New Page 1


          Telefono: 02-78622122 Vai alla nuova sezione ELINGUE

Selettore risorse   

     IL Metodo  |  Grammatica  |  RISPOSTE GRAMMATICALI  |  Multiblog  |  INSEGNARE AGLI ADULTI  |  INSEGNARE AI BAMBINI  |  AudioBooks  |  RISORSE SFiziosE  |  Articoli  |  Tips  | testi pAralleli  |  VIDEO SOTTOTITOLATI



- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



  1. Adverbial
  2. Agentive ending
  3. Ain't
  4. American and British English differences
  5. American and British English pronunciation differences
  6. American and British English spelling differences
  7. American English
  8. Amn't
  9. Anglophone
  10. Anglosphere
  11. Apostrophe
  12. Australian English
  13. Benjamin Franklin's phonetic alphabet
  14. Bracket
  15. British and American keyboards
  16. British English
  17. Canadian English
  18. Certificate of Proficiency in English
  19. Classical compound
  20. Cockney
  21. Colon
  22. Comma
  23. Comma splice
  24. Cut Spelling
  25. Dangling modifier
  26. Dash
  27. Definite article reduction
  28. Disputed English grammar
  29. Don't-leveling
  30. Double copula
  31. Double negative
  32. Ellipsis
  33. English alphabet
  34. English compound
  35. English declension
  36. English English
  37. English grammar
  38. English honorifics
  39. English irregular verbs
  40. English language learning and teaching
  41. English modal auxiliary verb
  42. English orthography
  43. English passive voice
  44. English personal pronouns
  45. English phonology
  46. English plural
  47. English relative clauses
  48. English spelling reform
  49. English verbs
  50. English words with uncommon properties
  51. Estuary English
  52. Exclamation mark
  53. Foreign language influences in English
  54. Full stop
  55. Generic you
  56. Germanic strong verb
  57. Gerund
  58. Going-to future
  59. Grammatical tense
  60. Great Vowel Shift
  61. Guillemets
  62. Habitual be
  63. History of linguistic prescription in English
  64. History of the English language
  65. Hyphen
  66. I before e except after c
  67. IELTS
  68. Initial-stress-derived noun
  69. International Phonetic Alphabet for English
  70. Interpunct
  71. IPA chart for English
  72. It's me
  73. Languages of the United Kingdom
  74. Like
  75. List of animal adjectives
  76. List of British idioms
  77. List of British words not widely used in the United States
  78. List of case-sensitive English words
  79. List of commonly confused homonyms
  80. List of common misspellings in English
  81. List of common words that have two opposite senses
  82. List of dialects of the English language
  83. List of English apocopations
  84. List of English auxiliary verbs
  85. List of English homographs
  86. List of English irregular verbs
  87. List of English prepositions
  88. List of English suffixes
  89. List of English words invented by Shakespeare
  90. List of English words of Celtic origin
  91. List of English words of Italian origin
  92. List of English words with disputed usage
  93. List of frequently misused English words
  94. List of Fumblerules
  95. List of homophones
  96. List of -meters
  97. List of names in English with non-intuitive pronunciations
  98. List of words having different meanings in British and American English
  99. List of words of disputed pronunciation
  100. London slang
  101. Longest word in English
  102. Middle English
  103. Modern English
  104. Names of numbers in English
  105. New Zealand English
  106. Northern subject rule
  107. Not!
  108. NuEnglish
  109. Oxford spelling
  110. Personal pronoun
  111. Phonological history of the English language
  112. Phrasal verb
  113. Plural of virus
  114. Possessive adjective
  115. Possessive antecedent
  116. Possessive me
  117. Possessive of Jesus
  118. Possessive pronoun
  119. Preposition stranding
  120. Pronunciation of English th
  121. Proper adjective
  122. Question mark
  123. Quotation mark
  124. Received Pronunciation
  125. Regional accents of English speakers
  126. Rhyming slang
  127. Run-on sentence
  128. Scouse
  129. Semicolon
  130. Semordnilap
  131. Serial comma
  132. Shall and will
  133. Silent E
  134. Singular they
  135. Slash
  136. SoundSpel
  137. Space
  138. Spelling reform
  139. Split infinitive
  140. Subjective me
  141. Suffix morpheme
  142. Tag question
  143. Than
  144. The Reverend
  145. Third person agreement leveling
  146. Thou
  147. TOEFL
  148. TOEIC
  149. Truespel
  150. University of Cambridge ESOL examination
  151. Weak form and strong form
  152. Welsh English
  153. Who
  154. You

This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 

English spelling reform

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


English spelling reform is the collective term [dubious ] for various campaigns to change the spelling system of English to make it simpler and more rationally consistent. There exists a controversial[citation needed], small-scale movement among amateur and professional linguists, but one with a long history and some mixed successes. Supporters assert that the many inconsistencies and irregularities of English spelling lead to severe difficulties for learners. They believe this leads to a lower level of literacy among English speakers compared with speakers of languages having a spelling system that more faithfully conforms to how the language is spoken, and have, since at least the time of George Bernard Shaw, pointed out costs to business and other users in retaining traditional spelling, which can be worked out by the casual observer as cumulatively massive. English does in fact have a very poor phonemic orthography, or correspondence between how the words are written and how they are spoken. This is due in part to changes in commonly accepted dialects of English from older pronunciations.

English is often considered difficult to learn by ESL students. The written forms give relatively ambiguous clues to pronunciation, relative to the Spanish orthography, for example, which is highly phonemic.

There is opposition to spelling reform from traditionalists who feel that something is to be lost from simplifying the spelling of English - this can range from numinous 'old world' sensibilities to feared concrete financial losses by opposing vested interests (notably printers[1] and purveyors of rival solutions such as shorthand and remedial literacy solutions such as synthetic phonics. It has recently been argued, for example, that the one-time presidency of the Simplified Spelling Society of shorthand heir Sir James Pitman represents a conflict of interests). The traditionalists' hold over the means of production of printed matter, and other key vantage points, moderated by the work of persistent spelling reformers and a public open to change where perceived necessary (their perceptions arguably largely determined by a manufactured consensus) has resulted in a slow rate of progress, but the advent of the Internet and cellphone texting rather opens up the field to surfers and texters spelling with a public freedom unknown for centuries in the English-speaking world.

Arguments for reform

Advocates of spelling reform point to the obvious difficulty that most native speakers have spelling relatively common words, difficulty that has created a huge market for spellcheck software to help writers conform to orthodox spelling. From there, they make six basic arguments:

  • Pronunciations change gradually over time and the alphabetic principle that lies behind English (and every other alphabetically written language) gradually becomes corrupted. Spellings then need to adapt to account for the changes.
  • Unlike many other languages, English spelling has never been systematically updated and, as a result, today only haphazardly observes the alphabetic principle. The haphazard nature of English spelling has created a system of weak rules with many exceptions and ambiguities. The spellings through, though, thought, enough, cough, daughter, and laughter are obvious barriers to reading comprehension, and common misspellings of accommodate, conscientious, occurrence, opponent, existence and personnel are obvious barriers to writing mastery.
  • A new system that creates a closer relationship between phonemes and spellings would eliminate most exceptions and ambiguities and make the language easier to master for children and non-native speakers without putting undue burden on mature native speakers.
  • Many exceptions in English spelling are the result of misguided attempts by scholars to "correct" older spelling by adding silent letters to reflect the word's Latin or Greek origin, or create a false correlation with those. The word island is not related to isle, for example, and was once spelled iland [2]. Similarly, doubt and debt have never been said with a /b/ sound.
  • Spellings are changing, regardless of conscious public resistance, just slowly and not in any organized way. The US spelling jail is replacing gaol in the UK. Thru and lite are commonly found on public signs and commercial products. Alright is slowly becoming standard over all right. And minuscule is losing its long battle against miniscule.
  • Almost all reforms would reduce the number of letters per word on average, thus saving time, money, paper, ink, and effort.

Well-known reformers and supporters

A number of respected and influential people have been supporters of spelling reform.

  • Orrmin, 12th century Augustine canon who distinguished short vowels from long by doubling the succeeding consonants, or when not feasible, by marking the short vowels with a superimposed breve (smiley) accent.
  • Rev Charls Butler, British naturalist and author of the first natural history of bees: 'Đe Feminin` Monarķi`,' 1634. He proposed that 'men should write altogeđer according to đe sound now generally received,' and espoused a system in which the h in digraphs was replaced with bars.
  • Dr Johnson, poet, wit, essayist, biographer, critic and eccentric, broadly credited with the standardisation of English spelling into its current contentious form in his Dictionary of the English Language (1755).
  • Noah Webster, author of the first important American dictionary, believed that Americans should adopt simpler spellings where available and recommended it in his 1806 dictionary.
  • Sir Isaac Pitman developed the most widely used system of shorthand, known now as Pitman Shorthand, first proposed in Stenographic Soundhand (1837).
  • President Theodore Roosevelt commissioned a committee to research and recommend simpler spellings and tried to require the U.S. government to adopt them, but his approach in a then little-known or understood field, to assume popular support by 'executive order,' rather than to garner it, was a likely factor in the limited progress of the time.
  • H.G.Wells, science fiction writer of world renown and one-time Vice President of the London-based Simplified Spelling Society.
  • Andrew Carnegie, celebrated philanthropist, donated to spelling reform societies both sides of the Atlantic.
  • George Bernard Shaw, playwright of international renown, willed part of his estate to fund the creation of a new alphabet now called the "Shavian alphabet."
  • Melvil Dui, inventor of the Dewey Decimal System, wrote published works in simplified spellings and even simplified his own name from Melville to Melvil.
  • James Pitman, a publisher and Conservative Member of Parliament, invented the controversial Initial Teaching Alphabet.
  • Dr Mont Follick, Labour Member of Parliament and linguistician who assisted Pitman in drawing the English spelling reform issue to the attention of Parliament. Favored replacing w and y with u and i.
  • HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, one-time Patron of the SSS. Stated that spelling reform should start outside of the UK, and that the lack of progress originates in the unsurprising discord amongst reformers (albeit speaking at a time of unpopular government and national discord, still ongoing).


Reformers recognize a number of obstacles in the reform of spelling and the implementation of new spelling systems.

  • English is largely a melding of ancient Latin and Germanic languages, which have very different phonemes and approaches to spelling. Reforms tend to favor one approach over the other, resulting in a large percentage of words that must change spelling to fit the new scheme.
  • The large number of vowel sounds in English and the small number of vowel letters make phonemic spelling very difficult to achieve without resorting to unusual letter combinations, diacritic marks or the introduction of new letters.
  • Public resistance to spelling reform has been consistently strong, especially in the United Kingdom and the United States, at least since the early 19th century, when spelling was finally codified by the influential English dictionaries of Samuel Johnson (1755) and Noah Webster (1806).
  • The sheer number of variances of pronunciation depending on locality makes it difficult to agree upon spellings which take into account most dialects.


The central criticism of spelling reform is that written language is not a purely phonetic analog of the spoken form. Because the English language is a mixture of Germanic language forms and Latin and other language terms, the spelling of words often reflects their origin. This gives a clue as to the meaning of the word by providing a historical marker for the origin. For example, Latin- or Greek-based word parts are often reducible to their meaning. Even if their pronunciation has deviated from the original pronunciation, the written form of the word is a record of the phoneme, so derived words (record, recorder) give clues to their own meaning, but respelling them could break that relationship (rekkerd, reekorder).

Critics say that instituting a large scale change in the spelling of English words could increase ambiguity rather than diminish it, because the morphophonic use of vowel sounds allows for better phonemic differentiation from a limited number of sounds, and hence makes the language more descriptive.

Also, spelling-reforms generally do not consider dialects and regional accents. For example: The first sound in the pronunciation of the word simultaneous can rightfully be as the first sound of psychic or as the first sound of cymbal, yet SoundSpel purports siemultaeniusly as the spelling indicating preference of the former.

Spelling reform campaigns

Most spelling reforms attempt to improve phonemic representation, but some attempt genuine phonetic spelling, usually by changing or introducing an entirely new alphabet:

  • Cut Spelling
  • Deseret alphabet
  • Shavian alphabet
  • SoundSpel
  • SR1
  • Benjamin Franklin's phonetic alphabet
  • devagreek
  • single sound per symbol


  • Simplified Spelling Society
  • Noah Webster on English spelling reform
  • English spelling reform (a humorous view)
  • Spelling Reform - And The Real Reason It's Impossible (a collection of entertaining remarks)
  • A Chronology of Spelling Reform
  • History of Spelling Reform
  • Re-Romanization of English
Retrieved from ""




Siti amici:  Lonweb Daisy Stories English4Life
Sito segnalato da INGLESE.IT


L'utente può utilizzare il nostro sito solo se comprende e accetta quanto segue:

  • Le risorse linguistiche gratuite presentate in questo sito si possono utilizzare esclusivamente per uso personale e non commerciale con tassativa esclusione di ogni condivisione comunque effettuata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. La riproduzione anche parziale è vietata senza autorizzazione scritta.
  • Il nome del sito EnglishGratis è esclusivamente un marchio e un nome di dominio internet che fa riferimento alla disponibilità sul sito di un numero molto elevato di risorse gratuite e non implica dunque alcuna promessa di gratuità relativamente a prodotti e servizi nostri o di terze parti pubblicizzati a mezzo banner e link, o contrassegnati chiaramente come prodotti a pagamento (anche ma non solo con la menzione "Annuncio pubblicitario"), o comunque menzionati nelle pagine del sito ma non disponibili sulle pagine pubbliche, non protette da password, del sito stesso.
  • La pubblicità di terze parti è in questo momento affidata al servizio Google AdSense che sceglie secondo automatismi di carattere algoritmico gli annunci di terze parti che compariranno sul nostro sito e sui quali non abbiamo alcun modo di influire. Non siamo quindi responsabili del contenuto di questi annunci e delle eventuali affermazioni o promesse che in essi vengono fatte!
  • Coloro che si iscrivono alla nostra newsletter (iscrizione caratterizzatalla da procedura double opt-in) accettano di ricevere saltuariamente delle comunicazioni di carattere informativo sulle novità del sito e, occasionalmente, delle offerte speciali relative a prodotti linguistici a pagamento sia nostri che di altre aziende. In ogni caso chiunque può disiscriversi semplicemente cliccando sulla scritta Cancella l'iscrizione che si trova in fondo alla newsletter, non è quindi necessario scriverci per chiedere esplicitamente la cancellazione dell'iscrizione.
  • L'utente, inoltre, accetta di tenere Casiraghi Jones Publishing SRL indenne da qualsiasi tipo di responsabilità per l'uso - ed eventuali conseguenze di esso - degli esercizi e delle informazioni linguistiche e grammaticali contenute sul siti. Le risposte grammaticali sono infatti improntate ad un criterio di praticità e pragmaticità più che ad una completezza ed esaustività che finirebbe per frastornare, per l'eccesso di informazione fornita, il nostro utente.


    ENGLISHGRATIS.COM è un sito di Casiraghi Jones Publishing SRL
    Piazzale Cadorna 10 - 20123 Milano - Italia
    Tel. 02-78622122 - email:
    Iscritta al Registro Imprese di MILANO - C.F. e PARTITA IVA: 11603360154
    Iscritta al R.E.A. di Milano n.1478561 • Capitale Sociale
    10.400 interamente versato

    Roberto Casiraghi                                                                                Crystal Jones