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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
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ART
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BUSINESS&LAW
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COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
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LIFESTYLE
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TRADITIONS
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NATURE
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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic Free License
  2. Adaptive Public License
  3. Advogato
  4. Affero General Public License
  5. Africa Source
  6. AKademy
  7. Alternative terms for free software
  8. Anti-copyright notice
  9. Apache License
  10. Apache Software Foundation
  11. APESOL
  12. Apple Public Source License
  13. Artistic License
  14. Association For Free Software
  15. August Penguin
  16. Benetech
  17. Benevolent Dictator for Life
  18. BerliOS
  19. Binary blob
  20. BK02
  21. Blender Foundation
  22. Bruce Perens' Open Source Series
  23. BSD licenses
  24. CeCILL
  25. CE Linux Forum
  26. Clarkson Open Source Institute
  27. Code Breakers
  28. CodePlex
  29. Collaborative software development model
  30. Collaborative Source license
  31. Common Development and Distribution License
  32. Common Public License
  33. Comparison of free software hosting facilities
  34. CONSOL
  35. Copycenter
  36. Copyleft
  37. Creative Commons licenses
  38. Debconf
  39. Debian Free Software Guidelines
  40. Debian Manifesto
  41. Desktop Developers' Conference
  42. Eclipse Foundation
  43. Eclipse Public License
  44. Enterprise open source journal
  45. European Union Public Licence
  46. Everybody Loves Eric Raymond
  47. Forum Internacional Software Livre
  48. Fedora Project
  49. FOSDEM
  50. FOSS.IN
  51. Fossap
  52. Frameworx License
  53. Free content
  54. Free Culture movement
  55. Freedesktop.org
  56. Freely redistributable software
  57. Freepository
  58. Free software
  59. Free Software Award for Projects of Social Benefit
  60. Free software community
  61. Free Software Directory
  62. Free Software Foundation
  63. Free Software Foundation Europe
  64. Free Software Foundation Latin America
  65. Free Software Foundation of India
  66. Free Software Initiative of Japan
  67. Free software license
  68. Free Software Magazine
  69. Free software movement
  70. Free Software Song
  71. Free Standards Group
  72. FSF Award for the Advancement of Free Software
  73. GCC Summit
  74. Gna.org
  75. GNAT Modified General Public License
  76. Gnits Standards
  77. GnomeFiles
  78. GNOME Foundation
  79. GNU Coding Standards
  80. GNU Free Documentation License
  81. GNU General Public License
  82. GNU Lesser General Public License
  83. GNU Manifesto
  84. GNU Savannah
  85. GNU Simpler Free Documentation License
  86. Google Code
  87. Google Summer of Code
  88. Go Open Source
  89. GRASS GIS
  90. Gratis versus Libre
  91. Groklaw
  92. GUADEC
  93. Halloween documents
  94. Hamakor
  95. Historical Permission Notice and Disclaimer
  96. Homesteading the Noosphere
  97. Hurd User Group
  98. IBM Public License
  99. IBM Type-III Library
  100. Intel Open Source License
  101. International Open Source Network
  102. Irish Free Software Organisation
  103. ISC licence
  104. Jargon File
  105. Jimbo Wales
  106. KDE Dot News
  107. KernelTrap
  108. LAMP
  109. LaTeX Project Public License
  110. League for Programming Freedom
  111. Leonard H. Tower Jr.
  112. libpng
  113. Libre Software Meeting
  114. Linus's Law
  115. Linus Torvalds
  116. Linux.conf.au
  117. Linux conference
  118. Linux Expo
  119. Linux Gazette
  120. Linux International
  121. Linux Journal
  122. Linux Kongress
  123. Linux naming controversy
  124. LinuxQuestions.org
  125. LinuxTag
  126. Linux User Group
  127. LinuxWorld Conference and Expo
  128. List of software that uses the MIT License
  129. LiveJournal
  130. Lucent Public License
  131. LXer
  132. MIT License
  133. MozBin
  134. Mozdev.org
  135. Mozilla Add-ons
  136. Mozilla Foundation
  137. Mozilla Public License
  138. MozillaZine
  139. MyOSS
  140. NetHack General Public License
  141. Netscape Public License
  142. NewsForge
  143. New Zealand Open Source Society
  144. NonProfit Open Source Initiative
  145. Non-proprietary software
  146. Nupedia Open Content License
  147. ObjectWeb
  148. Ohio LinuxFest
  149. Ohloh
  150. O3 Magazine
  151. Open Audio License
  152. OpenCola
  153. Open content
  154. Open design
  155. OpenDocument Format Alliance
  156. OpenLP
  157. Open outsourcing
  158. Open Security Foundation
  159. Open Software License
  160. Open-source advocacy
  161. Open Source Applications Foundation
  162. Open-source culture
  163. Open Source Definition
  164. Open Source Developers' Conference
  165. Open-source evangelist
  166. Open source funding
  167. Open Source Geospatial Foundation
  168. Open Source Initiative
  169. Open source movement
  170. Open source movie
  171. Open-source software
  172. Open source software development
  173. Open source software development method
  174. Open Source Software Institute
  175. Open source teaching
  176. Open source vs. closed source
  177. Open-sourcing
  178. O'Reilly Open Source Convention
  179. Organisation for Free Software in Education and Teaching
  180. OSDL
  181. Ottawa Linux Symposium
  182. Patent Commons
  183. PHP License
  184. Pionia
  185. Pionia Organization
  186. Proprietary software
  187. Protecting the Virtual Commons
  188. Public Documentation License
  189. Public-domain equivalent license
  190. Python License
  191. Python Software Foundation License
  192. Q Public License
  193. RealNetworks Public Source License
  194. Reciprocal Public License
  195. Red Hat
  196. Revolution OS
  197. Richard Stallman
  198. RubyForge
  199. Sarovar
  200. Savane
  201. SIL Open Font License
  202. Simputer General Public License
  203. SIPfoundry
  204. Slashdot
  205. Sleepycat License
  206. Software Freedom Day
  207. Software Freedom Law Center
  208. Software in the Public Interest
  209. SourceForge
  210. Spread Firefox
  211. Sun Industry Standards Source License
  212. Sun Public License
  213. Sybase Open Watcom Public License
  214. Tanenbaum-Torvalds debate
  215. Tectonic Magazine
  216. The Cathedral and the Bazaar
  217. The Freedom Toaster
  218. The Free Software Definition
  219. The Perl Foundation
  220. The Right to Read
  221. The Summit Open Source Development Group
  222. Tigris.org
  223. Tivoization
  224. Tux
  225. Tux Magazine
  226. Ubuntu Foundation
  227. Use of Free and Open Source Software in the U.S. Department of Defense
  228. Vores Ol
  229. W3C Software Notice and License
  230. Webgpl
  231. What the Hack
  232. Wizards of OS
  233. WTFPL
  234. X.Org Foundation
  235. Xiph.Org Foundation
  236. Yet Another Perl Conference
  237. Yogurt

 

 
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FREE SOFTWARE CULTURE
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_H._Tower_Jr.

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Leonard H. Tower Jr.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Leonard "Len" H. Tower Jr. (born June 17, 1949) is a hacker and activist in the free software movement, environmentalist, artist, poet, and gardener. An Eagle Scout, Tower was also awarded the Vigil Honor in the Order of the Arrow.[1] In 1971, he received a B.S. in biology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he held several management roles at The Tech, the student newspaper,[2] and became active in Alpha Phi Omega[3] and other service organizations as he has remained throughout his life. He is well known for his software development and community relations for, and his organization, administration, and support of the GNU Project's Free Software Foundation and the League for Programming Freedom. In addition to being an original coauthor of gcc and GNU diff as used in MediaWiki, Len is an avid cyclist and pedestrian who has never owned a car.[1]

GNU Project

As a member of the GNU Project, Tower was one of the founders and an initial director of the Free Software Foundation (FSF) from 1985 through 1997.[4] He was the first full time staff at the FSF, working on the creation of the GNU C compiler (now known as GNU Compiler Collection), rewriting it from an extended dialect of Pascal which was difficult to bootstrap, into portable C, and redesigning parts of the parser, Register Transfer Language generator and definitions, and the VAX machine description.[5] Quoting Richard Stallman in February, 1986:

"Although I have a portable C and Pascal compiler, it has a serious drawback: it is a very large program, and intrinsically cannot be made smaller. It is also very hard to bootstrap.
"The problem is that most of the compiler is written in Pastel, a super-hairy extended Pascal, and it is also the sole compiler for that language. To make it smaller, we must eliminate the hair needed to compile Pastel; then we will not be able to compile Pastel, so it must all be rewritten into C.
"Len Tower, the sole full-time GNU staff person, is working on this, with one or two assistants."[6]

In March 1987, Tower posted Stallman's announcement of the first beta release of gcc.[7]

Tower was also one of the creators of GNU diff, a file comparison utility.[8] Diff has been incorporated into hundreds of other programs, including MediaWiki, where it was "extracted verbatim from analyze.c (GNU diffutils-2.7)."[9]

During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Tower spoke at USENIX conferences as the official representative of the FSF.[10] In 1987, the FSF described Tower primarily as a programmer who also did some administrative tasks;[11] he managed mailing lists, newsgroups, and requests for information.[12][13]

League for Programming Freedom

Tower was an early member of the League for Programming Freedom. Through 1991, Len was one of the league's top two speakers, the other being Richard Stallman.[14]

Notes and References

  1. ^ a b Tower, Leonard H. (2006) "An autobiography in progress of Leonard (Len) H. Tower Jr.," Art.Net studio web site, accessed 27 September 2006.
  2. ^ The Tech MIT student newspaper masthead, 15 February 1972, page 4.
  3. ^ Len Tower family tree from the Alpha Chi chapter, Section 96, Region 1, of Alpha Phi Omega, membership database accessed 27 September 2006.
  4. ^ Heuer, Karl (July 1997). "GNU's Who". GNU's Bulletin 1 (23). Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  5. ^ Stallman, Richard M. (2001) "Contributors to GCC," in Using and Porting the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) for gcc version 2.95 (Cambridge, Mass.: Free Software Foundation)
  6. ^ Stallman, Richard M. (February 1986). "GNU Status". GNU's Bulletin 1 (1). Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  7. ^ Tower, Leonard (1987) "GNU C compiler beta test release," comp.lang.misc USENET newsgroup posting; see also the gcc release timeline.
  8. ^ Tower, Leonard H., et al. (2001) "AUTHORS" file, revision 1.3, GNU diff and patch utilities (Cambridge, Mass.: Free Software Foundation)
  9. ^ Manske, Magnus, et al. (2002-6) "includes/DifferenceEngine.php," line 1025, from the MediaWiki source code, accessed 27 September 2006.
  10. ^ Smallwood, Kevin C. (30 December 1991) "Updated BOF Schedule for San Francisco USENIX Conference," comp.org.usenix USENET posting; see also Noah Friedman's comments of 19 June 1992.
  11. ^ Rubin, Paul (June 1987). "GNU's Who". GNU's Bulletin 1 (1). Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  12. ^ Tuttle, J.; Chassell, R.; Tower, L. (February 1988). "GNU's Who". GNU's Bulletin 1 (4). Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  13. ^ Goldstein, S.; Chassell, R.; Tower, L. (January 1997). "GNU's Who". GNU's Bulletin 1 (22). Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  14. ^ MacPhee, Spike R. (November 1991). "Speaking Volunteers". Programming Freedom 1 (1). Retrieved on 2006-09-24.

External links

 
  • Studio pages at Art.Net
  • Web site at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_H._Tower_Jr."