. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are particularly capable of this type of discharge. Consumer batteries usually incorporate overcurrent or thermal protection or vents in order to prevent explosion.

Because of the above risks, shipping and carriage of lithium batteries is restricted in some situations, particularly transport of lithium batteries by air.

The computer industry's drive to increase battery capacity can test the limits of sensitive components such as the membrane separator, a polyethylene or polypropylene film that is only 20-25 µm thick. The energy density of lithium-ion batteries has more than doubled since they were introduced in 1991. When the battery has more and more material, the separator can undergo stress.

Lithium batteries and methamphetamine labs

Unused lithium batteries provide a convenient source of lithium metal for use as a reducing agent in illegal methamphetamine labs. Some jurisdictions have passed laws to restrict lithum battery sales or asked businesses to make voluntary restrictions in an attempt to help curb the creation of illegal meth labs. However, the heavy demand for lithium batteries for use in modern, current-hungry devices such as digital cameras conflicts with such restrictions. For example a newspaper article from January 2004 reports that Wal-Mart stores limit the sale of disposable lithium batteries to three packages in Missouri and four packages in other states.[8]

See also

  • Lithium ion battery
  • Lithium ion polymer battery

References

  1. ^ http://www.rayovac.com/technical/wp_lithium.htm
  2. ^ http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/PrimBatt/li-thionyl-sulfuryl.htm
  3. ^ http://yosemite.epa.gov/OSW/rcra.nsf/Documents/CC7D81DF307086C085256611005AC8EC
  4. ^ http://lithium-batteries.globalspec.com/Specifications/Electrical_Electronic_Components/Batteries/Lithium_Batteries
  5. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8945052&dopt=Abstract
  6. ^ http://www.houseofbatteries.com/articles.asp?pageid=30
  7. ^ http://nyc-amp.cuny.edu/abstracts/view.asp?ID=654
  8. ^ http://www.unknownnews.net/040126waronthinking.html

External links

  • Properties of non-rechargeable lithium batteries
  • Lithium / Alkaline Comparison
  • Lithium / Lead Acid Comparison
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium_battery"
 

 



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