New Page 1




Selettore risorse   



                                         IL Metodo  |  Grammatica  |  RISPOSTE GRAMMATICALI  |  Multiblog  |  INSEGNARE AGLI ADULTI  |  INSEGNARE AI BAMBINI  |  AudioBooks  |  RISORSE SFiziosE  |  Articoli  |  Tips  | testi pAralleli  |  VIDEO SOTTOTITOLATI
                                                                                         ESERCIZI :   Serie 1 - 2 - 3  - 4 - 5  SERVIZI:   Pronunciatore di inglese - Dizionario - Convertitore IPA/UK - IPA/US - Convertitore di valute in lire ed euro                                              




- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Abbey Road (album)
  2. Abbey Road Studios
  3. Across the Universe
  4. A Day in the Life
  5. A Hard Day's Night (film)
  6. A Hard Day's Night (song)
  7. All My Loving
  8. All You Need is Love
  9. And I Love Her
  10. Apple Corps
  11. Apple Records
  12. The Ballad of John and Yoko
  13. Beatlemania
  14. The Beatles
  15. The Beatles Anthology
  16. The Beatles Bootlegs
  17. The Beatles' influence on popular culture
  18. The Beatles line-ups
  19. The Beatles' London
  20. The Beatles Trivia
  21. Blackbird
  22. Brian Epstein
  23. British Invasion
  24. Can't Buy Me Love
  25. Come Together
  26. Day Tripper
  27. Don't Let Me Down
  28. Eight Days a Week
  29. Eleanor Rigby
  30. Fifth Beatle
  31. For No One
  32. Free as a bird
  33. From Me to You
  34. George Harrison
  35. George Martin
  36. Get Back
  37. Girl
  38. Happiness Is A Warm Gun
  39. Hello Goodbye
  40. Help! (album)
  41. Help! (film)
  42. Help
  43. Here Comes the Sun
  44. Here, There and Everywhere
  45. Hey Jude
  46. I Am the Walrus
  47. I Feel Fine
  48. I Wanna Be Your Man
  49. I Want to Hold Your Hand
  50. John Lennon
  51. Lady Madonna
  52. Lennon-McCartney
  53. Let it be
  54. Let It Be (album)
  55. Let It Be (film)
  56. Love me do
  57. Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds
  58. Magical Mystery Tour (album)
  59. Magical Mystery Tour (film)
  60. Michelle
  61. Northern Songs
  62. Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)
  63. Nowhere man
  64. Paperback Writer
  65. Paul McCartney
  66. Penny Lane
  67. Phil Spector
  68. Please Please Me
  69. The Quarrymen
  70. Real Love
  71. Revolution
  72. Revolver (album)
  73. Ringo Starr
  74. Rubber Soul (album)
  75. Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
  76. Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (song)
  77. She Loves You
  78. Something
  79. Strawberry Fields Forever
  80. Taxman
  81. The Beatles discography
  82. The Fool on the Hill
  83. The Long and Winding Road
  84. The White Album
  85. Ticket to Ride
  86. Twist and Shout
  87. We Can Work It Out
  88. When I'm Sixty-Four
  89. With A Little Help From My Friends
  90. Yellow Submarine
  91. Yellow Submarine (album)
  92. Yellow Submarine (film)
  93. Yesterday
  94. Yoko Ono


L'utente può utilizzare il nostro sito solo se comprende e accetta quanto segue:

  • Le risorse linguistiche gratuite presentate in questo sito si possono utilizzare esclusivamente per uso personale e non commerciale con tassativa esclusione di ogni condivisione comunque effettuata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. La riproduzione anche parziale è vietata senza autorizzazione scritta.
  • Il nome del sito EnglishGratis è esclusivamente un marchio e un nome di dominio internet che fa riferimento alla disponibilità sul sito di un numero molto elevato di risorse gratuite e non implica dunque alcuna promessa di gratuità relativamente a prodotti e servizi nostri o di terze parti pubblicizzati a mezzo banner e link, o contrassegnati chiaramente come prodotti a pagamento (anche ma non solo con la menzione "Annuncio pubblicitario"), o comunque menzionati nelle pagine del sito ma non disponibili sulle pagine pubbliche, non protette da password, del sito stesso.
  • La pubblicità di terze parti è in questo momento affidata al servizio Google AdSense che sceglie secondo automatismi di carattere algoritmico gli annunci di terze parti che compariranno sul nostro sito e sui quali non abbiamo alcun modo di influire. Non siamo quindi responsabili del contenuto di questi annunci e delle eventuali affermazioni o promesse che in essi vengono fatte!
  • L'utente, inoltre, accetta di tenerci indenni da qualsiasi tipo di responsabilità per l'uso - ed eventuali conseguenze di esso - degli esercizi e delle informazioni linguistiche e grammaticali contenute sul siti. Le risposte grammaticali sono infatti improntate ad un criterio di praticità e pragmaticità più che ad una completezza ed esaustività che finirebbe per frastornare, per l'eccesso di informazione fornita, il nostro utente. La segnalazione di eventuali errori è gradita e darà luogo ad una immediata rettifica.


    ENGLISHGRATIS.COM è un sito personale di
    Roberto Casiraghi e Crystal Jones
    email: robertocasiraghi at iol punto it

    Roberto Casiraghi           
    INFORMATIVA SULLA PRIVACY              Crystal Jones

    Siti amici:  Lonweb Daisy Stories English4Life Scuolitalia
    Sito segnalato da INGLESE.IT


This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 

Brian Epstein

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Brian Samuel Epstein (19 September 1934 – 27 August 1967) was an English businessman, best known as the manager of The Beatles. His role in their initial success was integral. The application of Epstein's entrepreneurial and promotional skills to their immense talent is widely considered to have been the transforming agent that propelled them to worldwide fame and popularity.

Epstein took over management of the group at a time when they had been struggling without success for several years. They were just one of over 300 beat groups in Liverpool alone at the time. Though he had had no previous experience in artist management, Epstein revealed considerable innate abilities in presenting and promoting The Beatles. After his death from a drug overdose in 1967, The Beatles started to unravel as a unified entity.

Early days

Epstein was born into a Jewish family. His grandfather had founded Isaac Epstein and Sons, a furniture dealership in Liverpool, England. His parents were Harry and Malka (called "Queenie" by the family), who also had another son, Brian's brother Clive. Harry Epstein managed his own store in Liverpool, where Paul McCartney's family once bought a piano. Brian was educated at Wrekin College in Shropshire before attending the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) in London, and his classmates included actors Susannah York and Peter O'Toole; but, when he had dropped out after his third term, his father put him in charge of the record department of the newly opened North End Music Stores (NEMS) on Great Charlotte Street, Liverpool. Eventually, a second location was opened at 12-14 Whitechapel, and Epstein was put in charge of the entire operation. On 3 August 1961, Epstein began a regular music column in Mersey Beat magazine.[citation needed]

Managing The Beatles

Cover of the 1998 US paperback reissue of Epstein's 1964 autobiography A Cellarful of Noise
Cover of the 1998 US paperback reissue of Epstein's 1964 autobiography A Cellarful of Noise

Epstein first noticed The Beatles' name on a concert bill, thinking it sounded "silly". In the commonly accepted version of the story, when several customers began asking for a single that The Beatles had recorded with Tony Sheridan in Germany, Epstein could not find it through any of his record label contacts, and decided to ask the band themselves for details. On 9 November 1961, He and his assistant Alistair Taylor went to see them perform at a lunchtime concert at the crowded Cavern Club, which was just down the street from his store; his arrival was met by a V.I.P. admission, and a welcome was announced over the club's public-address system. Epstein said of The Beatles' performance, "I was immediately struck by their music, their beat, and their sense of humour on stage. And, even afterwards, when I met them, I was struck again by their personal charm. And it was there that, really, it all started." (He also recognised the band's members as regular customers at NEMS; they passed the time between shows by browsing records.)[citation needed] It is claimed by one person that the famed story of Epstein's first encounter with The Beatles is apocryphal: Bill Harry (then editor of Mersey Beat magazine) has claimed that he personally introduced Epstein to John Lennon. That story is unverified, and Lennon never said anything on public record to that effect; from 1962 until his death in 1980, Lennon's published recollections on the first meeting with Epstein always matched Epstein's. It is true that, at some point (date unverified), Harry had convinced Epstein to carry his fledgling magazine at his record store, and those magazines heavily promoted The Beatles, with whom Harry was well acquainted. Harry's openly-declared personal dislike of Epstein and his disparaging public comments about Epstein's management of The Beatles may have contributed to Harry's version of events.[citation needed]

In a meeting on 10 December 1961, it was decided that Epstein would manage the band. The four members signed a five-year contract with him at then-drummer Pete Best's house on 24 January 1962. Epstein himself did not sign the contract, giving The Beatles the option of withdrawing at any time. (The agreement also was not technically legal, as Paul McCartney and George Harrison were still below legal age; their fathers would have had to co-sign. Nobody realised this at the time.) Epstein also contacted their previous booking agent, Allan Williams, to confirm that he had no remaining ties to them. Williams did not, but advised Epstein "not to touch them with a barge pole".[citation needed]

Although he had had no prior experience at artist management, Epstein became a major force behind the band's early appearance and success. When Epstein discovered the band, they were wearing blue jeans and leather jackets, performing rowdy rock 'n' roll shows. He encouraged them to wear suits and clean up their stage performance. He insisted that they not smoke or eat onstage, and suggested the famous synchronised bow at the end of their performances. Although this image evolved over time, the comparatively clean-cut appearance (with the exception of the "mop top" hairstyles) helped the band become accepted by the mainstream media and the general public—something that almost certainly would have been impossible in the UK and U.S. of the early 1960s without Epstein's guidance.[citation needed]

After being rejected by every major record label in England, including Columbia, Pye, Philips, Oriole, and, most famously, Decca, Epstein was eventually able to get the band signed to EMI's small Parlophone label. Epstein visited a local HMV store to have a Beatles demo tape transferred to disc. An HMV technician named Jim Foy liked the recordings and referred Epstein to Parlophone's George Martin. Martin then agreed to meet with Epstein's band and scheduled an audition, which they passed - with one exception: drummer Pete Best. When the news came that Martin wanted to replace Best on their recordings with a session drummer, Lennon, McCartney and Harrison asked Epstein to fire Best from the band; and Ringo Starr took his place.[citation needed] A few days after Best was fired, Epstein tried to console Best by offering to build another group around him, but Best was not interested. His place in history was already reserved as the most luckless of all might-have-beens. Over the next twenty-four months, the Beatles would gross $40 million. Best became a baker, earning £8.00 a week and marring a girl named Kathy who worked at the biscuit counter at Woolworth's.

Personal life

Epstein was gay, a fact not publicly revealed until after his death, although it was an open secret among his friends and business associates (including The Beatles themselves). Male homosexual relations were illegal throughout UK until 1967, when gay male sexuality was legalised in England and Wales only (remaining illegal in Scotland and Northern Ireland until 1980 and 1982, respectively); and the danger of anti-gay violence and scandal shadowed Epstein's life. Additionally, and seemingly despite his soft-spoken manner and dapper appearance, Epstein was strongly attracted to "rough trade", often seeking illicit encounters with abusive partners. He was reported to have been the object of blackmail, battery, and threats by a number of these partners.[citation needed]

Epstein's initial interest in The Beatles was fueled by his attraction to their rowdy image. While he was strongly attracted to Lennon, there has been little evidence that he acted on his feelings. There were rumours of a brief sexual encounter between the two when they went on a four-day holiday together to Spain in April 1963. Lennon (known for his unflinching candor) always denied this, telling Playboy in 1980 "it was never consummated, but we had a pretty intense relationship." Lennon's first wife Cynthia also said that Lennon's relationship with Epstein was platonic. A fictionalised account of the Spanish holiday was portrayed in the film The Hours and Times.[citation needed]

One source, longtime Lennon friend and confidant Peter Shotton, claimed in his book The Beatles, Lennon and Me that under provocation from Epstein, Lennon did partly give in: "I let him toss me off, and that was it." Biographer Hunter Davies also recalled Lennon telling him he had consented to an encounter "to see what it was like." Writer Albert Goldman expanded on both claims in his The Lives of John Lennon, alleging a longtime affair between the two men, but this claim has been denied by almost everyone who knew them. In any case, throughout his management of The Beatles, Epstein was very careful to not play any kind of favourites, for fear of creating a strain in his stewardship of the group.[citation needed]

In addition to managing The Beatles, Epstein also successfully managed Gerry & The Pacemakers, Billy J. Kramer with The Dakotas, The Fourmost, The Cyrkle, Cilla Black and many other artists. He also socialised with the band's producer George Martin and future wife Judy Lockhart-Smith, and hosted their 1966 bridal dinner. In October 1964, Epstein's autobiography, A Cellarful of Noise, was published in the UK and later in the US. It was cowritten by journalist Derek Taylor, who had served as Epstein's assistant that year, then later as publicist for The Beatles from 1968-1970. (Lennon joked to Epstein that the memoir should have been titled A Cellarful of Boys.)[citation needed]

Brian Epstein smiles between George Harrison and John Lennon in a 1966 photo from the cover of Debbie Geller’s 2000 biography.
Brian Epstein smiles between George Harrison and John Lennon in a 1966 photo from the cover of Debbie Geller’s 2000 biography.

Having relocated to London with an office in Monmouth Street in Seven Dials in 1965 Epstein brought a controlling interest in the Saville Theatre on Shaftesbury Avenue. Initially he promoted new works by writers such as Arnold Wesker in productions that occasionally fell foul of the Lord Chamberlain by including 'obscene' content or nudity. Epstein changed the programme to that of a music venue in 1966 presenting various US acts.[citation needed]

Evolution of the relationship with The Beatles

Although Epstein dramatically changed The Beatles' outward image from the rebellious and undisciplined group he signed in 1961, he kept true to a promise to not directly interfere with their songwriting and recording. Over the next three years, the management relationship evolved to reflect the changing nature of The Beatles' career. Their incredibly hectic schedule of touring, television, and film work in 1963-65 kept Epstein very busy. But following the decision in 1966 to cease live performance and focus on studio recording, Epstein's role was diminished, and he expressed some concerns that they might not renew his management agreement when it expired in 1967. This growing concern, coupled with the pressure of having to keep his sexuality closeted because of England's laws against homosexuality (that incidentally were amended and relaxed just weeks after Epstein's death in 1967: see Wolfenden report), sent him into a spiral of depression and fed his existing serious addiction to prescription drugs.[citation needed]

Epstein's concerns about The Beatles staying with him as artists may have been exaggerated, but were not baseless. At the time of Epstein's death, McCartney in particular had been taking a much more active interest in The Beatles' finances, and the band was becoming aware of instances where Brian's inexperience had resulted in less advantageous terms for them. By 1967, they had begun to disregard his judgement on some issues, such as the notorious Butcher Cover and the legally risky cover art of Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band. But The Beatles all recognised Epstein's importance to the group, and over the years have maintained that they had no plans to terminate his involvement. Indeed, they all point to his death as the beginning of the end of the group.[citation needed]


Newspaper headline: Epstein dies at 32.
Newspaper headline: Epstein dies at 32.

Epstein died of an accidental prescription drug overdose on 27 August 1967, the weekend The Beatles were in Bangor, Wales meeting with the Indian guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. At the statutory inquest, his death was officially ruled accidental, and was deemed to probably have been caused by a gradual buildup of barbiturates (Carbitral and/or Seconal) in his system, possibly mixed with alcohol. There has been some speculation that Epstein committed suicide; he had indeed made a suicide attempt with barbituates in late 1966. But the circumstances of his actual death were more consistent with the accidental ruling. Epstein's father had recently died, and his associates make the point that he would never have inflicted additional pain on his beloved mother, Queenie.[citation needed] Beatles biographer Philip Norman claimed later that she and Brian's brother Clive found two undated suicide notes in his home study, which they withheld from the inquest. If such letters did exist, they would not in themselves prove suicide, but could certainly have affected the outcome of the inquest, by reflecting a suicidal state of mind.[citation needed]

None of The Beatles were in attendance at Epstein's funeral, wishing to give his family privacy and not draw the media and their fans, but all four did attend a public memorial service for him at the New London Synagogue in St. John's Wood (near the EMI studios), approximately two weeks later.[citation needed]

Rumours circulated at one point that Epstein had been poisoned as part of a conspiracy, after a major Beatles-related merchandising deal went sour. No evidence appeared to support this speculation. The rumours sprang up at the same time as the 1969 "Paul Is Dead" hoax.[citation needed]

Epstein held the group together by developing the strategies and campaigns to launch each new record, resolving the inevitable petty differences between members, managing every aspect of The Beatles' career, including helping found the company that became Apple Corps. When he died, each of the band members moved more in separate ways, quarrels intensified and their business affairs unraveled. Lennon summarised the impact in a 1970 interview: "When Brian died I knew that was it. I knew we'd had it."[citation needed]


While The Beatles were among the earliest entrants into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the man almost universally regarded as having been responsible for guiding them to their success finds his place in popular history less assured; he has never been considered for membership in the Hall's "Non-Performer's Section", just as he was overlooked for an MBE medal—an award that The Beatles received in 1965. Beatles scholar and producer Martin Lewis, a protegé of Derek Taylor, has become a vocal champion of Epstein's memory, and has created "The Official Brian Epstein Website", which includes a petition to request consideration that Epstein be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[citation needed]

External links

  • The Official Brian Epstein Website
  • Brian Epstein biography and sound clips
  • Brian Epstein at IMDB
  • Brian Epstein's Gravesite
  • "The Fifth Beatle" Website (Website relating to a proposed movie about Epstein by an aspirant first-time filmmaker)


Retrieved from ""