New Page 1

LA GRAMMATICA DI ENGLISH GRATIS IN VERSIONE MOBILE • TEL. 375-5186291 •   INFORMATIVA PRIVACY

  Telefono e SMS: 375-5186291       NUOVA SEZIONE ELINGUE
EMAIL:

 

Selettore risorse   

   

 

                                         IL Metodo  |  Grammatica  |  RISPOSTE GRAMMATICALI  |  Multiblog  |  INSEGNARE AGLI ADULTI  |  INSEGNARE AI BAMBINI  |  AudioBooks  |  RISORSE SFiziosE  |  Articoli  |  Tips  | testi pAralleli  |  VIDEO SOTTOTITOLATI
                                                                                         ESERCIZI :   Serie 1 - 2 - 3  - 4 - 5  SERVIZI:   Pronunciatore di inglese - Dizionario - Convertitore IPA/UK - IPA/US - Convertitore di valute in lire ed euro                                              

 

 

WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic Free License
  2. Adaptive Public License
  3. Advogato
  4. Affero General Public License
  5. Africa Source
  6. AKademy
  7. Alternative terms for free software
  8. Anti-copyright notice
  9. Apache License
  10. Apache Software Foundation
  11. APESOL
  12. Apple Public Source License
  13. Artistic License
  14. Association For Free Software
  15. August Penguin
  16. Benetech
  17. Benevolent Dictator for Life
  18. BerliOS
  19. Binary blob
  20. BK02
  21. Blender Foundation
  22. Bruce Perens' Open Source Series
  23. BSD licenses
  24. CeCILL
  25. CE Linux Forum
  26. Clarkson Open Source Institute
  27. Code Breakers
  28. CodePlex
  29. Collaborative software development model
  30. Collaborative Source license
  31. Common Development and Distribution License
  32. Common Public License
  33. Comparison of free software hosting facilities
  34. CONSOL
  35. Copycenter
  36. Copyleft
  37. Creative Commons licenses
  38. Debconf
  39. Debian Free Software Guidelines
  40. Debian Manifesto
  41. Desktop Developers' Conference
  42. Eclipse Foundation
  43. Eclipse Public License
  44. Enterprise open source journal
  45. European Union Public Licence
  46. Everybody Loves Eric Raymond
  47. Forum Internacional Software Livre
  48. Fedora Project
  49. FOSDEM
  50. FOSS.IN
  51. Fossap
  52. Frameworx License
  53. Free content
  54. Free Culture movement
  55. Freedesktop.org
  56. Freely redistributable software
  57. Freepository
  58. Free software
  59. Free Software Award for Projects of Social Benefit
  60. Free software community
  61. Free Software Directory
  62. Free Software Foundation
  63. Free Software Foundation Europe
  64. Free Software Foundation Latin America
  65. Free Software Foundation of India
  66. Free Software Initiative of Japan
  67. Free software license
  68. Free Software Magazine
  69. Free software movement
  70. Free Software Song
  71. Free Standards Group
  72. FSF Award for the Advancement of Free Software
  73. GCC Summit
  74. Gna.org
  75. GNAT Modified General Public License
  76. Gnits Standards
  77. GnomeFiles
  78. GNOME Foundation
  79. GNU Coding Standards
  80. GNU Free Documentation License
  81. GNU General Public License
  82. GNU Lesser General Public License
  83. GNU Manifesto
  84. GNU Savannah
  85. GNU Simpler Free Documentation License
  86. Google Code
  87. Google Summer of Code
  88. Go Open Source
  89. GRASS GIS
  90. Gratis versus Libre
  91. Groklaw
  92. GUADEC
  93. Halloween documents
  94. Hamakor
  95. Historical Permission Notice and Disclaimer
  96. Homesteading the Noosphere
  97. Hurd User Group
  98. IBM Public License
  99. IBM Type-III Library
  100. Intel Open Source License
  101. International Open Source Network
  102. Irish Free Software Organisation
  103. ISC licence
  104. Jargon File
  105. Jimbo Wales
  106. KDE Dot News
  107. KernelTrap
  108. LAMP
  109. LaTeX Project Public License
  110. League for Programming Freedom
  111. Leonard H. Tower Jr.
  112. libpng
  113. Libre Software Meeting
  114. Linus's Law
  115. Linus Torvalds
  116. Linux.conf.au
  117. Linux conference
  118. Linux Expo
  119. Linux Gazette
  120. Linux International
  121. Linux Journal
  122. Linux Kongress
  123. Linux naming controversy
  124. LinuxQuestions.org
  125. LinuxTag
  126. Linux User Group
  127. LinuxWorld Conference and Expo
  128. List of software that uses the MIT License
  129. LiveJournal
  130. Lucent Public License
  131. LXer
  132. MIT License
  133. MozBin
  134. Mozdev.org
  135. Mozilla Add-ons
  136. Mozilla Foundation
  137. Mozilla Public License
  138. MozillaZine
  139. MyOSS
  140. NetHack General Public License
  141. Netscape Public License
  142. NewsForge
  143. New Zealand Open Source Society
  144. NonProfit Open Source Initiative
  145. Non-proprietary software
  146. Nupedia Open Content License
  147. ObjectWeb
  148. Ohio LinuxFest
  149. Ohloh
  150. O3 Magazine
  151. Open Audio License
  152. OpenCola
  153. Open content
  154. Open design
  155. OpenDocument Format Alliance
  156. OpenLP
  157. Open outsourcing
  158. Open Security Foundation
  159. Open Software License
  160. Open-source advocacy
  161. Open Source Applications Foundation
  162. Open-source culture
  163. Open Source Definition
  164. Open Source Developers' Conference
  165. Open-source evangelist
  166. Open source funding
  167. Open Source Geospatial Foundation
  168. Open Source Initiative
  169. Open source movement
  170. Open source movie
  171. Open-source software
  172. Open source software development
  173. Open source software development method
  174. Open Source Software Institute
  175. Open source teaching
  176. Open source vs. closed source
  177. Open-sourcing
  178. O'Reilly Open Source Convention
  179. Organisation for Free Software in Education and Teaching
  180. OSDL
  181. Ottawa Linux Symposium
  182. Patent Commons
  183. PHP License
  184. Pionia
  185. Pionia Organization
  186. Proprietary software
  187. Protecting the Virtual Commons
  188. Public Documentation License
  189. Public-domain equivalent license
  190. Python License
  191. Python Software Foundation License
  192. Q Public License
  193. RealNetworks Public Source License
  194. Reciprocal Public License
  195. Red Hat
  196. Revolution OS
  197. Richard Stallman
  198. RubyForge
  199. Sarovar
  200. Savane
  201. SIL Open Font License
  202. Simputer General Public License
  203. SIPfoundry
  204. Slashdot
  205. Sleepycat License
  206. Software Freedom Day
  207. Software Freedom Law Center
  208. Software in the Public Interest
  209. SourceForge
  210. Spread Firefox
  211. Sun Industry Standards Source License
  212. Sun Public License
  213. Sybase Open Watcom Public License
  214. Tanenbaum-Torvalds debate
  215. Tectonic Magazine
  216. The Cathedral and the Bazaar
  217. The Freedom Toaster
  218. The Free Software Definition
  219. The Perl Foundation
  220. The Right to Read
  221. The Summit Open Source Development Group
  222. Tigris.org
  223. Tivoization
  224. Tux
  225. Tux Magazine
  226. Ubuntu Foundation
  227. Use of Free and Open Source Software in the U.S. Department of Defense
  228. Vores Ol
  229. W3C Software Notice and License
  230. Webgpl
  231. What the Hack
  232. Wizards of OS
  233. WTFPL
  234. X.Org Foundation
  235. Xiph.Org Foundation
  236. Yet Another Perl Conference
  237. Yogurt

 

 
CONDIZIONI DI USO DI QUESTO SITO
L'utente può utilizzare il nostro sito solo se comprende e accetta quanto segue:

  • Le risorse linguistiche gratuite presentate in questo sito si possono utilizzare esclusivamente per uso personale e non commerciale con tassativa esclusione di ogni condivisione comunque effettuata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. La riproduzione anche parziale è vietata senza autorizzazione scritta.
  • Il nome del sito EnglishGratis è esclusivamente un marchio e un nome di dominio internet che fa riferimento alla disponibilità sul sito di un numero molto elevato di risorse gratuite e non implica dunque alcuna promessa di gratuità relativamente a prodotti e servizi nostri o di terze parti pubblicizzati a mezzo banner e link, o contrassegnati chiaramente come prodotti a pagamento (anche ma non solo con la menzione "Annuncio pubblicitario"), o comunque menzionati nelle pagine del sito ma non disponibili sulle pagine pubbliche, non protette da password, del sito stesso.
  • La pubblicità di terze parti è in questo momento affidata al servizio Google AdSense che sceglie secondo automatismi di carattere algoritmico gli annunci di terze parti che compariranno sul nostro sito e sui quali non abbiamo alcun modo di influire. Non siamo quindi responsabili del contenuto di questi annunci e delle eventuali affermazioni o promesse che in essi vengono fatte!
  • L'utente, inoltre, accetta di tenerci indenni da qualsiasi tipo di responsabilità per l'uso - ed eventuali conseguenze di esso - degli esercizi e delle informazioni linguistiche e grammaticali contenute sul siti. Le risposte grammaticali sono infatti improntate ad un criterio di praticità e pragmaticità più che ad una completezza ed esaustività che finirebbe per frastornare, per l'eccesso di informazione fornita, il nostro utente. La segnalazione di eventuali errori è gradita e darà luogo ad una immediata rettifica.

     

    ENGLISHGRATIS.COM è un sito personale di
    Roberto Casiraghi e Crystal Jones
    Tel. e SMS: 375-5186291 - Email:

    Roberto Casiraghi           
    INFORMATIVA SULLA PRIVACY              Crystal Jones


    Siti amici:  Lonweb Daisy Stories English4Life Scuolitalia
    Sito segnalato da INGLESE.IT

 
 



FREE SOFTWARE CULTURE
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Stallman

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Richard Stallman

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Richard Matthew Stallman (nickname RMS) (born March 16, 1953) is an acclaimed software freedom activist, hacker, and software developer. In the 1980s, he founded the GNU Project to create a free Unix-like operating system, and has been the project's lead architect and organizer. Also in the 1980s, he founded the free software movement, and the Free Software Foundation. He co-founded the League for Programming Freedom. Stallman pioneered the concept of copyleft and is the main author of several copyleft licenses including the GNU General Public License, the most widely used free software license.[2] Since the mid-1990s, Stallman has spent most of his time as a political campaigner advocating for free software, as well as campaigning against both patenting software and expansions of copyright law. Stallman's renowned software accomplishments include developing the original Emacs, GNU Emacs, the GNU Compiler Collection, and the GNU Debugger.

Early years

Stallman was born in Manhattan, New York, to Jewish[1] parents Alice Lippman and Daniel Stallman. His first access to a computer came during his senior year at high school in 1969.[citation needed] Hired by the IBM New York Scientific Center, Stallman used the summer after his high-school graduation writing his first program, a preprocessor for the PL/I programming language on the IBM 360. "I first wrote it in PL/I, then started over in assembly language when the PL/I program was too big to fit in the computer" he later said.[citation needed]

During this time, Stallman was also a volunteer Laboratory Assistant in the biology department at Rockefeller University. Although he was already moving toward a career in mathematics or physics, his teaching professor at Rockefeller thought he would have a future as a biologist.[2]

In June 1971, as a first year student at Harvard University, Stallman became a programmer at the AI Laboratory of MIT. There he became a regular in the hacker community, where he was usually known by his initials, "RMS" (which was the name of his computer accounts). In the first edition of the Hacker's Dictionary, he wrote, "'Richard Stallman' is just my mundane name; you can call me 'rms'."[3] Stallman graduated from Harvard magna cum laude earning a BA in Physics in 1974. He then enrolled at MIT as a graduate student, but abandoned his pursuit of graduate degrees while remaining a programmer at the MIT AI Laboratory. In 1977, Stallman published an AI truth maintenance system called dependency-directed backtracking. The paper[4] was co-authored by Gerald Jay Sussman. He jokes that "This is how the computer can avoid exploding when you ask it a self-contradictory question."[citation needed]

As a hacker in MIT's AI laboratory, Stallman worked on software projects like TECO, Emacs, and the Lisp Machine Operating System. He would become an ardent critic of restricted computer access in the lab. When MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS) installed a password control system in 1977, Stallman cracked the password system to reset passwords to null strings and sent users messages informing them of the removal of the password system. Although Stallman boasted of the success of his campaign for many years afterward,[5] passwords ultimately triumphed.

Decline of MIT's hacker culture

In the 1980s, the hacker culture that Stallman thrived in began to fragment. To prevent software from being used on their competitors' computers, most manufacturers stopped distributing source code and began using copyright and restrictive software licenses to limit or prohibit copying and redistribution. Such proprietary software had existed before, and it became apparent that it would become the norm.

When Brian Reid in 1979 placed "time bombs" in Scribe to restrict unlicensed access to the software, Stallman proclaimed that "the prospect of charging money for software was a crime against humanity."[6]

In 1980, Stallman and some other hackers at the AI lab were not given the source code of the software for the Xerox 9700 laser printer (code-named Dover), the industry's first. The hackers had modified the software on the other printers, so it electronically messaged a user when his job was printed, and would message all logged-in users when a printer was jammed. Not being able to add this feature to the Dover printer was a major inconvenience, as the printer was on a different floor from all the users.[7] This one experience convinced Stallman of the ethical need to require free software.[citation needed] At that time, it became clear that he wanted people to discard proprietary software.[citation needed]

In 1980, Richard Greenblatt, a fellow AI lab hacker, founded Lisp Machines, Inc. (LMI) to market Lisp machines, which he and Tom Knight designed at the lab. Greenblatt rejected outside investment, believing that the proceeds from the construction and sale of a few machines could be profitably reinvested in the growth of the company. In contrast, the other hackers felt that the venture capital-funded approach was better. As no agreement could be reached, they founded Symbolics, with the aid of Russ Noftsker, an AI Lab administrator. Symbolics recruited most of the remaining hackers including notable hacker Bill Gosper, who then left the AI lab. Symbolics forced Greenblatt to also resign by citing MIT policies. While both companies delivered proprietary software, Stallman believed that LMI, unlike Symbolics, had tried to avoid hurting the lab. For two years, from 1982 to the end of 1983, Stallman singlehandedly duplicated the efforts of the Symbolics programmers, in order to prevent them from gaining a monopoly on the lab's computers.[8]

However, he was the last of his generation of hackers at the lab. He rejected a future where he would have to sign non-disclosure agreements where he would have to agree not to share source code or technical information with other software developers, and perform other actions he considered betrayals of his principles. He chose instead to share his work with others in what he regarded as a classical spirit of collaboration. While Stallman did not participate in the counterculture of the 60s, he was inspired by its rejection of the pursuit of wealth as the primary goal of living.

Stallman argues that software users should have the freedom to "share with their neighbor" and to be able to study and make changes to the software that they use. He has repeatedly said that attempts by proprietary software vendors to prohibit these acts are "antisocial" and "unethical"[9]. The phrase "software wants to be free" is often incorrectly attributed to him, and Stallman argues that this is a misstatement of his philosophy[10]. He argues that freedom is vital for the sake of users and society as a moral value, and not merely for pragmatic reasons e.g., because it may lead to improved software. In January 1984, he quit his job at MIT to work full time on the GNU project, which he had announced in September 1983. He did not complete a Ph.D. but has been awarded six honorary degrees (see list below).

GNU Project

Stallman announced the plan for the GNU operating system in September 1983 on several ARPAnet mailing lists and USENET.[11]

In 1985, Stallman published the GNU Manifesto, which outlined his motivation for creating a free operating system called GNU, which would be compatible with Unix. The name GNU is a recursive acronym for GNU's Not Unix. Soon after, he started a non-profit corporation called the Free Software Foundation (FSF) to employ free software programmers and provide a legal infrastructure for the free software movement. The FSF is incorporated in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and is tax-exempt under 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, which allows donors who file US Federal Income Tax returns to get a deduction on their taxes for their donations. Stallman is the unsalaried president of the Free Software Foundation.

In 1985, Stallman invented and popularized the concept of copyleft, a legal mechanism to protect the modification and redistribution rights for free software. It was first implemented in the GNU Emacs General Public License, and in 1989 the first program-independent GNU General Public License (GPL) was released. By then, much of the GNU system had been completed. Stallman was responsible for contributing many necessary tools, including a text editor, compiler, debugger, and a build automator. The notable exception was a kernel. In 1990, members of the GNU project began a kernel called GNU Hurd, which has yet to achieve widespread usage.

By producing software tools needed to write software, and publishing a generalized license (the GPL) that could be applied to any software project, Stallman helped make it easier for others to write free software independent of the GNU project. In 1991, one such independent project produced the Linux kernel. This could be combined with the GNU system to make a complete operating system. Most people use the name Linux to refer to both the combinations of the Linux kernel itself plus the GNU system, which Stallman claims unfairly disparages the value of the GNU project, as discussed below in GNU/Linux.

Stallman's influences on hacker culture include the name POSIX[12] and the Emacs editor. On UNIX systems, GNU Emacs's popularity rivaled that of another editor vi, spawning an editor war. Stallman's humorous take on this was to jokingly canonize himself as "St. Ignucius" / "St. IGNUcius" of the Church of Emacs.[13][14]


A number of developers view Stallman as being difficult to work with from a political, interpersonal, or technical standpoint. Around 1992, developers at Lucid Inc. doing their own work on Emacs clashed with Stallman and ultimately forked the software, creating what's now known as XEmacs. An email archive published by Jamie Zawinski documents their criticisms and Stallman's response.[15] Ulrich Drepper published complaints against Stallman in the release notes for glibc 2.2.4[16], where he accuses RMS of attempting a "hostile takeover" of the project, referring to him as a "control freak and raging manic." Eric S. Raymond, who sometimes speaks for parts of the open source movement, has written many pieces laying out that movement's disagreement with Stallman and the free software movement, often in terms sharply critical of Stallman.[17]

Activism

Richard Stallman giving a speech about "Copyright and Community" at Wikimania (2005)
Richard Stallman giving a speech about "Copyright and Community" at Wikimania (2005)

Stallman has written many essays on software freedom and is a voice of action in the free software movement. Since the early 1990s, Stallman has spent most of his time as a political campaigner and his speeches reflect this. He most often speaks on these three topics:

  • "The GNU project and the Free Software movement"
  • "The Dangers of Software Patents"[18]
  • "Copyright and Community in the age of computer networks"[citation needed]

In 2006, during the year-long public consultation for the drafting of version 3 of the GNU General Public License, he's added a fourth topic explaining the proposed changes.[19]

Stallman's staunch advocacy for free software inspired "Virtual Richard M. Stallman" (vrms), software that analyzes the packages currently installed on a Debian GNU/Linux system, and report those that are from the non-free tree.[20] Stallman would disagree with parts of Debian's definition of free software.[21] Instead, Stallman endorses 6 distributions of GNU/Linux for people to use, including Ututo, BLAG Linux and GNU, Dynebolic, GNUstep, Musix, and Agnula.[22][23]

In 1999, Stallman called for development of a free on-line encyclopedia through the means of inviting the public to contribute articles. See GNUPedia.[24]

In Venezuela, Stallman has delivered public speeches and promoted the adoption of free software in the state's oil company (PDVSA), in municipal government, and in the nation's military. In 2004, Stallman attended a speech by Venezuela's President, Hugo Chavez, at a conference of Artists and Intellectuals in Defense of Humanity. In an encounter with Chavez, Stallman questioned recent laws passed over television broadcasting that challenged free speech rights.[25] Stallman is on the Advisory Council of teleSUR, a Latin American television station.[26]

In August 2006 at his meetings with the government of the Indian State of Kerala, he persuaded officials to discard proprietary software, such as Microsoft's, at state-run schools. This has resulted in a landmark decision to switch all school computers in 12,500 high schools from Windows to a free software operating system.[citation needed]

After personal meetings, Stallman has obtained positive statements about free software movement from the President of India Abdul Kalam[3], French 2007 top presidential candidate Ségolène Royal[4], the president of Ecuador Rafael Correa[5].

Personal life

By all accounts, including his own,[27] Stallman has devoted the bulk of his life’s energies to political and software activism. Professing to care little for material wealth, he explains that he has “always lived cheaply… like a student, basically. And I like that, because it means that money is not telling me what to do.”[28]

Stallman maintains no permanent residence outside his office at MIT’s CSAIL Lab,[29] describing himself as a “squatter” on campus.[30] He owns neither an automobile,[citation needed] common in pedestrian-friendly Cambridge, nor a cell phone, having stated his refusal to own a device with proprietary software.[29] Because his “research affiliate” position at MIT is unpaid,[31] he supports himself financially with speaker fees and prize money from awards he has won.[citation needed]

His accomplishments notwithstanding, Stallman has frequently been the target of criticism and ridicule for his eccentric behavior and supposedly inadequate personal hygiene. Even within the free software community, it is acknowledged that certain of Stallman’s habits, such as picking the knots from his hair and tossing them in the soup he is eating,[32] might seem “crazy” to outsiders.[33] Some worry that these “unusual behaviors”[29] might impair the adoption of free and open source software. In one Forbes magazine article, columnist Daniel Lyons expressed concern that Stallman’s peculiarities would harm GNU/Linux’s reputation by association.

When asked about his influences, he has replied that he admires Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Nelson Mandela, Aung San Suu Kyi, Ralph Nader, and Dennis Kucinich. He has also commented: “I admire Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, even though I criticize some of the things that they did.”[34]

In a footnote in a contributed chapter (on GNU, Free software foundation and EMACS) in the book, "Open Sources : Voices from the Open Source Revolution" he states that, “As an atheist, I don't follow any religious leaders, but I sometimes find I admire something one of them has said.” [35] Stallman’s personal website includes a personal ad where he describes himself as a “reputedly intelligent” atheist.[27] He has had “sweethearts” before, according to interviews, but stated in March 2006 that he was not then in a relationship.[36]

Hobbies and interests

As a young adult, Stallman counted folk dance among his passions,[37] and though he has since given it up due to knee injury,[38] he still performs small dance steps as a matter of spontaneous habit.[39] He enjoys a wide range of musical styles from Conlon Nancarrow to folk;[citation needed] he has performed Renaissance and Balinese gamelan music on the recorder.[citation needed][40] His best-known original composition, the Free Software Song, has attracted praise from his admirers as well as derision from those who consider it emblematic of his inflexible, tone-deaf personality.[41]

Stallman is a science fiction fan. He occasionally goes to science fiction conventions[42] and has written a few science fiction stories, notably "The Right to Read". A native English speaker, Stallman is also sufficiently fluent in French and Spanish to deliver his two hour speeches in those languages, and claims a “somewhat flawed” command of Indonesian.[43]

Terminology

Stallman places great importance on the words, labels, and groupings of topics people use to talk about the world, including the relationship between software and freedom. In particular, he untiringly asks people to say "free software", "GNU/Linux", and to avoid the term "intellectual property." His requests that people use certain terms, and his ongoing efforts to convince people of the importance of terminology, are a source of regular mis-understanding and friction with parts of the free and open source software community.

One of his criteria for giving an interview to a journalist is that the journalist agree to use his terminology throughout their article.[44] Sometimes he has even required journalists to read parts of the GNU philosophy before an interview, for "efficiency's sake".[45] He has been known to turn down speaking requests over some terminology issues.[46]

Free software

Main articles: Gratis versus Libre and Alternative terms for free software

Stallman accepts terms such as "software libre", FLOSS, and "unfettered software", but prefers the term "free software" since a lot of energy has been invested in that term.[47] For similar reasons, he argues for the term "proprietary software" rather than "closed source software", when referring to software that is not free software.

In the English language, the term "free software", however, can mean either "unrestricted software" or "zero-cost software" or both. Over the years, people have tried to come up with a more intuitive and less ambiguous term. Stallman strongly objects to the term "open source" to replace the term "free" since he says it hides the goal of freedom.[48] He declines interviews for stories that would label his work as "open source", claiming that they would misrepresent his views.

GNU/Linux

FSF artwork of the gnu (GNU mascot) and the penguin Tux (Linux kernel mascot) representing their viewpoint on "GNU/Linux"
FSF artwork of the gnu (GNU mascot) and the penguin Tux (Linux kernel mascot) representing their viewpoint on "GNU/Linux"
Main article: GNU/Linux naming controversy

While often closely associated with GNU/Linux, Stallman's relationship with it is occasionally controversial. Most notably he has insisted that the term "GNU/Linux", which he pronounces "GNU Slash Linux", be used to refer to the operating system created by combining the GNU system and the Linux kernel. Stallman refers to this operating system as "a variant of GNU, and the GNU Project is its principal developer."[49] He claims that the connection between the GNU project's philosophy and its software is broken when people refer to the combination as merely "Linux."[50] Starting around 2003, he began also using the term "GNU+Linux", which he pronounces "GNU plus Linux". This insistence has come under intense and heated criticism.

Copyright, patents, and trademarks

Stallman argues that the term "Intellectual Property" is designed to confuse people, and is used to prevent intelligent discussion on the specifics of copyright, patent, and trademark laws, respectively, by lumping together areas of law that are more dissimilar than similar. He also argues that by referring to these laws as "property" laws, the term biases the discussion when thinking about how to treat these issues.

"These laws originated separately, evolved differently, cover different activities, have different rules, and raise different public policy issues. Copyright law was designed to promote authorship and art, and covers the details of a work of authorship or art. Patent law was intended to encourage publication of ideas, at the price of finite monopolies over these ideas--a price that may be worth paying in some fields and not in others. Trademark law was not intended to promote any business activity, but simply to enable buyers to know what they are buying."[51]

Other terminology issues

Stallman recommends avoiding certain terms he considers misleading, and advocates using other terms instead.

An example of Stallman cautioning others to avoid common but misleading (or loaded) terminology, while also offering suggestions for possible alternatives, is this paragraph of an email by Stallman to a public mailing list:

"I think it is ok for authors (please let's not call them "creators", they are not gods) to ask for money for copies of their works (please let's not devalue these works by calling them "content") in order to gain income (the term "compensation" falsely implies it is a matter of making up for some kind of damages)." [52]

See the "Words to avoid" essay on the GNU website. Here are a few examples:

  • "Software idea patents" rather than the more common "software patents", arguing that the latter gives the wrong impression that the patent covers an entire piece of software.
  • "(UFO) Uniform Fee Only" as a replacement for "(RAND) Reasonable and Non Discriminatory Licensing" arguing that a mandatory royalty of any amount discriminates against free software because distributors of free software cannot count the number of copies in existence. This concern is shared by much of the free software and open source communities[53], but Stallman's term is not widely used.
  • Avoiding "piracy" for the act of copying information, arguing that "piracy" has always designated the act of robbery or plunder at sea, and that the term is misused by corporations to lend a greater importance to the act of copying software or other intangible things.
  • "Corrupt discs" or "Fake CDs" to describe digital audio compact discs which employ Copy Control or other similar technology to prevent copying, arguing that they break the Red Book standard and noting that recently such discs are printed without the Compact Disc logo.
  • "Treacherous Computing" rather than "Trusted Computing", which limits the freedoms of users by denying them the ability to control their computers.
  • Stallman refers to "Digital Rights Management" (DRM) as "Digital Restrictions Management", because DRM is designed to limit what the user can do, not grant the user more rights. He also suggests calling it "handcuffware", a term which has not caught on. On this note, the Free Software Foundation has started the "Defective by Design" campaign to spread the word of inform the world about these issues.

Recognition

Stallman has received much recognition for his work, including:

Awards

  • 1990: MacArthur Fellowship
  • 1991: The Association for Computing Machinery's Grace Murray Hopper Award "For pioneering work in the development of the extensible editor EMACS (Editing Macros)."[54]
  • 1998: Electronic Frontier Foundation's Pioneer award
  • 1999: Yuri Rubinsky Memorial Award
  • 2001: The Takeda Techno-Entrepreneurship Award for Social/Economic Well-Being (武田研究奨励賞)

Honors

  • 1996: Honorary doctorate from Sweden's Royal Institute of Technology
  • 2001: Second honorary doctorate, from the University of Glasgow
  • 2002: United States National Academy of Engineering membership
  • 2003: Third honorary doctorate, from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  • 2004: Fourth honorary doctorate, from the Universidad Nacional de Salta.[55]
  • 2004: Honorary professorship, from the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería del Perú.

Publications

  • Stallman, Richard M. & Sussman, Gerald J. (November 1975). Heuristic Techniques in Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis, published in IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Vol. CAS-22 (11)
  • Stallman, Richard M. & Sussman, Gerald J. (1977). Forward Reasoning and Dependency-Directed Backtracking In a System for Computer-Aided Circuit analysis, published in Artificial Intelligence 9 pp.135-196
  • Stallman, Richard M. (1981). EMACS: The Extensible, Customizable, Self-Documenting Display Editor. Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT. MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory publication AIM-519A. Also available over the web in HTML and PDF formats.
  • Stallman, Richard M. (2002). GNU Emacs Manual: Fifteenth edition for GNU Emacs Version 21. Boston, Massachusetts: GNU Press. ISBN 1-882114-85-X. Also available over the web in different formats.
  • Gay, Joshua (ed) (2002): Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman. Boston, Massachusetts: GNU Press. ISBN 1-882114-98-1. Also available over the web in PDF, Texinfo, and Postscript formats
  • Stallman, Richard; McGrath, Roland; & Smith, Paul D. (2004). GNU Make: A Program for Directed Compilation. Boston, Massachusetts: GNU Press. ISBN 1-882114-83-3. Also available over the web in different formats.

Notes and References

  1. ^ Poynder, Richard (2006-03-21). Interview with Richard Stallman. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.“RS: … I am an atheist but of Jewish ancestry.”
  2. ^ Williams, Sampoydne (2002). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Chapter 3. Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition (accessed on 27 October 2006) and the updated FAIFzilla edition (accessed on 27 October 2006)
  3. ^ Stallman's 1983 personal biography, accessed on 18 February 2005
  4. ^ Stallman, Richard M. & Sussman, Gerald J. (1977). Forward Reasoning and Dependency-Directed Backtracking In a System for Computer-Aided Circuit analysis, published in Artificial Intelligence 9 pp.135-196
  5. ^ Levy,S: Hackers, page 417. Penguin USA, 1984
  6. ^ Williams, Sam (2002). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Chapter 6. Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition (accessed on 27 October 2006) and the updated FAIFzilla edition (accessed on 27 October 2006)
  7. ^ Williams, Sam (2002). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Chapter 1. Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition (accessed on 27 October 2006) and the updated FAIFzilla edition (accessed on 27 October 2006)
  8. ^ Levy,S: Hackers. Penguin USA, 1984
  9. ^ Various (1999). Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 1-56592-582-3.. Stallman chapter available online, accessed on 18 February 2005
  10. ^ The Daemon, the GNU and the Penguin by Peter H. Salus, accessed on 18 February 2005.
  11. ^ new UNIX implementation
  12. ^ POSIX® 1003.1 FAQ Version 1.12 (2006-02-02). Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  13. ^ Richard Stallman: GNU/Linux and a free society article by Takver Sunday October 10, 2004 at 08:06 AM on Melbourne Indymedia web site.
  14. ^ St IGNUcius web page at www.stallman.org
  15. ^ The Lemacs/FSFmacs Schism. Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  16. ^ Drepper, Ulrich (2001-08-15). glibc 2.2.4 release notes. libc-announce@sources.redhat.com mailing list. Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  17. ^ Freedom, Power, or Confusion?. Linux Today (2001-08-17). Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  18. ^ http://www.ifso.ie/documents/rms-2004-05-24.html
  19. ^ http://www.fsfeurope.org/projects/gplv3/#transcripts
  20. ^ http://vrms.alioth.debian.org/
  21. ^ http://lists.gag.com/pipermail/debian-vrms/2006-April/000095.html
  22. ^ Byfield, Bruce. "Review: Ututo-e, the "only free distribution"", NewsForge, 2005-04-28. Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  23. ^ Free GNU/Linux distributions. Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  24. ^ Richard Stallman. The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Learning Resource. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  25. ^ Stallman, Richard. "Encounter with President Chavez (2004-12-01 to 2004-12-06)". Richard Stallman Travel and Free Software Activities Journal.[1]
  26. ^ Chavez TV beams into South America
  27. ^ a b Stallman, Richard. My Personal Ad. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. “My 23-year-old child, the Free Software Movement, occupies most of my life, leaving no room for more children, but I still have room to love a sweetheart.”
  28. ^ Stallman, Richard (2001-05-29). Transcript of Richard M. Stallman’s speech…. Free Software Foundation. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  29. ^ a b c Jones, K.C.. A Rare Glimpse into Richard Stallman’s World. InformationWeek.
  30. ^ Lerner, Reuven M. (1990-07-18). Stallman wins $240,000 in MacArthur award. The Tech. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  31. ^ Stallman shares Takeda award of nearly $1M. MIT (2001-10-17). Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  32. ^ Williams, Sam (2002-03-15). “Continuing the Fight”, Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software. O’Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. Eben Moglen: “And, of course, Richard is plucking the knots from his hair and dropping them in the soup and behaving in his usual way.”
  33. ^ Williams, “Continuing the Fight.” “Anybody listening in on our conversation would have thought we were crazy…”
  34. ^ FSF India: A Q & A session with Richard M. Stallman. Free Software Foundation of India. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  35. ^ Various (1999). Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 1-56592-582-3.. Stallman chapter available online, accessed on 9 December 2006
  36. ^ Poynder, Richard (2006-03-21). Interview with Richard Stallman. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. “RS: … Last time I felt I had a home was when I had a sweetheart. Her house felt like home. That was a year and a half ago—somewhat more perhaps. … It would be nice if some day I had a sweetheart again [Stallman's voice breaks a little]. But I couldn't exactly say I am looking for one now.”
  37. ^ Williams, Sam (2002-03-15). “Impeach God”, Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software. O’Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. “During the middle of his sophomore year at Harvard, Stallman had joined up with a dance troupe that specialized in folk dances. What began as a simple attempt to meet women and expand his social horizons soon expanded into yet another passion alongside hacking.”
  38. ^ Williams, Sam (2002-03-15). “The Emacs Commune”, Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software. O’Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. “Near the end of that first year at MIT, however, disaster struck. A knee injury forced Stallman to drop out of the troupe.”
  39. ^ Poynder. “… he gets up from the sofa and spends the rest of the interview on his feet, … now and then throwing out his feet in small dance kicks. (In his younger days, Stallman was a folk dancing aficionado.)”
  40. ^ Singapore-music.jpg. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  41. ^ Zawinski, Jamie W. (2003-08-22). why cooperation with RMS is impossible, part 3. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  42. ^ Williams, Sam (2002-03-15). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software. O’Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  43. ^ WGIG nominees - Richard Stallman. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  44. ^ Leader of the Free World, Wired Magazine, Issue 11.11, November 2003.
  45. ^ Interview with Josh Mehlman, Australian Personal Computer, accessed on 18 February 2005
  46. ^ Linux, GNU, Freedom by Richard M. Stallman, accessed on 18 February 2005
  47. ^ Why Software Should Be Free. April 24, 1992.
  48. ^ Why "Free Software" is better than "Open Source", accessed on 18 February 2005
  49. ^ Linux, GNU, and freedom by Richard M. Stallman
  50. ^ What's in a name? by Richard Stallman, accessed on 18 February 2005
  51. ^ Did You Say "Intellectual Property"? It's a Seductive Mirage by Richard M. Stallman, accessed on 18 February 2005
  52. ^ email on Top Policy Issues for Athens
  53. ^ A Call to Action in OASIS, accessed on 18 February 2005
  54. ^ Award Citation
  55. ^ RESOLUCIÓN CS N° 204/04.

See also

 
  • Emacs Lisp
  • GNU Free Documentation License
  • GNU Lesser Public License
  • Hacker ethic
  • History of Wikipedia
  • Lisp Machine Lisp
  • Software hoarding
  • Texinfo
  • Text Editor and Corrector (TECO)

External links

  • stallman.org, Richard Stallman's personal homepage.
  • Stallman's weblog of his travels
  • Essays on the GNU philosophy pages, mostly by Stallman, on the free software movement.
  • The original GNU announcement

Stallman's speeches

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Richard Stallman

Stallman has four topics that he has spoken frequently on:

  1. The GNU project and the free software movement
  2. The Dangers of Software Patents
  3. Copyright vs. Community in the Age of Computer Networks
  4. The GNU GPL, and GPLv3
  • Wikiquote's complete list of speeches and Interviews by Richard Stallman
  • Works by Richard Stallman at Project Gutenberg


 

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Stallman"