New Page 1




Selettore risorse   



                                         IL Metodo  |  Grammatica  |  RISPOSTE GRAMMATICALI  |  Multiblog  |  INSEGNARE AGLI ADULTI  |  INSEGNARE AI BAMBINI  |  AudioBooks  |  RISORSE SFiziosE  |  Articoli  |  Tips  | testi pAralleli  |  VIDEO SOTTOTITOLATI
                                                                                         ESERCIZI :   Serie 1 - 2 - 3  - 4 - 5  SERVIZI:   Pronunciatore di inglese - Dizionario - Convertitore IPA/UK - IPA/US - Convertitore di valute in lire ed euro                                              




- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Account
  2. Accountancy
  3. Accountant
  4. Accounting cycle
  5. Accounting equation
  6. Accounting methods
  7. Accounting reform
  8. Accounting software
  9. Accounts payable
  10. Accounts receivable
  11. Accrual
  12. Adjusted basis
  13. Adjusting entries
  14. Advertising
  15. Amortization
  16. Amortization schedule
  17. Annual report
  18. Appreciation
  19. Asset
  20. Assets turnover
  21. Audit
  22. Auditor's report
  23. Bad debt
  24. Balance
  25. Balance Sheet
  26. Banking
  27. Bank reconciliation
  28. Bankruptcy
  29. Big 4 accountancy firm
  30. Bond
  31. Bookkeeping
  32. Book value
  33. British qualified accountants
  34. Business
  35. Business process overhead
  36. Capital asset
  37. Capital goods
  38. Capital structure
  39. Cash
  40. Cash flow
  41. Cash flow statement
  42. Certified Management Accountant
  43. Certified Public Accountant
  44. Chartered Accountant
  45. Chartered Cost Accountant
  46. Chart of accounts
  47. Common stock
  48. Comprehensive income
  49. Consolidation
  50. Construction in Progress
  51. Corporation
  52. Cost
  53. Cost accounting
  54. Cost of goods sold
  55. Creative accounting
  56. Credit
  57. Creditor
  58. Creditworthiness
  59. Current assets
  60. Current liabilities
  61. Debentures
  62. Debits and Credits
  63. Debt
  64. Debtor
  65. Default
  66. Deferral
  67. Deferred tax
  68. Deficit
  69. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
  70. Depreciation
  71. Direct tax
  72. Dividend
  73. Double-entry bookkeeping system
  74. Earnings before interest and taxes
  75. Earnings Before Interest, Taxes and Depreciation
  76. Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization
  77. Engagement Letter
  78. Equity
  79. Ernst a& Young
  80. Expense
  81. Fair market value
  82. FIFO and LIFO accounting
  83. Finance
  84. Financial accounting
  85. Financial audit
  86. Financial statements
  87. Financial transaction
  88. Fiscal year
  89. Fixed assets
  90. Fixed assets management
  91. Fixed Assets Register
  92. Forensic accounting
  93. Freight expense
  94. Fund Accounting
  95. Furniture
  96. General journal
  97. General ledger
  98. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
  99. Going concern
  100. Goodwill
  101. Governmental accounting
  102. Gross income
  103. Gross margin
  104. Gross profit
  105. Gross sales
  106. Historical cost
  107. Hollywood accounting
  108. Imprest system
  109. Income
  110. Income tax
  111. Indirect tax
  112. Insurance
  113. Intangible asset
  114. Interest
  115. Internal Revenue Code
  116. International Accounting Standards
  117. Inventory
  118. Investment
  119. Invoice
  120. Itemized deduction
  121. KPMG
  122. Ledger
  123. Lender
  124. Leveraged buyout
  125. Liability
  126. Licence
  127. Lien
  128. Liquid asset
  129. Long-term assets
  130. Long-term liabilities
  131. Management accounting
  132. Matching principle
  133. Mortgage
  134. Net Income
  135. Net profit
  136. Notes to the Financial Statements
  137. Office equipment
  138. Operating cash flow
  139. Operating expense
  140. Operating expenses
  141. Ownership equity
  142. Patent
  143. Payroll
  144. Pay stub
  145. Petty cash
  146. Preferred stock
  147. PricewaterhouseCoopers
  148. Profit
  149. Profit and loss account
  150. Pro forma
  151. Purchase ledger
  152. Reserve
  153. Retained earnings
  154. Revaluation of fixed assets
  155. Revenue
  156. Revenue recognition
  157. Royalties
  158. Salary
  159. Sales ledger
  160. Sales tax
  161. Salvage value
  162. Shareholder
  163. Shareholder's equity
  164. Single-entry accounting system
  165. Spreadsheet
  166. Stakeholder
  167. Standard accounting practice
  168. Statement of retained earnings
  169. Stock
  170. Stockholders' deficit
  171. Stock option
  172. Stock split
  173. Sunk cost
  174. Suspense account
  175. Tax bracket
  176. Taxes
  177. Tax expense
  178. Throughput accounting
  179. Trade credit
  180. Treasury stock
  181. Trial balance
  182. UK generally accepted accounting principles
  183. United States
  184. Value added tax
  185. Value Based Accounting Standards and Principles
  186. Write-off

This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Accountancy (profession) or accounting (methodology) is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers, investors, tax authorities and other decision makers make resource allocation decisions. The names come from the use of financial accounts. Financial accounting is one branch of accounting and historically has involved processes by which financial information about a business is recorded, classified, summarized, interpreted, and communicated. Accounting is also widely referred to as the "language of business".

Auditing, a related but separate discipline, has two sub-disciplines: Internal and External auditing. External auditing is the process whereby an independent auditor examines an organization's financial statements and accounting records in order to express an opinion — that conveys reasonable but not absolute assurance — as to the truth and fairness of the statements and the accountant's adherence to Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), in all material respects.

Internal auditing is an examination in which management, and not the external public, is the main beneficiary. It is carried out usually by auditors employed by the company, but sometimes by external service providers. The internal auditor's role is broader, and basically depends on what kind of assurance management wants. It usually certifies the efficiency and effectiveness of processes, departments, projects or internal controls. The Institute of Internal Auditors is generally accepted as the custodian of Internal Auditing best practice.

At the heart of accounting is the measurement of financial transactions which are transfers of legal property rights made under contractual relationships. Non-financial transactions are specifically excluded due to conservatism and materiality principles.

Practitioners of accountancy are known as accountants. There are many professional bodies for accountants throughout the world. Many allow their members to use titles indicating their membership. Examples are Chartered Certified Accountant (ACCA or FCCA), Chartered Accountant (FCA, CA or ACA) and Certified Public Accountant (CPA).

Accountancy attempts to create accurate financial reports that are useful to managers, regulators, and other stakeholders such as shareholders, creditors, or owners. The day-to-day record-keeping involved in this process is known as bookkeeping.

At the heart of modern financial accounting is the double-entry bookkeeping system. This system involves making at least two entries for every transaction: a debit in one account, and a corresponding credit in another account. The sum of all debits should always equal the sum of all credits. This provides an easy way to check for errors. This system was first used in medieval Europe, although claims have been made that the system dates back to Ancient Greece.

According to critics of standard accounting practices, it has changed little since. Accounting reform measures of some kind have been taken in each generation to attempt to keep bookkeeping relevant to capital assets or production capacity. However, these have not changed the basic principles, which are supposed to be independent of economics as such. In recent times, the divergence of accounting from economic principles has resulted in controversial reforms to make financial reports more indicative of economic reality.


Accountancy's infancy dates back to the earliest days of human agriculture and civilization (the Sumerians in Mesopotamia), when the need to maintain accurate records of the quantities and relative values of agricultural products first arose. Simple accounting is mentioned in the Christian Bible in the book of Matthew, in the Parable of the Talents (Matt. 25:19). The Quran also mentions simple accounting for trade and credit arrangements (Quran 2: 282).

Twelfth century writer Ibn Taymiyyah mentioned in his book Hisba (verification, calculation), detailed accounting systems used by the Muslims as early as in the mid-seventh century. The accounting practices were influenced by the Roman and the Persian civilizations that Muslims interacted with. The most detailed example of a complex governmental accounting system is the Divan of Umar, the second Caliph of Islam in which all revenues and disbursements were recorded. The Divan of Umar has been described in detail by various Islamic historians and was used by Muslim rulers with mofidications and enhancements until the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

Luca Pacioli and the birth of modern accountancy

The first book on accounting was written by a Croatian merchant Benedetto Cotrugli, who is also known as Benedikt Kotruljević, from the city of Dubrovnik. During his life in Italy he met many merchants and decided to write, Della Mercatvra et del Mercante Perfetto (On Trade and the Perfect Merchant) in which he elaborated on the principles of modern, double-entry book-keeping. He finished his lifework in 1458. However, his work was not published until 1573, as a result of which his contributions to the field have been overlooked by the general public..[citation needed]

For this reason, Luca Pacioli (1445 - 1517), also known as Friar Luca dal Borgo, is credited for the "birth" of accounting. His Summa de arithmetica, geometrica, proportioni et proportionalita (Venice 1494), a synthesis of the mathematical knowledge of his time, includes the first published description of the method of keeping accounts that Venetian merchants used at that time, known as the double-entry accounting system. Although Pacioli codified rather than invented this system, he is widely regarded as the "Father of Accounting". The system he published included most of the accounting cycle as we know it today. He described the use of journals and ledgers, and warned that a person should not go to sleep at night until the debits equalled the credits! His ledger had accounts for assets (including receivables and inventories), liabilities, capital, income, and expenses — the account categories that are reported on an organization's balance sheet and income statement, respectively. He demonstrated year-end closing entries and proposed that a trial balance be used to prove a balanced ledger. His treatise also touches on a wide range of related topics from accounting ethics to cost accounting.

The first known book in the English language on accounting was published in London by John Gouge (or Gough) in 1543. It is described as A Profitable Treatyce called the Instrument or Boke to learn to knowe the good order of the kepyng of the famouse reconynge, called in Latin, Dare and Habere, and, in English, Debitor and Creditor.

A short book of instructions was also published in 1588 by John Mellis of Southwark, in which he says, "I am but the renuer and reviver of an ancient old copie printed here in London the 14 of August 1543: collected, published, made, and set forth by one Hugh Oldcastle, Scholemaster, who, as appeareth by his treatise, then taught Arithmetics, and this booke in Saint Ollaves parish in Marko Lane." John Mellis refers to the fact that the principle of accounts he explains (which is a simple system of double entry) is "after the forme of Venice".

A book described as The Merchants Mirrour, or directions for the perfect ordering and keeping of his accounts formed by way of Debitor and Creditor, after the (so termed) Italian manner, by Richard Dafforne, accountant, published in 1635, contains many references to early books on the science of accountancy. In a chapter in this book, headed "Opinion of Book-keeping's Antiquity," the author states, on the authority of another writer, that the form of book-keeping referred to had then been in use in Italy about two hundred years, "but that the same, or one in many parts very like this, was used in the time of Julius Caesar, and in Rome long before." He gives quotations of Latin book-keeping terms in use in ancient times, and refers to "ex Oratione Ciceronis pro Roscio Comaedo"; and he adds:

"That the one side of their booke was used for Debitor, the other for Creditor, is manifest in a certain place, Naturalis Historiae Plinii, lib. 2, cap. 7, where hee, speaking of Fortune, saith thus:
Huic Omnia Expensa.
Huic Omnia Feruntur accepta et in tota Ratione mortalium sola.
Utramque Paginam facit."

An early Dutch writer appears to have suggested that double-entry book-keeping was even in existence among the Greeks, pointing to scientific accountancy having been invented in remote times.

There were several editions of Richard Dafforne's book - the second edition in 1636, the third in 1656, and another in 1684. The book is a very complete treatise on scientific accountancy, beautifully prepared and containing elaborate explanations. The numerous editions tend to prove that the science was highly appreciated in the 17th century. From this time on, there has been a continuous supply of literature on the subject, many of the authors styling themselves accountants and teachers of the art, and thus proving that the professional accountant was then known and employed.

Accountancy qualifications and regulation

Main article: Accountancy qualifications and regulation

The requirements for entry in the profession of accounting vary from country to country.

Accountants may be licensed by a variety of organisations, such as the British qualified accountancy bodies including Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) and Institute of Chartered Accountants, and are recognized by titles such as Chartered Certified Accountant (ACCA or FCCA) and Chartered Accountant (UK, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, India, Pakistan, South Africa), Certified Public Accountant (Ireland, Japan, US, Singapore, Hong Kong, the Philippines), Certified Management Accountant (Canada, U.S.), Certified General Accountant (Canada), or Certified Practising Accountant (Australia). Some Commonwealth countries (Australia and Canada) often recognise both the certified and chartered accounting bodies. The majority of "public" accountants in New Zealand and Canada are Chartered Accountants; however, Certified General Accountants are also authorized by legislation to practise public accounting and auditing in all Canadian provinces, except Ontario and Quebec, as of 2005. There is, however, no legal requirement for an accountant to be a paid-up member of one of the many Institutes and other bodies which are effectively a form of professional trade union. Unlike the Law Society, which can legally stop a solicitor from practising, accountancy institutes do not have such authority. However, auditors are regulated.

Accounting scholarship

Refer Accounting scholarship for professorship.

The "Big Four" accountancy firms

The "Big Four auditors" are the largest multinational accountancy firms.

  • PricewaterhouseCoopers
  • Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
  • Ernst & Young
  • KPMG

These firms are associations of the partnerships in each country rather than having the classical structure of holding company and subsidiaries, but each has an international 'umbrella' organization for co-ordination.

Before the Enron and other accounting scandals, there were five large firms and were called the Big Five. Since Arthur Andersen's assurance practice split (after the firm was found guilty in the Enron scandal), with a plurality joining KPMG in the US and Deloitte & Touche outside of the US, Arthur Andersen left from the group. Previous to this there were also groupings referred to as the "Big Six" (Arthur Andersen, plus Coopers & Lybrand before its merger with Price Waterhouse) and the "Big Eight" (Ernst and Young prior to their merger were Ernst& Whinney and Arthur Young and Deloitte & Touche was formed by the merger of Deloitte, Haskins and Sells with the firm Touche Ross).

Enron turned out to be only the first of a series of accounting scandals that enveloped the accounting industry in 2002.

This is likely to have far-reaching consequences for the U.S. accounting industry. Application of International Accounting Standards originating in International Accounting Standards Board headquartered in London and bearing more resemblance to UK than current US practices is often advocated by those who note the relative stability of the UK accounting system (which reformed itself after scandals in the late 1980s and early 1990s). Accounting reform of a far more comprehensive sort is advocated by those who see issues with capitalism or economics, and seek ecological or social accountability.

Size of market - UK

According to Accountancy Age's 2005 league table, fee income amongst the Top 50 accounting firms in the UK rose from £6.3bn to £7.0bn. This followed two successive years in which fee income had declined, largely a result of the sale by some of the larger firms of their consultancy arms. As detailed in the next section, fee income in most business areas - audit, tax, corporate finance and consultancy - rose in the 2005 survey, with insolvency and wealth management being the only segments where revenue fell.

PricewaterhouseCoopers remains the largest firm with fee income totalling £1,780m followed by Deloitte (£1,350m), KPMG (£1,066m) and Ernst & Young (£945m). The combined revenue of the Big Four accounted for £5.0bn, 72% of the fee income of the Top 50, down from 78-79% in the years up to the 2002 survey and the third year in succession a decline in their share has occurred (Chart 1). Ernst & Young's fee income is the smallest of the largest four firms, but still over three times that of the next largest firm, Grant Thornton. The amount of fee income tapers off amongst the mid-tier firms so that in total there were only 25 firms that each generated more than £15m of revenue in the 2005 survey. [1]

For more details regarding British qualified accountancy professionals, please refer to the page of British qualified accountants.

Topics in accounting

See list of accounting topics for complete listing.


  • Assurance services
  • Audit
  • Information technology audit

Types of accountancy

  • Cost accounting
  • Cash-basis and accrual-basis
  • Financial accountancy
  • Fund Accounting
  • Internal and external accountancy
  • Management accounting
  • Project accounting
  • Positive accounting
  • Environmental accounting
  • Social responsibility accounting

Accountancy Principles

Accounting principles, rules of conduct and action are described by various terms such as concepts, conventions, tenets, assumption, axioms, postulates.

Accounting concepts

  • Entity concept
  • Dual aspect concept
  • Going concern concept
  • Accounting period concept
  • Money measurement concept
  • Historical Cost concept
  • Periodic matching of cost and revenue concept
  • Verifiable objective evidence concept
  • Realization concept
  • Accounting methods (This includes a discussion on the accruals concept)
  • Understandability
  • Relevance
  • Reliability
  • Comparability
  • Accrual Basis

Accounting conventions

  • convention of disclosure
  • convention of materiality
  • convention of consistency
  • convention of conservatism

Use of computers in accountancy

  • Accounting software
  • Databases
  • spreadsheet programs
  • XBRL

Accounting standards

  • Hong Kong SME-FRF & SME-FRS Small and Medium-sized Entity Financial Reporting Framework and Financial Reporting Standard
  • International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS)
  • German HGB Accounting Standard
  • United Kingdom generally accepted accounting principles
  • United States generally accepted accounting principles
  • Value Based Accounting Standards and Principles
  • Turkish Accounting Standards


  • European Union
    • European Central Bank
  • United States
    • Federal Reserve (for banks)
    • U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (for public companies)

Accounting standard-setting bodies

  • Canada
    • Accounting Standards Board "AcSB"
  • Hong Kong
    • Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants (HKICPA) (formerly known as Hong Kong Society of Accountants (HKSA))
  • India
    • [[Institute of Chartered Accountants of India through a national body NACAS.)
  • International
    • International Accounting Standards Board
    • International Federation of Accountants
  • Malaysia
    • Malaysian Accounting Standards Board
    • Malaysian Institute of Accountants
  • New Zealand
    • Accounting Standards Review Board
    • New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants
  • Ireland
    • Institute of Chartered Accountants in Ireland
  • South Africa
    • South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA)
  • United Kingdom
    • Accounting Standards Board
  • United States
    • Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
    • American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)
    • Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB)
    • Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board
    • U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

Auditing standards-setting bodies

  • Australia
    • AUASB - Auditing & Assurance Standards Board
  • Hong Kong
    • Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants (HKICPA) (formerly known as Hong Kong Society of Accountants (HKSA))
  • International
    • International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB)
  • South Africa
    • Public Accountants and Auditors Board - public companies
  • United Kingdom
    • Auditing Practices Board
  • United States
    • Public Company Accounting Oversight Board - public companies
    • American Institute of Certified Public Accountants - general
    • Government Accountability Office - recipients of federal grants

Types of accountancy

The following list is intended to give some idea of the breadth and scope of the accountancy profession:

  • auditing
  • bookkeeping
  • certified accountancy
  • chartered accountancy
  • cost accountancy
  • management or managerial accountancy
  • financial accountancy
  • forensic accountancy
  • taxation advice
  • public accountancy
  • private accountancy
  • internal accountancy
  • external accountancy
  • accounting information system design

See also

  • Accountant
  • Accounting reform
  • Audit
  • Basics of Accounting
  • Banking
  • Balance Sheet
  • Bookkeeping
  • British Accountant
  • Cash flow statement
  • Critical accounting policy
  • Cultural references to accountants
  • Economics
  • Financial statements and Notes to the Financial Statements
  • Finance
  • Financial audit
  • Fiscal year
  • Green eyeshade
  • Income Statement
  • Invoice
  • Luca Pacioli
  • Standard accounting practices
  • Tax
  • Timeline of management techniques
  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act

Finding related topics

  • List of accounting topics
  • List of finance topics
  • List of management topics
  • List of human resource management topics
  • List of marketing topics
  • List of economics topics
  • List of production topics
  • List of information technology management topics
  • List of business law topics
  • List of business ethics, political economy, and philosophy of business topics
  • List of business theorists
  • List of economists
  • List of corporate leaders
  • List of companies

External links

  • Wiki-CPA - An Open Source for Accountants
  • Accounting Terms
  • Financial Accounting Standards Board Website (FASB)
  • Government Accounting Standards Board Website (GASB)
  • National Association of State Boards of Accountancy - CPA Exam (NASBA)
  • IFACnet - A KnowledgeNet for Accountants in Business
  • SEC Accounting Bulletins
  • SEC Division of Corporate Finance
  • Accounting Learning materials from
  • Introduction to accounting course
  • CPA Australia
  • Institute of Chartered Accountants - Australia
  • IFRS or formerly IAS information
  • Association Of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA)
  • Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants (formerly Hong Kong Society of Accountants)
  • Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW)
  • Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland (ICAS)
  • Malaysian Institute of Accountants(MIA)
Retrieved from ""





L'utente può utilizzare il nostro sito solo se comprende e accetta quanto segue:

  • Le risorse linguistiche gratuite presentate in questo sito si possono utilizzare esclusivamente per uso personale e non commerciale con tassativa esclusione di ogni condivisione comunque effettuata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. La riproduzione anche parziale è vietata senza autorizzazione scritta.
  • Il nome del sito EnglishGratis è esclusivamente un marchio e un nome di dominio internet che fa riferimento alla disponibilità sul sito di un numero molto elevato di risorse gratuite e non implica dunque alcuna promessa di gratuità relativamente a prodotti e servizi nostri o di terze parti pubblicizzati a mezzo banner e link, o contrassegnati chiaramente come prodotti a pagamento (anche ma non solo con la menzione "Annuncio pubblicitario"), o comunque menzionati nelle pagine del sito ma non disponibili sulle pagine pubbliche, non protette da password, del sito stesso.
  • La pubblicità di terze parti è in questo momento affidata al servizio Google AdSense che sceglie secondo automatismi di carattere algoritmico gli annunci di terze parti che compariranno sul nostro sito e sui quali non abbiamo alcun modo di influire. Non siamo quindi responsabili del contenuto di questi annunci e delle eventuali affermazioni o promesse che in essi vengono fatte!
  • L'utente, inoltre, accetta di tenerci indenni da qualsiasi tipo di responsabilità per l'uso - ed eventuali conseguenze di esso - degli esercizi e delle informazioni linguistiche e grammaticali contenute sul siti. Le risposte grammaticali sono infatti improntate ad un criterio di praticità e pragmaticità più che ad una completezza ed esaustività che finirebbe per frastornare, per l'eccesso di informazione fornita, il nostro utente. La segnalazione di eventuali errori è gradita e darà luogo ad una immediata rettifica.


    ENGLISHGRATIS.COM è un sito personale di
    Roberto Casiraghi e Crystal Jones
    email: robertocasiraghi at iol punto it

    Roberto Casiraghi           
    INFORMATIVA SULLA PRIVACY              Crystal Jones

    Siti amici:  Lonweb Daisy Stories English4Life Scuolitalia
    Sito segnalato da INGLESE.IT