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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. AAAA battery
  2. AAA battery
  3. AA battery
  4. A battery
  5. Absorbent glass mat
  6. Alessandro Volta
  7. Alkaline battery
  8. Alkaline fuel cell
  9. Aluminium battery
  10. Ampere
  11. Atomic battery
  12. Backup battery
  13. Baghdad Battery
  14. Batteries
  15. Battery charger
  16. B battery
  17. Bernard S. Baker
  18. Beta-alumina solid electrolyte
  19. Betavoltaics
  20. Bio-nano generator
  21. Blue energy
  22. Bunsen cell
  23. Car battery
  24. C battery
  25. Clark cell
  26. Concentration cell
  27. Coulomb
  28. 2CR5
  29. Daniell cell
  30. Direct borohydride fuel cell
  31. Direct-ethanol fuel cell
  32. Direct methanol fuel cell
  33. Dry cell
  34. Dry pile
  35. Duracell
  36. Duracell Bunny
  37. Earth battery
  38. Electric charge
  39. Electric current
  40. Electricity
  41. Electrochemical cell
  42. Electrochemical potential
  43. Electro-galvanic fuel cell
  44. Electrolysis
  45. Electrolyte
  46. Electrolytic cell
  47. Electromagnetism
  48. Electromotive force
  49. Energizer Bunny
  50. Energy
  51. Energy density
  52. Energy storage
  53. Flashlight
  54. Float charging
  55. Flow Battery
  56. Formic acid fuel cell
  57. Fuel cell
  58. Fuel cell bus trial
  59. Galvanic cell
  60. Gel battery
  61. Grove cell
  62. Half cell
  63. History of the battery
  64. Hybrid vehicle
  65. Lead-acid battery
  66. Leclanché cell
  67. Lemon battery
  68. List of battery sizes
  69. List of battery types
  70. List of fuel cell vehicles
  71. Lithium battery
  72. Lithium ion batteries
  73. Lithium iron phosphate battery
  74. Lithium polymer cell
  75. LR44 battery
  76. Luigi Galvani
  77. Manganese dioxide
  78. Memory effect
  79. Mercury battery
  80. Metal hydride fuel cell
  81. Methane reformer
  82. Methanol reformer
  83. Michael Faraday
  84. Microbial fuel cell
  85. Molten carbonate fuel cell
  86. Molten salt battery
  87. Nickel-cadmium battery
  88. Nickel-iron battery
  89. Nickel metal hydride
  90. Nickel-zinc battery
  91. Open-circuit voltage
  92. Optoelectric nuclear battery
  93. Organic radical battery
  94. Oxyride battery
  95. Panasonic EV Energy Co
  96. Peukert's law
  97. Phosphoric acid fuel cell
  98. Photoelectrochemical cell
  99. Polymer-based battery
  100. Power density
  101. Power management
  102. Power outage
  103. PP3 battery
  104. Primary cell
  105. Prius
  106. Proton exchange membrane
  107. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell
  108. Protonic ceramic fuel cell
  109. Radioisotope piezoelectric generator
  110. Ragone chart
  111. RCR-V3
  112. Rechargeable alkaline battery
  113. Reverse charging
  114. Reversible fuel cell
  115. Searchlight
  116. Secondary cell
  117. Short circuit
  118. Silver-oxide battery
  119. Smart Battery Data
  120. Smart battery system
  121. Sodium-sulfur battery
  122. Solid oxide fuel cell
  123. Super iron battery
  124. Thermionic converter
  125. Trickle charging
  126. Vanadium redox battery
  127. Volt
  128. Voltage
  129. Voltaic pile
  130. Watch battery
  131. Water-activated battery
  132. Weston cell
  133. Wet cell
  134. Zinc-air battery
  135. Zinc-bromine flow battery
  136. Zinc-carbon battery
 



BATTERIES
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_vehicle

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Hybrid vehicle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

A hybrid vehicle (HV) is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources such as:

  • An on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled power source for vehicle propulsion
  • Human powered bicycle with battery assist
  • A sail boat with electric power[1]

The term most commonly refers to a petroleum electric hybrid vehicle, also called Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) which use internal combustion engines and electric batteries to power electric motors. See also "Types of hybrid vehicles" and "List of hybrid vehicles".

History

One of the earliest hybrid vehicles were simply boats with both sails and oars, such as the Greek/Phoenician trireme warships. These used a sail for traveling with the wind, and the oars for when there was insufficient wind, or in circumstances that the sail was unfavorable (such as naval combat, in the case of the triremes).

Two-wheeled and cycle-type vehicles

Mopeds and electric bicycles are a simple form of a hybrid, as power is delivered both via an internal combustion engine or electric motor and the rider's muscles.

  • In a parallel hybrid bicycle human and motor power are mechanically coupled at the pedal drive train or at the rear or the front wheel, e.g. using a hub motor, a roller pressing onto a tire, or a connection to a wheel using a transmission element. Human and motor torques are added together. Almost all manufactured models are of this type. See Motorized bicycles, Mopeds and [1] for more information.
  • In a series hybrid bicycle (SH) the user powers a generator using the pedals. This is converted into electricity and can be fed directly to the motor giving a chainless bicycle but also to charge a battery. The motor draws power from the battery and must be able to deliver the full mechanical torque required because none is available from the pedals. SH bicycles are not yet commercially available. They will become feasible if extremely high-efficiency generators and motors are available at competitive prices, especially for recumbent bicycles and tandems, where problems associated with the complexity of a long chain drive can be avoided. [2].
The first known prototype and publication of a SH bicycle is by Augustus Kinzel (US Patent 3'884'317) in 1975. In 1994 Bernie Macdonalds conceived the Electrilite SH lightweight vehicle which used power electronics allowing regenerative braking and pedaling while stationary. In 1995 Thomas Müller designed a "Fahrrad mit elektromagnetischem Antrieb" in his 1995 diploma thesis and built a functional vehicle. In 1996 Jürg Blatter and Andreas Fuchs of Berne University of Applied Sciences built a SH bicycle and in 1998 mounted the system onto a Leitra tricycle (European patent EP 1165188). In 1999 Harald Kutzke described his concept of the "active bicycle": the aim is to approach the ideal bicycle weighing nothing and having no drag by electronic compensation. Until 2005 Fuchs and colleagues built several prototype SH tricycles and quadricycles. [2]

Heavy vehicles

Hybrid power trains are used for diesel-electric or turbo-electric railway locomotives, buses, heavy goods vehicles, mobile hydraulic machinery, and ships. Some form of heat engine drives an electric generator or hydraulic pump which power one or several electric or hydraulic motors. There are advantages in distributing power through wires or pipes rather than mechanical elements especially when multiple drives - e.g. driven wheels or propellers - are required. There are disadvantages due to the power lost in the double conversion. With large vehicles the advantages often outweigh especially as the relative conversion losses decrease with size. Generally there is no or relatively little energy storage capacity, e.g. auxiliary and emergency batteries and hydraulic accumulators.

Petroleum-electric hybrids

Hybrid Orion VI Metrobus
Hybrid Orion VI Metrobus
Main article: Petroleum electric hybrid vehicle

When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it most often refers to a Petroleum electric hybrid vehicle. These encompass such vehicles as the Toyota Prius, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Honda Insight and others. A petroleum-electric hybrid most commonly uses internal combustion engines (generally gasoline or Diesel engines, powered by a variety of fuels) and electric batteries to power electric motors. There are many types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid which offer varying advantages and disadvantages [3].

Hybrid fuel (dual mode)

In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion, some also consider vehicles that use distinct energy input types ("fuels") using the same tank and engine to be hybrids, although to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use correctly the terms, these are described as dual mode vehicles:

  • Some electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and overhead electrical power depending on conditions (see dual mode bus). In principle, this could be combined with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, although as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced.
  • Flexible-fuel vehicles can use a mixture of input fuels (petroleum and biofuels) in one tank — typically gasoline and bioethanol or biobutanol, though diesel-biodiesel vehicles would also qualify. Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are very different from each other and cannot be used in the same tanks, so it would be impossible to build an (LPG-NG) flexible fuel system.
  • Some vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars modified to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels modified to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into bio-diesel.
  • Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and other human-powered vehicles are also included.

Continuously Recharged BEVs

Given suitable infrastructure, BEVs can be recharged while the user drives. The BEV establishes contact with an electrified rail, plate or overhead wires on the highway via an attached conducting wheel or other similar mechanism (see Conduit current collection). The BEV's batteries are recharged by this process - on the highway - and can then be used normally on other roads.

This provides the advantage of virtually unrestricted highway range. Since most destinations are within 100 km of a major highway, this reduces the need for expensive battery systems.

The technology for such infrastructure is old and well established - (see Conduit current collection, trams, electric rail, trolleys, third rail). Electricity and infrastructure costs can be funded by toll revenue, gasoline taxes or other sources.

See also

 
 

References

  1. ^ Das Powerbike (German), ISBN 3895951234. Retrieved on February 27, 2007.
  2. ^ Velomobile Seminar 1999, ISBN 3-9520694-1-8. Retrieved on January 11, 2006.
  3. ^ Fuel Saving Calculator

External links

News

Man Motors On Hybrid Bicycle video - Sept 2006

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_vehicle"

 



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