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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
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ART
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BUSINESS&LAW
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LIFESTYLE
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TRADITIONS
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NATURE
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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academic Free License
  2. Adaptive Public License
  3. Advogato
  4. Affero General Public License
  5. Africa Source
  6. AKademy
  7. Alternative terms for free software
  8. Anti-copyright notice
  9. Apache License
  10. Apache Software Foundation
  11. APESOL
  12. Apple Public Source License
  13. Artistic License
  14. Association For Free Software
  15. August Penguin
  16. Benetech
  17. Benevolent Dictator for Life
  18. BerliOS
  19. Binary blob
  20. BK02
  21. Blender Foundation
  22. Bruce Perens' Open Source Series
  23. BSD licenses
  24. CeCILL
  25. CE Linux Forum
  26. Clarkson Open Source Institute
  27. Code Breakers
  28. CodePlex
  29. Collaborative software development model
  30. Collaborative Source license
  31. Common Development and Distribution License
  32. Common Public License
  33. Comparison of free software hosting facilities
  34. CONSOL
  35. Copycenter
  36. Copyleft
  37. Creative Commons licenses
  38. Debconf
  39. Debian Free Software Guidelines
  40. Debian Manifesto
  41. Desktop Developers' Conference
  42. Eclipse Foundation
  43. Eclipse Public License
  44. Enterprise open source journal
  45. European Union Public Licence
  46. Everybody Loves Eric Raymond
  47. Forum Internacional Software Livre
  48. Fedora Project
  49. FOSDEM
  50. FOSS.IN
  51. Fossap
  52. Frameworx License
  53. Free content
  54. Free Culture movement
  55. Freedesktop.org
  56. Freely redistributable software
  57. Freepository
  58. Free software
  59. Free Software Award for Projects of Social Benefit
  60. Free software community
  61. Free Software Directory
  62. Free Software Foundation
  63. Free Software Foundation Europe
  64. Free Software Foundation Latin America
  65. Free Software Foundation of India
  66. Free Software Initiative of Japan
  67. Free software license
  68. Free Software Magazine
  69. Free software movement
  70. Free Software Song
  71. Free Standards Group
  72. FSF Award for the Advancement of Free Software
  73. GCC Summit
  74. Gna.org
  75. GNAT Modified General Public License
  76. Gnits Standards
  77. GnomeFiles
  78. GNOME Foundation
  79. GNU Coding Standards
  80. GNU Free Documentation License
  81. GNU General Public License
  82. GNU Lesser General Public License
  83. GNU Manifesto
  84. GNU Savannah
  85. GNU Simpler Free Documentation License
  86. Google Code
  87. Google Summer of Code
  88. Go Open Source
  89. GRASS GIS
  90. Gratis versus Libre
  91. Groklaw
  92. GUADEC
  93. Halloween documents
  94. Hamakor
  95. Historical Permission Notice and Disclaimer
  96. Homesteading the Noosphere
  97. Hurd User Group
  98. IBM Public License
  99. IBM Type-III Library
  100. Intel Open Source License
  101. International Open Source Network
  102. Irish Free Software Organisation
  103. ISC licence
  104. Jargon File
  105. Jimbo Wales
  106. KDE Dot News
  107. KernelTrap
  108. LAMP
  109. LaTeX Project Public License
  110. League for Programming Freedom
  111. Leonard H. Tower Jr.
  112. libpng
  113. Libre Software Meeting
  114. Linus's Law
  115. Linus Torvalds
  116. Linux.conf.au
  117. Linux conference
  118. Linux Expo
  119. Linux Gazette
  120. Linux International
  121. Linux Journal
  122. Linux Kongress
  123. Linux naming controversy
  124. LinuxQuestions.org
  125. LinuxTag
  126. Linux User Group
  127. LinuxWorld Conference and Expo
  128. List of software that uses the MIT License
  129. LiveJournal
  130. Lucent Public License
  131. LXer
  132. MIT License
  133. MozBin
  134. Mozdev.org
  135. Mozilla Add-ons
  136. Mozilla Foundation
  137. Mozilla Public License
  138. MozillaZine
  139. MyOSS
  140. NetHack General Public License
  141. Netscape Public License
  142. NewsForge
  143. New Zealand Open Source Society
  144. NonProfit Open Source Initiative
  145. Non-proprietary software
  146. Nupedia Open Content License
  147. ObjectWeb
  148. Ohio LinuxFest
  149. Ohloh
  150. O3 Magazine
  151. Open Audio License
  152. OpenCola
  153. Open content
  154. Open design
  155. OpenDocument Format Alliance
  156. OpenLP
  157. Open outsourcing
  158. Open Security Foundation
  159. Open Software License
  160. Open-source advocacy
  161. Open Source Applications Foundation
  162. Open-source culture
  163. Open Source Definition
  164. Open Source Developers' Conference
  165. Open-source evangelist
  166. Open source funding
  167. Open Source Geospatial Foundation
  168. Open Source Initiative
  169. Open source movement
  170. Open source movie
  171. Open-source software
  172. Open source software development
  173. Open source software development method
  174. Open Source Software Institute
  175. Open source teaching
  176. Open source vs. closed source
  177. Open-sourcing
  178. O'Reilly Open Source Convention
  179. Organisation for Free Software in Education and Teaching
  180. OSDL
  181. Ottawa Linux Symposium
  182. Patent Commons
  183. PHP License
  184. Pionia
  185. Pionia Organization
  186. Proprietary software
  187. Protecting the Virtual Commons
  188. Public Documentation License
  189. Public-domain equivalent license
  190. Python License
  191. Python Software Foundation License
  192. Q Public License
  193. RealNetworks Public Source License
  194. Reciprocal Public License
  195. Red Hat
  196. Revolution OS
  197. Richard Stallman
  198. RubyForge
  199. Sarovar
  200. Savane
  201. SIL Open Font License
  202. Simputer General Public License
  203. SIPfoundry
  204. Slashdot
  205. Sleepycat License
  206. Software Freedom Day
  207. Software Freedom Law Center
  208. Software in the Public Interest
  209. SourceForge
  210. Spread Firefox
  211. Sun Industry Standards Source License
  212. Sun Public License
  213. Sybase Open Watcom Public License
  214. Tanenbaum-Torvalds debate
  215. Tectonic Magazine
  216. The Cathedral and the Bazaar
  217. The Freedom Toaster
  218. The Free Software Definition
  219. The Perl Foundation
  220. The Right to Read
  221. The Summit Open Source Development Group
  222. Tigris.org
  223. Tivoization
  224. Tux
  225. Tux Magazine
  226. Ubuntu Foundation
  227. Use of Free and Open Source Software in the U.S. Department of Defense
  228. Vores Ol
  229. W3C Software Notice and License
  230. Webgpl
  231. What the Hack
  232. Wizards of OS
  233. WTFPL
  234. X.Org Foundation
  235. Xiph.Org Foundation
  236. Yet Another Perl Conference
  237. Yogurt

 

 
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FREE SOFTWARE CULTURE
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CeCILL

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

CeCILL

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

CeCILL (from "CEA CNRS INRIA Logiciel Libre") is a Free Software license adapted to both International and French legal matters, in the spirit of and retaining compatibility with the GNU General Public License.

It was jointly developed by a number of French agencies: the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (Atomic Energy Commission), the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (National Centre for Scientific Research) and the Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique (National Institute for Information and Automation Research). It was announced on 5 July 2004 in a joint press communication of the CEA, CNRS and INRIA.

It has gained support of the main French Linux User Group and the Minister of Public Function, and is now under examination to be adopted at the European level.

CeCILL version 2

Version 2 has been developed after consultations with the French speaking Linux and Libre Software Users' Association, Association pour la Promotion et la Recherche en Informatique Libre and The Free Software Foundation and released on 21. May 2005. According to CeCILL FAQ there are no major differences in spirit, though there are in terms.

The most notable difference in CeCILL v2 is the fact that the English text was approved not as a draft translation (like in CeCILL v1) but as an authentic text, in addition to the French version which is equally authentic (this makes the CeCILL licence much easier to enforce internationally, as the cost of producing an authentic translation in any international court will be lower with the help of a second authentic reference text, if such courts require, before any ruling, an authentic translation to a national official language). Many courts in the world can rule directly based on an authentic English text already approved by all parties, without requiring an additional translation (the approbation of a translation by a third party is costly: even if a translation is approved in one litigation case, it can't be used directly in a different further case without prior mutual agreement on a common translated text).

The second difference is that the reference to the GNU GPL v2, with which CeCILL v2 is now fully compatible, is explicitly defined precisely using its exact title and the exact name of the Free Software Foundation, to avoid all possible variations of the terms of the GPL v2. Some additional definitions were added to more precisely define the terms with less ambiguity. With these changes, CeCILL is now fully enforceable according to WIPO rules, and according to the French law in courts, without the legal problems that are still remaining in the GPLv2 outside USA. In other words, CeCILL really enforces the GPLv2 licence internationally by fixing lots of ambiguities, without loosing its compatibility.

International protection and approbation of the CeCILL licences

Note that CeCILL v1 already allowed replacing a CeCILL v1 licence by CeCILL v2, so all software previously licenced with CeCILL v1 in 2004 can be licenced with CeCILL v2, with legal terms enforceable as authentic not only in French but in English too.

The fact that it is protected by reputed public research centers (in France the INRIA, a founding member of the international W3 consortium, and the CEA working on atomic energy) which use them to publish their own open-source and free software, and by critical governmental organisations (which are also working in domains like military and defense systems) also gives much more security than using the GPL alone, as the licence is supported officially by a government which is a full member of WIPO, and by an enforcable law. This also means that all international treaties related to the protection of intellectual rights do apply to CeCILL-licenced products, and so they are enforceable by law in all countries that signed any of the international treaties protected by WIPO.

There are still works in progress to make CeCILL approved by OSI as a "Open Source" licence (however, such review by OSI has still not occur ed only because such review was not officially requested by INRIA and CEA, even though the CeCILL founders have already publicly said they would like it to be approved by OSI), but it is already approved as a "Free Software" licence by the FSF with which the CeCILL project founders have worked.

Other CeCILL licences

The CeCILL project also adds two other licences:

  • CeCILL-B, which is fully compatible with BSD-like licences (BSD, X11, MIT, ...) which have a strong attribution requirement (which goes much farther than a simple copyright notice), a requirement normally not allowed by the GPL itself (which describes it as advertising requirement), and so this licence may be incompatible with the original CeCILL licence, if BSD-like components are integrated, unless the software uses a dual-licencing scheme and conforms to the licencing terms of all embedded components.
  • CeCILL-C, for "component" software, which is fully compatible with the FSF's LGPL licence.

These two licences are also defined to make BSD-like and FSF's LGPL licences enforceable internationally under WIPO rules.

Although the three CeCILL licences were developed and used for strategic French research systems (in the domain of defence, space launching systems, medical research, meteorology/climatology, and various domains of fundamental or applied physics), they are made to be usable also by the general public or any other commercial or non-profit organization, including from other governments, simply because these software component need and use (or are integrated with) component softwares or systems which were initially released with a open-source or free licence, and they are operated by organizations that also have a commercial status.

Without these licences, such systems could not have been built and used, and protected legally against various international patent claims. Due to the huge cost of these French strategic systems, a very strong licencing scheme was absolutely necessary to help protecting these investments against illegitimate claims by other commercial third-parties. And one of the first need was to make the well-known open-source and free licences fully compatible and protected under the French law and the many international treaties ratified by France.

Competent jurisdiction and international enforcement of the licence terms by courts

Note that the explicit reference to the French law and a French court in the CeCILL licences is not limitating for users, who can still choose a jurisdiction of their choice by mutual agreement to solve any litigation they may experience. The explicit reference to a French court will be used only if mutual agreement is not possible; this immediately solves the problem of competence of laws (something that the GPL does not solve in a clean way, except when all parties in a litigation are in USA). For example, if a litigation occurs between a licensor and a licensee which are both in USA, they may select a US jurisdiction to solve it (but if parties are in different states in USA and can't agree with a competent court in a US state, they can will find a competent US federal court, or if this even fails, the final court will be in Paris).

The cost of juridic procedures in France are often much lower than the same procedures in US, but the duration of such procedures may be quite long (so it is still in the interest of all parties to select a competent court for all their litigations, before the default French court is involved). However, the decisions of a French Commerce Court are enforceable internationally in all WIPO members according to international treaties.

It should be noted that, in many cases, the duration (and high cost) of legal procedures is most often the result of being unable to find a competent jurisdiction and to prove its competence (something that the GPLv2 has forgotten to specify, which means that parties to a current GPLv2 licence must always first find a mutual agreement, or must always be able to prove the competence of a court before any decision can be ruled and applied, and this is an inherent risk of the current GPLv2 whose consequent long term costs have not been evaluated).

External links

  • CeCILL homepage
  • Press release, in French
  • English translation of the license
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CeCILL"