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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. AAAA battery
  2. AAA battery
  3. AA battery
  4. A battery
  5. Absorbent glass mat
  6. Alessandro Volta
  7. Alkaline battery
  8. Alkaline fuel cell
  9. Aluminium battery
  10. Ampere
  11. Atomic battery
  12. Backup battery
  13. Baghdad Battery
  14. Batteries
  15. Battery charger
  16. B battery
  17. Bernard S. Baker
  18. Beta-alumina solid electrolyte
  19. Betavoltaics
  20. Bio-nano generator
  21. Blue energy
  22. Bunsen cell
  23. Car battery
  24. C battery
  25. Clark cell
  26. Concentration cell
  27. Coulomb
  28. 2CR5
  29. Daniell cell
  30. Direct borohydride fuel cell
  31. Direct-ethanol fuel cell
  32. Direct methanol fuel cell
  33. Dry cell
  34. Dry pile
  35. Duracell
  36. Duracell Bunny
  37. Earth battery
  38. Electric charge
  39. Electric current
  40. Electricity
  41. Electrochemical cell
  42. Electrochemical potential
  43. Electro-galvanic fuel cell
  44. Electrolysis
  45. Electrolyte
  46. Electrolytic cell
  47. Electromagnetism
  48. Electromotive force
  49. Energizer Bunny
  50. Energy
  51. Energy density
  52. Energy storage
  53. Flashlight
  54. Float charging
  55. Flow Battery
  56. Formic acid fuel cell
  57. Fuel cell
  58. Fuel cell bus trial
  59. Galvanic cell
  60. Gel battery
  61. Grove cell
  62. Half cell
  63. History of the battery
  64. Hybrid vehicle
  65. Lead-acid battery
  66. Leclanché cell
  67. Lemon battery
  68. List of battery sizes
  69. List of battery types
  70. List of fuel cell vehicles
  71. Lithium battery
  72. Lithium ion batteries
  73. Lithium iron phosphate battery
  74. Lithium polymer cell
  75. LR44 battery
  76. Luigi Galvani
  77. Manganese dioxide
  78. Memory effect
  79. Mercury battery
  80. Metal hydride fuel cell
  81. Methane reformer
  82. Methanol reformer
  83. Michael Faraday
  84. Microbial fuel cell
  85. Molten carbonate fuel cell
  86. Molten salt battery
  87. Nickel-cadmium battery
  88. Nickel-iron battery
  89. Nickel metal hydride
  90. Nickel-zinc battery
  91. Open-circuit voltage
  92. Optoelectric nuclear battery
  93. Organic radical battery
  94. Oxyride battery
  95. Panasonic EV Energy Co
  96. Peukert's law
  97. Phosphoric acid fuel cell
  98. Photoelectrochemical cell
  99. Polymer-based battery
  100. Power density
  101. Power management
  102. Power outage
  103. PP3 battery
  104. Primary cell
  105. Prius
  106. Proton exchange membrane
  107. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
  108. Protonic ceramic fuel cell
  109. Radioisotope piezoelectric generator
  110. Ragone chart
  111. RCR-V3
  112. Rechargeable alkaline battery
  113. Reverse charging
  114. Reversible fuel cell
  115. Searchlight
  116. Secondary cell
  117. Short circuit
  118. Silver-oxide battery
  119. Smart Battery Data
  120. Smart battery system
  121. Sodium-sulfur battery
  122. Solid oxide fuel cell
  123. Super iron battery
  124. Thermionic converter
  125. Trickle charging
  126. Vanadium redox battery
  127. Volt
  128. Voltage
  129. Voltaic pile
  130. Watch battery
  131. Water-activated battery
  132. Weston cell
  133. Wet cell
  134. Zinc-air battery
  135. Zinc-bromine flow battery
  136. Zinc-carbon battery
 



BATTERIES
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-alumina_solid_electrolyte

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Beta-alumina solid electrolyte

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) is a fast ion conductor material used as a membrane in several types of molten salt electrochemical cell. There is no known substitute.

β''-Alumina (beta prime-prime alumina) is an isomorphic form of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) a hard polycrystalline ceramic in which when prepared as an electrolyte is complexed with a mobile ion, which may be Na+, K+ , Li+ , Ag+ , H+ , Pb2+ , Sr2+ or Ba2+ depending on the application. Beta-alumina is a good conductor of its mobile ion yet allows no non-ionized conductivity.

Sodium beta alumina is a non-stoichiometric sodium aluminate known for its rapid transport of Na+ ions. This material selectively passes sodium ions while containing all other liquids, including liquid sodium and liquid sulfur. It is a ceramic which can be formed and sintered by commercially available techniques and its conductivity at operating temperatures — 250 to 300 degrees Celsius — compares favorably with electrolytes used in conventional battery systems such as sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide. The crystal structure of the Na-Al2O3 provides an essential rigid framework with channels along which the ionic species of the solid can migrate. Ion transport involves hopping from site to site along these channels.

BASE was first developed by researchers at the Ford Motor Company, in the search for a storage device for electric vehicles while developing the sodium-sulfur battery. The NAS battery consists of sulfur at positive electrode, sodium at negative electrode as active materials, and Beta alumina of sodium ion conductive ceramic which separates both electrodes. This hermetically sealed battery is kept at approximately 300 degrees Celsius and is operated under the condition that the active materials at both electrodes are liquid and its electrolyte is solid. At this temperature, since both active materials react smoothly, and internal resistance becomes low enough, NAS battery has an excellent performance. Because of reversible charging and discharging, NAS battery can be continuously used. Several commercial installations use this type of battery for load leveling.

The sodium sulfur battery was a topic of intense worldwide interest during the 1970s and 1980s, but interest in the technology for vehicle use diminished for a variety of technical and economic reasons. In contrast, its "successor", the sodium nickel chloride battery, is now entering the commercialization phase. The sodium nickel chloride battery (or ZEBRA battery, so-called for the Zeolite Battery Research Africa Project) has been under development for almost 20 years. Y.F.Y. Yao and J.T. Kummer, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 29 (1967) p. 2453

When BASE is used in a sodium nickel chloride (ZEBRA) cell, several requirements must be met. It must have a low resistivity, typically 4 cm at 350 °C, and a strength in excess of 200 MPa. It must be produced in the form of a thin-walled (1.25 mm), convoluted tube by low-cost production methods, and it must maintain a stable resistance in the cell for up to 10 years. These requirements have mostly been met by a variation of the sol-gel process.

BASE is also used in alkali-metal thermal to electric converters. (AMTEC) AMTEC is a high efficiency device for directly converting heat to electricity. AMTEC operates as a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell by expanding sodium through the pressure differential across the (BASE) membrane. BASE electrolytes have been used in some molten-carbonate fuel cells, as well as other liquid electrode/solid electrolyte fuel cell designs.

References

  • Hybridization and Cogeneration with Concentrated Solar Radiation (CSR) Technology
  • The alkali problem in the crystal structure of beta alumina
  • BETA ALUMINA - PRELUDE TO A REVOLUTION IN SOLID STATE ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-alumina_solid_electrolyte"

 



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