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  1. Account
  2. Accountancy
  3. Accountant
  4. Accounting cycle
  5. Accounting equation
  6. Accounting methods
  7. Accounting reform
  8. Accounting software
  9. Accounts payable
  10. Accounts receivable
  11. Accrual
  12. Adjusted basis
  13. Adjusting entries
  14. Advertising
  15. Amortization
  16. Amortization schedule
  17. Annual report
  18. Appreciation
  19. Asset
  20. Assets turnover
  21. Audit
  22. Auditor's report
  23. Bad debt
  24. Balance
  25. Balance Sheet
  26. Banking
  27. Bank reconciliation
  28. Bankruptcy
  29. Big 4 accountancy firm
  30. Bond
  31. Bookkeeping
  32. Book value
  33. British qualified accountants
  34. Business
  35. Business process overhead
  36. Capital asset
  37. Capital goods
  38. Capital structure
  39. Cash
  40. Cash flow
  41. Cash flow statement
  42. Certified Management Accountant
  43. Certified Public Accountant
  44. Chartered Accountant
  45. Chartered Cost Accountant
  46. Chart of accounts
  47. Common stock
  48. Comprehensive income
  49. Consolidation
  50. Construction in Progress
  51. Corporation
  52. Cost
  53. Cost accounting
  54. Cost of goods sold
  55. Creative accounting
  56. Credit
  57. Creditor
  58. Creditworthiness
  59. Current assets
  60. Current liabilities
  61. Debentures
  62. Debits and Credits
  63. Debt
  64. Debtor
  65. Default
  66. Deferral
  67. Deferred tax
  68. Deficit
  69. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
  70. Depreciation
  71. Direct tax
  72. Dividend
  73. Double-entry bookkeeping system
  74. Earnings before interest and taxes
  75. Earnings Before Interest, Taxes and Depreciation
  76. Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization
  77. Engagement Letter
  78. Equity
  79. Ernst a& Young
  80. Expense
  81. Fair market value
  82. FIFO and LIFO accounting
  83. Finance
  84. Financial accounting
  85. Financial audit
  86. Financial statements
  87. Financial transaction
  88. Fiscal year
  89. Fixed assets
  90. Fixed assets management
  91. Fixed Assets Register
  92. Forensic accounting
  93. Freight expense
  94. Fund Accounting
  95. Furniture
  96. General journal
  97. General ledger
  98. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
  99. Going concern
  100. Goodwill
  101. Governmental accounting
  102. Gross income
  103. Gross margin
  104. Gross profit
  105. Gross sales
  106. Historical cost
  107. Hollywood accounting
  108. Imprest system
  109. Income
  110. Income tax
  111. Indirect tax
  112. Insurance
  113. Intangible asset
  114. Interest
  115. Internal Revenue Code
  116. International Accounting Standards
  117. Inventory
  118. Investment
  119. Invoice
  120. Itemized deduction
  121. KPMG
  122. Ledger
  123. Lender
  124. Leveraged buyout
  125. Liability
  126. Licence
  127. Lien
  128. Liquid asset
  129. Long-term assets
  130. Long-term liabilities
  131. Management accounting
  132. Matching principle
  133. Mortgage
  134. Net Income
  135. Net profit
  136. Notes to the Financial Statements
  137. Office equipment
  138. Operating cash flow
  139. Operating expense
  140. Operating expenses
  141. Ownership equity
  142. Patent
  143. Payroll
  144. Pay stub
  145. Petty cash
  146. Preferred stock
  147. PricewaterhouseCoopers
  148. Profit
  149. Profit and loss account
  150. Pro forma
  151. Purchase ledger
  152. Reserve
  153. Retained earnings
  154. Revaluation of fixed assets
  155. Revenue
  156. Revenue recognition
  157. Royalties
  158. Salary
  159. Sales ledger
  160. Sales tax
  161. Salvage value
  162. Shareholder
  163. Shareholder's equity
  164. Single-entry accounting system
  165. Spreadsheet
  166. Stakeholder
  167. Standard accounting practice
  168. Statement of retained earnings
  169. Stock
  170. Stockholders' deficit
  171. Stock option
  172. Stock split
  173. Sunk cost
  174. Suspense account
  175. Tax bracket
  176. Taxes
  177. Tax expense
  178. Throughput accounting
  179. Trade credit
  180. Treasury stock
  181. Trial balance
  182. UK generally accepted accounting principles
  183. United States
  184. Value added tax
  185. Value Based Accounting Standards and Principles
  186. Write-off

This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 

Fund Accounting

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Fund Accounting is an accounting system often used by nonprofit organizations and by the public sector.


Because there is no personal profit motive for owners or members of nonprofit organizations and organizations in the public sector, such as governments, accountability is measured instead of profitability. The main purpose is stewardship of financial resources received and expended in compliance with legal or other requirements. Financial reporting is directed at the public, fund contributors, or to private members, who are concerned with adequate fund balances or net financial assets to provide future programs and services, rather than investors, who seek a profit or return on investment. Funds, which are a self-balancing set of accounts, may be established to provide reporting of expenditure for designated purposes depending on the needs of financial statement users. Fund accounting may also adopt budgets that be formally recorded in the accounts of the related fund. Contractual obligations, commitments or encumbrances may be formally recorded in some funds.

Fund accounting serves any nonprofit organization or the public sector. These organization have a need for special reporting to financial statements users that show how money is spent, rather than how much profit was earned. Profit oriented businesses only have one set of self-balancing accounts or general ledger. On the other hand, nonprofits can have more than one general ledger depending on their needs. A business manager in charge of such an entity must be able to produce reports that can detail expenditures and revenues for multiple funds, and reports that summarize the financial activities of the entire entity across all funds. For example, if a school system receives a grant from the state to support a new special education initiative, and receives federal funds to support a school lunch program, and even receives an annuity to award to teachers for research projects - at any given time, the school system must be able to extract the financial activities attributed to these programs and report on them.

Given that funds are essentially having more than one general ledger, the accounts can be designed by the special use of account numbers, each set of numbers therein represent a specific fund. Alternatively, they can be designed by using certain recording and reporting capabilities and features of the accounting software being used. For this reason, many nonprofit organizations and the public sector will often use off-the-shelf or custom-designed accounting software that is flexible enough to accommodate the needs of special reporting.

The use of fund accounting has often been a topic of debate in the accounting profession who question its usefulness, particularly in the standard-setting process. However, it is the unique nature in which nonprofit organizations and the public sector operate that has made fund accounting a useful system for financial reporting to meet the needs of financial statement users. To that end, the accounting profession has recognized this need and continues to support the use of fund accounting by providing extensive standards and principles in this area.

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) For the Public Sector

The objective of financial reporting should be the basis for determining specific accounting principles used by a governmental entity. There are 11 principles of accounting and reporting applicable to municipal governments, developed by the National Council on Governmental Accounting (NCGA). These principles are summarized below as stated in NCGA Statement 1 (Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting Principles):

  • Principle 1:Accounting and Reporting Capabilities. A governmental accounting system must make it possible both (a) to present fairly and with full disclosure the financial position and results of financial operations of the funds and account groups of the governmental unit in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles; and (b) to determine and demonstrate compliance with finance-related legal and contractual provisions.
  • Principle 2:Funds Accounting Systems. A specific governmental unit is not accounted for through a single accounting entity. Instead, the accounts of a government are divided into several funds and nonfund account groups. The NCGA defines a fund as "a fiscal and accounting entity with a self-balancing set of accounts recording cash and other financial resources, together with all related liabilities and residual equities and balances, and changes therein, which are segregated for the purpose of carrying on specific activities or attaining certain objectives in accordance with special regulations, restrictions, or limitations."
  • Principle 3: Types of Funds and Account Groups. NCGA recommends the following categories and types of funds and account groups:
  1. The General Fund, used to pay the regular operating and administrative expenses not properly accounted for in other funds.
  2. The Special Revenue Fund, used to account for the proceeds of specific revenue sources that are legally restricted to expenditure for specified purposes.
  3. The Capital Projects Fund, used to account for financial resources earmarked for the acquisition or construction of major capital facilities and improvements.
  4. The Debt Service Fund, used to account for the payment of principal and interest on long-term general obligation bond issues and other long-term debt.
  • Principle 4:Number of Funds. A government should have only one General Fund, one General Fixed Account Group, and one General Long-term Debt Account Group. It may have one, none, or several of the other types of funds, depending on its activities. Only the minimum number of funds consistent with legal and operating requirements should be established.
  • Principle 5:The Budget and Budgetary Accounting. (a) An annual budget should be adopted by every governmental unit, whether required by law or not; (b) the accounting system should provide budgetary control over general governmental revenues and expenditures, (c) Budgetary comparisons should be included in the appropriate financial statements and schedules for governmental funds for which an annual budget has been adopted.
  • Principle 6:Valuation of Fixed Assets. Fixed Assets should be accounted for at original cost, or at the estimated cost if the original cost is not available, or, in the case of gifts, at the appraised value as of the time received.
  • Principle 7:Depreciation of Fixed Assets.
  • Principle 8:Basis of Accounting.
  • Principle 9:Classification of Accounts.
  • Principle 10:Common Terminology and Classification. A common terminology and classification should be used consistently throughout the budget, the accounts, and the financial reports.
  • Principle 11:Financial Reporting. Financial statements and reports showing the financial position, operating results, and other pertinent information should be prepared periodically to control financial operations. At the close of each fiscal year, a comprehensive annual financial report covering all funds and financial operations of the governmental unit should be prepared and published.[1]


  1. ^ Joel G. Siegel, Ph.D, Accounting, Barron's Educational Series, Inc 2006
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