New Page 1




Selettore risorse   



                                         IL Metodo  |  Grammatica  |  RISPOSTE GRAMMATICALI  |  Multiblog  |  INSEGNARE AGLI ADULTI  |  INSEGNARE AI BAMBINI  |  AudioBooks  |  RISORSE SFiziosE  |  Articoli  |  Tips  | testi pAralleli  |  VIDEO SOTTOTITOLATI
                                                                                         ESERCIZI :   Serie 1 - 2 - 3  - 4 - 5  SERVIZI:   Pronunciatore di inglese - Dizionario - Convertitore IPA/UK - IPA/US - Convertitore di valute in lire ed euro                                              




- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Account
  2. Accountancy
  3. Accountant
  4. Accounting cycle
  5. Accounting equation
  6. Accounting methods
  7. Accounting reform
  8. Accounting software
  9. Accounts payable
  10. Accounts receivable
  11. Accrual
  12. Adjusted basis
  13. Adjusting entries
  14. Advertising
  15. Amortization
  16. Amortization schedule
  17. Annual report
  18. Appreciation
  19. Asset
  20. Assets turnover
  21. Audit
  22. Auditor's report
  23. Bad debt
  24. Balance
  25. Balance Sheet
  26. Banking
  27. Bank reconciliation
  28. Bankruptcy
  29. Big 4 accountancy firm
  30. Bond
  31. Bookkeeping
  32. Book value
  33. British qualified accountants
  34. Business
  35. Business process overhead
  36. Capital asset
  37. Capital goods
  38. Capital structure
  39. Cash
  40. Cash flow
  41. Cash flow statement
  42. Certified Management Accountant
  43. Certified Public Accountant
  44. Chartered Accountant
  45. Chartered Cost Accountant
  46. Chart of accounts
  47. Common stock
  48. Comprehensive income
  49. Consolidation
  50. Construction in Progress
  51. Corporation
  52. Cost
  53. Cost accounting
  54. Cost of goods sold
  55. Creative accounting
  56. Credit
  57. Creditor
  58. Creditworthiness
  59. Current assets
  60. Current liabilities
  61. Debentures
  62. Debits and Credits
  63. Debt
  64. Debtor
  65. Default
  66. Deferral
  67. Deferred tax
  68. Deficit
  69. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
  70. Depreciation
  71. Direct tax
  72. Dividend
  73. Double-entry bookkeeping system
  74. Earnings before interest and taxes
  75. Earnings Before Interest, Taxes and Depreciation
  76. Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization
  77. Engagement Letter
  78. Equity
  79. Ernst a& Young
  80. Expense
  81. Fair market value
  82. FIFO and LIFO accounting
  83. Finance
  84. Financial accounting
  85. Financial audit
  86. Financial statements
  87. Financial transaction
  88. Fiscal year
  89. Fixed assets
  90. Fixed assets management
  91. Fixed Assets Register
  92. Forensic accounting
  93. Freight expense
  94. Fund Accounting
  95. Furniture
  96. General journal
  97. General ledger
  98. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
  99. Going concern
  100. Goodwill
  101. Governmental accounting
  102. Gross income
  103. Gross margin
  104. Gross profit
  105. Gross sales
  106. Historical cost
  107. Hollywood accounting
  108. Imprest system
  109. Income
  110. Income tax
  111. Indirect tax
  112. Insurance
  113. Intangible asset
  114. Interest
  115. Internal Revenue Code
  116. International Accounting Standards
  117. Inventory
  118. Investment
  119. Invoice
  120. Itemized deduction
  121. KPMG
  122. Ledger
  123. Lender
  124. Leveraged buyout
  125. Liability
  126. Licence
  127. Lien
  128. Liquid asset
  129. Long-term assets
  130. Long-term liabilities
  131. Management accounting
  132. Matching principle
  133. Mortgage
  134. Net Income
  135. Net profit
  136. Notes to the Financial Statements
  137. Office equipment
  138. Operating cash flow
  139. Operating expense
  140. Operating expenses
  141. Ownership equity
  142. Patent
  143. Payroll
  144. Pay stub
  145. Petty cash
  146. Preferred stock
  147. PricewaterhouseCoopers
  148. Profit
  149. Profit and loss account
  150. Pro forma
  151. Purchase ledger
  152. Reserve
  153. Retained earnings
  154. Revaluation of fixed assets
  155. Revenue
  156. Revenue recognition
  157. Royalties
  158. Salary
  159. Sales ledger
  160. Sales tax
  161. Salvage value
  162. Shareholder
  163. Shareholder's equity
  164. Single-entry accounting system
  165. Spreadsheet
  166. Stakeholder
  167. Standard accounting practice
  168. Statement of retained earnings
  169. Stock
  170. Stockholders' deficit
  171. Stock option
  172. Stock split
  173. Sunk cost
  174. Suspense account
  175. Tax bracket
  176. Taxes
  177. Tax expense
  178. Throughput accounting
  179. Trade credit
  180. Treasury stock
  181. Trial balance
  182. UK generally accepted accounting principles
  183. United States
  184. Value added tax
  185. Value Based Accounting Standards and Principles
  186. Write-off

This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 

Big Four auditors

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Big 4 accountancy firm)

The Big 4, sometimes written as the Big Four, is a group of international accountancy and professional services firms that handles the vast majority of audits for publicly traded companies as well as many private companies.

This group of large public accountancy firms, once known as the "Big Eight" before a series of mergers, also included Arthur Andersen. Arthur Andersen was convicted of obstruction of justice in the wake of the 2001 Enron scandal. This conviction effectively ended the firm's ability to audit public companies. On May 31, 2005, the United States Supreme Court unanimously overturned the conviction. However, Arthur Andersen ceased to exist as an entity and sold all of its international practice to other Big 4 firms.

Policy Issues Concerning Industry Concentration

Lawrence A. Cunningham, Too Big to Fail: Moral Hazard in Auditing and the Need to Restructure the Industry Before It Fails, Columbia University Law Review

The Big gets Bigger

Since 1989, mergers have reduced the number of major accountancy firms from eight to four.

Big 8 (1970s-1989)

The firms were called the Big 8 in the 1970s and 1980s, reflecting the international dominance of the eight largest accounting firms:

  1. Arthur Andersen
  2. Arthur Young & Company
  3. Coopers & Lybrand
  4. Ernst & Whinney (formerly Ernst & Ernst)
  5. Haskins & Sells (merged with the European firm Deloitte Plender Griffiths to become Deloitte, Haskins and Sells)
  6. KPMG (formed by merger of Peat Marwick International and KMG Group)
  7. Price Waterhouse
  8. Touche Ross

The Big 8 themselves were the results of earlier mergers.

Big 6 (1989-1998)

Competition among these public accounting firms intensified and the Big 8 became the Big 6 in 1989 when Ernst & Whinney merged with Arthur Young to form Ernst & Young in June, and Deloitte, Haskins & Sells merged with Touche Ross to form Deloitte & Touche in August.

Confusingly, in the United Kingdom the local firm of Deloitte, Haskins & Sells merged instead with Coopers & Lybrand. For some years after the merger, the merged firm was called Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte and the local firm of Touche Ross kept its original name. In the mid 1990s however, both UK firms changed their names to match those of their respective international organisations.

Big 5 (1998-2002)

The Big 6 became the Big 5 in July 1998 when Price Waterhouse merged with Coopers & Lybrand to form PricewaterhouseCoopers.

Big 4 (2002-)

The second firm of the Big Five, Arthur Andersen, was indicted for obstruction of justice for shredding documents related to the audit of Enron, covering up millions of dollars in losses in the 2001 Enron scandal. The resulting conviction, since overturned, has effectively meant the end of the line for Arthur Andersen. Most of its country practices around the world have sold to members of what is now the Big Four, notably Ernst & Young and Deloitte & Touche in the UK.

The departure of Arthur Andersen leaves only four large international accounting firms in the world (the fifth-largest is Grant Thornton International). This causes significant problems for large international corporations, because they are required to use separate accounting firms for their audit work and most non-audit services. Therefore, the loss of the fifth big accounting firm has considerably reduced the competition among the accounting firms and has increased accounting costs for many clients.

Mergers and Developments

  • Arthur Andersen
    • Developed from Andersen, Delany
  • Ernst & Young
    • Arthur Young
    • Ernst & Whinney
      • Ernst & Ernst
  • PricewaterhouseCoopers
    • Coopers & Lybrand
    • Price Waterhouse
  • Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
    • Deloitte & Touche
      • Deloitte Haskins & Sells
        • Deloitte Plender Griffiths (UK)
        • Haskins & Sells
      • Touche Ross
        • Touche, Ross, Bailey & Smart
          • Ross, Touche
          • George A. Touche
          • Touche, Niven, Bailey & Smart
            • Touche Niven
            • Bailey
            • A. R. Smart
        • Tohmatsu & Co.
  • KPMG Peat Marwick
    • Peat Marwick
      • William Barclay Peat
      • Marwick Mitchell
    • KMG
      • Klynveld Main Goerdeler
        • Klynveld Kraayenhof
        • McLintock Main Lafrentz
      • Deutsche Treuhand Gesellschaft

Other Countries


In Turkey, the "Big Four auditors" are local affiliates of the Big Four international firms;

  1. Güney Bagimsiz Denetim ve S.M.M. A.S. - member of Ernst & Young,
  2. Akis Bagimsiz Denetim ve S.M.M. A.S. - affiliate of KPMG,
  3. Basaran Nas Bagimsiz Denetim ve S.M.M. A.S. - affiliate of PwC
  4. DRT Bagimsiz Denetim ve S.M.M. A.S. - affiliate of Deloitte

In addition to the big four, there are other other affiliate companies which have weaker affiliate relations compared to affiliates of big four.


In Israel, there are five large auditors, four of whom are affiliates of the "Big Four Auditors":

  1. Kost, Forer, Gabbay & Kasierer (Ernst & Young Israel)
  2. KPMG Somekh Chaikin
  3. Deloitte Brightman Almagor
  4. Kesselman & Kesselman, PwC Israel
  5. BDO Ziv Haft (affiliate of Binder, Dijker, Otte & Co)


In Japan, the “Big Four auditors” are local affiliates of the Big Four international firms:

  • AZSA & Co. (あずさ監査法人) - affiliate of KPMG
  • MISUZU Audit Corporation (みすず監査法人), formerly Chūō-Aoyama (中央青山監査法人) - affiliate of PwC (see below)
  • ShinNihon (新日本監査法人) - affiliate of Ernst & Young
  • Tohmatsu (監査法人トーマツ) - affiliate of Deloitte Touche

Following the discovery of the accounting fraud at Kanebo, the Financial Services Agency in Japan suspended Chūō-Aoyama from conducting audit work for inadequate internal controls, for two months from July 1, 2006 onwards. On June 13, 2006, PwC announced the incorporation of a new accounting firm in Japan, called PricewaterhouseCoopers Arata. Unlike Chūō-Aoyama, which is a network firm of PwC, PricewaterhouseCoopers Arata is a member firm of the PwC global network and will adopt its internal controls and methodologies.[1]


In Pakistan, the "Big Four auditors" are local affiliates of the Big Four international firms:

  • Ford Rhodes Sidat Hyder - affiliate of Ernst & Young
  • AF Ferguson - affiliate of PwC
  • Yousuf Adil Saleem - affiliate of Deloitte Touche
  • Taseer Hadi Khalid - affiliate of KPMG

External links

  •, an ad-supported website for current and former employees of Big 5 firms
  •, an ad-supported website for former employees of Big 4 firms
  •, A table of links to Big 5 accounting firms, from a Rutgers University website


Retrieved from ""





L'utente può utilizzare il nostro sito solo se comprende e accetta quanto segue:

  • Le risorse linguistiche gratuite presentate in questo sito si possono utilizzare esclusivamente per uso personale e non commerciale con tassativa esclusione di ogni condivisione comunque effettuata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. La riproduzione anche parziale è vietata senza autorizzazione scritta.
  • Il nome del sito EnglishGratis è esclusivamente un marchio e un nome di dominio internet che fa riferimento alla disponibilità sul sito di un numero molto elevato di risorse gratuite e non implica dunque alcuna promessa di gratuità relativamente a prodotti e servizi nostri o di terze parti pubblicizzati a mezzo banner e link, o contrassegnati chiaramente come prodotti a pagamento (anche ma non solo con la menzione "Annuncio pubblicitario"), o comunque menzionati nelle pagine del sito ma non disponibili sulle pagine pubbliche, non protette da password, del sito stesso.
  • La pubblicità di terze parti è in questo momento affidata al servizio Google AdSense che sceglie secondo automatismi di carattere algoritmico gli annunci di terze parti che compariranno sul nostro sito e sui quali non abbiamo alcun modo di influire. Non siamo quindi responsabili del contenuto di questi annunci e delle eventuali affermazioni o promesse che in essi vengono fatte!
  • L'utente, inoltre, accetta di tenerci indenni da qualsiasi tipo di responsabilità per l'uso - ed eventuali conseguenze di esso - degli esercizi e delle informazioni linguistiche e grammaticali contenute sul siti. Le risposte grammaticali sono infatti improntate ad un criterio di praticità e pragmaticità più che ad una completezza ed esaustività che finirebbe per frastornare, per l'eccesso di informazione fornita, il nostro utente. La segnalazione di eventuali errori è gradita e darà luogo ad una immediata rettifica.


    ENGLISHGRATIS.COM è un sito personale di
    Roberto Casiraghi e Crystal Jones
    email: robertocasiraghi at iol punto it

    Roberto Casiraghi           
    INFORMATIVA SULLA PRIVACY              Crystal Jones

    Siti amici:  Lonweb Daisy Stories English4Life Scuolitalia
    Sito segnalato da INGLESE.IT