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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic Free License
  2. Adaptive Public License
  3. Advogato
  4. Affero General Public License
  5. Africa Source
  6. AKademy
  7. Alternative terms for free software
  8. Anti-copyright notice
  9. Apache License
  10. Apache Software Foundation
  11. APESOL
  12. Apple Public Source License
  13. Artistic License
  14. Association For Free Software
  15. August Penguin
  16. Benetech
  17. Benevolent Dictator for Life
  18. BerliOS
  19. Binary blob
  20. BK02
  21. Blender Foundation
  22. Bruce Perens' Open Source Series
  23. BSD licenses
  24. CeCILL
  25. CE Linux Forum
  26. Clarkson Open Source Institute
  27. Code Breakers
  28. CodePlex
  29. Collaborative software development model
  30. Collaborative Source license
  31. Common Development and Distribution License
  32. Common Public License
  33. Comparison of free software hosting facilities
  34. CONSOL
  35. Copycenter
  36. Copyleft
  37. Creative Commons licenses
  38. Debconf
  39. Debian Free Software Guidelines
  40. Debian Manifesto
  41. Desktop Developers' Conference
  42. Eclipse Foundation
  43. Eclipse Public License
  44. Enterprise open source journal
  45. European Union Public Licence
  46. Everybody Loves Eric Raymond
  47. Forum Internacional Software Livre
  48. Fedora Project
  49. FOSDEM
  50. FOSS.IN
  51. Fossap
  52. Frameworx License
  53. Free content
  54. Free Culture movement
  55. Freedesktop.org
  56. Freely redistributable software
  57. Freepository
  58. Free software
  59. Free Software Award for Projects of Social Benefit
  60. Free software community
  61. Free Software Directory
  62. Free Software Foundation
  63. Free Software Foundation Europe
  64. Free Software Foundation Latin America
  65. Free Software Foundation of India
  66. Free Software Initiative of Japan
  67. Free software license
  68. Free Software Magazine
  69. Free software movement
  70. Free Software Song
  71. Free Standards Group
  72. FSF Award for the Advancement of Free Software
  73. GCC Summit
  74. Gna.org
  75. GNAT Modified General Public License
  76. Gnits Standards
  77. GnomeFiles
  78. GNOME Foundation
  79. GNU Coding Standards
  80. GNU Free Documentation License
  81. GNU General Public License
  82. GNU Lesser General Public License
  83. GNU Manifesto
  84. GNU Savannah
  85. GNU Simpler Free Documentation License
  86. Google Code
  87. Google Summer of Code
  88. Go Open Source
  89. GRASS GIS
  90. Gratis versus Libre
  91. Groklaw
  92. GUADEC
  93. Halloween documents
  94. Hamakor
  95. Historical Permission Notice and Disclaimer
  96. Homesteading the Noosphere
  97. Hurd User Group
  98. IBM Public License
  99. IBM Type-III Library
  100. Intel Open Source License
  101. International Open Source Network
  102. Irish Free Software Organisation
  103. ISC licence
  104. Jargon File
  105. Jimbo Wales
  106. KDE Dot News
  107. KernelTrap
  108. LAMP
  109. LaTeX Project Public License
  110. League for Programming Freedom
  111. Leonard H. Tower Jr.
  112. libpng
  113. Libre Software Meeting
  114. Linus's Law
  115. Linus Torvalds
  116. Linux.conf.au
  117. Linux conference
  118. Linux Expo
  119. Linux Gazette
  120. Linux International
  121. Linux Journal
  122. Linux Kongress
  123. Linux naming controversy
  124. LinuxQuestions.org
  125. LinuxTag
  126. Linux User Group
  127. LinuxWorld Conference and Expo
  128. List of software that uses the MIT License
  129. LiveJournal
  130. Lucent Public License
  131. LXer
  132. MIT License
  133. MozBin
  134. Mozdev.org
  135. Mozilla Add-ons
  136. Mozilla Foundation
  137. Mozilla Public License
  138. MozillaZine
  139. MyOSS
  140. NetHack General Public License
  141. Netscape Public License
  142. NewsForge
  143. New Zealand Open Source Society
  144. NonProfit Open Source Initiative
  145. Non-proprietary software
  146. Nupedia Open Content License
  147. ObjectWeb
  148. Ohio LinuxFest
  149. Ohloh
  150. O3 Magazine
  151. Open Audio License
  152. OpenCola
  153. Open content
  154. Open design
  155. OpenDocument Format Alliance
  156. OpenLP
  157. Open outsourcing
  158. Open Security Foundation
  159. Open Software License
  160. Open-source advocacy
  161. Open Source Applications Foundation
  162. Open-source culture
  163. Open Source Definition
  164. Open Source Developers' Conference
  165. Open-source evangelist
  166. Open source funding
  167. Open Source Geospatial Foundation
  168. Open Source Initiative
  169. Open source movement
  170. Open source movie
  171. Open-source software
  172. Open source software development
  173. Open source software development method
  174. Open Source Software Institute
  175. Open source teaching
  176. Open source vs. closed source
  177. Open-sourcing
  178. O'Reilly Open Source Convention
  179. Organisation for Free Software in Education and Teaching
  180. OSDL
  181. Ottawa Linux Symposium
  182. Patent Commons
  183. PHP License
  184. Pionia
  185. Pionia Organization
  186. Proprietary software
  187. Protecting the Virtual Commons
  188. Public Documentation License
  189. Public-domain equivalent license
  190. Python License
  191. Python Software Foundation License
  192. Q Public License
  193. RealNetworks Public Source License
  194. Reciprocal Public License
  195. Red Hat
  196. Revolution OS
  197. Richard Stallman
  198. RubyForge
  199. Sarovar
  200. Savane
  201. SIL Open Font License
  202. Simputer General Public License
  203. SIPfoundry
  204. Slashdot
  205. Sleepycat License
  206. Software Freedom Day
  207. Software Freedom Law Center
  208. Software in the Public Interest
  209. SourceForge
  210. Spread Firefox
  211. Sun Industry Standards Source License
  212. Sun Public License
  213. Sybase Open Watcom Public License
  214. Tanenbaum-Torvalds debate
  215. Tectonic Magazine
  216. The Cathedral and the Bazaar
  217. The Freedom Toaster
  218. The Free Software Definition
  219. The Perl Foundation
  220. The Right to Read
  221. The Summit Open Source Development Group
  222. Tigris.org
  223. Tivoization
  224. Tux
  225. Tux Magazine
  226. Ubuntu Foundation
  227. Use of Free and Open Source Software in the U.S. Department of Defense
  228. Vores Ol
  229. W3C Software Notice and License
  230. Webgpl
  231. What the Hack
  232. Wizards of OS
  233. WTFPL
  234. X.Org Foundation
  235. Xiph.Org Foundation
  236. Yet Another Perl Conference
  237. Yogurt

 

 
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FREE SOFTWARE CULTURE
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_software_license

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Free software license

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Free software is software which grants recipients the freedom to modify and redistribute the software. This would normally be prohibited by copyright law, so with free software, the copyright holder must give recipients the explicit permission to do these things. This grant of rights is called a license, and if the above noted freedoms are included in the grant, the license is a free software license.

Put another way, a free software license is a license which grants permissions to the recipient to remove any ownership issues which would otherwise prevent the software from being free software.

FSF-approved free software licenses

Free Software Foundation, the group that maintains The Free Software Definition, maintains a list of free software licenses.[1] The list distinguishes between free software licenses that are compatible or incompatible with the FSF license of choice, the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license. The list also contains licenses which the FSF considers non-free for various reasons. Note that the open source license list differs slightly, but in almost all cases the definitions apply to the same licenses.

Freedom preserving restrictions

To preserve the freedoms to use, study, modify, and redistribute the software, most free software licences include restrictions and requirements which apply to distributors. There is constant debate within the free software community about where to draw the line between restrictions that preserve freedom and restrictions that reduce freedom.

Copyleft

Main article: copyleft

Since the mid 80s, free software licences written by Richard Stallman pioneered a concept known as copyleft. Copyleft provisions say that modified versions of the software must be distributed under the same terms under which the unmodified software was received. Thus, additions and improvements to copylefted free software must also be distributed as free software. This is sometimes referred to as "share and share alike", or "quid pro quo".

Patent retaliation

Most newly written free software licences from the late 90s onward include some form of patent retaliation. This means that a persons' rights under the licence (such as to redistribute) are terminated under certain conditions. For example, the Apple Public Source Licence terminates the users' rights if the user sues Apple for patent litigation.

DRM and Tivoisation

For more details on this topic, see Tivoisation.

As of late 2006, no free software licenses contain explicit wordings to prohibit additional restrictions being enforced by Digital Restrictions Management (DRM). Current discussion drafts of version 3 of the GNU General Public License include wordings to prevent "Tivoization".

Attribution, disclaimers, notices

Most free software licenses require that when a modified version of the software is distributed, it does not claim to be an unmodified version. Some licences also require that the copyright holders be credited.

An example is that version 2 of the GNU GPL requires that if an interactive program prints warranty or license information, modified versions cannot be distributed if they remove those notices.

Unacceptable restrictions

While protecting the four freedoms allows adding certain restrictions, restrictions on private use of the software ("use restrictions") are generally unacceptable. Examples include prohibiting the software to be used for military purposes, for comparison or benchmarking, or in commercial organisations.

BSD philosophy

For more details on this topic, see BSD and GPL licensing.

Many users and developers of BSD-based operating systems have a different position on licensing. The main difference is the belief that the copyleft licenses, particularly the GNU General Public License (GPL), are too complicated and have restrictions which are undesirable. The GPL requires derivative work to be released according to the GPL while the BSD licence does not. Essentially, the BSD license's only requirement is to acknowledge the original authors, and poses no restrictions on how the source code may be used. As a result, BSD code can find its way into proprietary software that only acknowledge the source. For instance, the IP stack in Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X are derived from BSD-licensed software.

GPL supporters claim that mandating derivative works remain free fosters the growth of free software and requires equal participation by all users. Developers who use GPL code have to share their improvements with the community, supporting the growth of the software they received.

Supporters of the BSD license argue that it is more free than the GPL because it grants the right to do anything with the source code, second only to software in the public domain. The nature of BSD has encouraged the inclusion of well-developed standard code into proprietary software. In response, GPL supporters claim that this is more a form of power than a freedom.[3] The right to make closed-source code is therefore not included in the Free Software Foundation's "four freedoms of free software"; using, studying, copying, and distributing modifications of the code.

Code licensed under the BSD license can be relicensed under the GPL (is "GPL-compatible") without securing the consent of all original authors. Code under the GPL cannot be relicensed under the BSD license without securing the consent of all copyright holders, as the BSD license is not copyleft and therefore GPL is "BSD-incompatible". Existing free software BSDs tend to avoid including software licensed under the GPL in the core operating system, or the base system, except as a last resort when alternatives are non-existent or vastly less capable, such as with GCC. The OpenBSD project has acted to remove GPL-licensed tools in favour of BSD-licensed alternatives, some newly written and some adapted from older code.

Debian

The Debian project uses the criteria laid out in its Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG). The only notable cases where Debian and Free Software Foundation disagree are over the Artistic License and the GNU Free Documentation License. Debian accept the original Artistic License as being a free software license, but FSF disagree. This has very little impact however since the Artistic License is almost always used in a dual-license setup, along with the GNU General Public License.

Regarding the GNU Free Documentation License, Debian argues that the DFSG applies to documentation as it does on software, and so documentation licenses must be examined against these free software guidelines. FSF say that documentation is qualitatively different from software and is subject to different requirements. The end result of a long discussion and the eventual vote in Debian[4] is that the works licensed under the GFDL are considered free as long as they do not contain unmodifiable sections (Invariant Sections).

See also

 
  • Copyleft
  • DFSG
  • Free software
  • Free software movement
  • Public-domain equivalent license

External links

  • The Free Software Definition (Free Software Foundation).
  • The Free Software Foundation's list of free and unfree licenses
  • Debian's license information page
  • Open Source Initiative's list of licences
  • OpenBSD's "goals" page describes its view of free software
  • Transcripts of licence strategy discussions by Stallman and Moglen during the drafting of GPLv3

Online, freely-licensed books and reports

  • Understanding Open Source and Free Software Licensing, by Andrew M. St. Laurent
  • The Rise of Open Source Licensing, by Mikko Välimäki
  • International Open Source Network Free/Open Source Software Licensing - Available as a Wikibook
  • Forfás Report on free software business models and licensing (58 pages)

Non-free, printed publications

  • Die GPL kommentiert und erklärt, by ifrOSS
  • Open Source Licensing: Software Freedom and Intellectual Property Law, by Larry Rosen
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_software_license"