••••• login ELINGUE Contatti: Tel. 02-36553040
              Email:
   

Selettore risorse


     IL Metodo  |  Grammatica  |  Inglese con noi  |  Multiblog  |  INSEGNARE AGLI ADULTI  |  INSEGNARE AI BAMBINI  |  AudioBooks  |  RISORSE SFiziosE  |  Articoli  |  Tips  | testi pAralleli  |  VIDEO SOTTOTITOLATI

   AREA SHOP  RIVISTA ENGLISH4LIFE  | CORS0 20 ORE DI INGLESE |  CORSO 20 ORE DI SPAGNOLO | CORSO 20 ORE DI TEDESCO  | CORSO 20 ORE DI FRANCESE  | CORSO 20 ORE DI RUSSO 


 

WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
•••••••••

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Acute abdomen
  2. Acute coronary syndrome
  3. Acute pancreatitis
  4. Acute renal failure
  5. Agonal respiration
  6. Air embolism
  7. Ambulance
  8. Amnesic shellfish poisoning
  9. Anaphylaxis
  10. Angioedema
  11. Aortic dissection
  12. Appendicitis
  13. Artificial respiration
  14. Asphyxia
  15. Asystole
  16. Autonomic dysreflexia
  17. Bacterial meningitis
  18. Barotrauma
  19. Blast injury
  20. Bleeding
  21. Bowel obstruction
  22. Burn
  23. Carbon monoxide poisoning
  24. Cardiac arrest
  25. Cardiac arrhythmia
  26. Cardiac tamponade
  27. Cardiogenic shock
  28. Cardiopulmonary arrest
  29. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  30. Catamenial pneumothorax
  31. Cerebral hemorrhage
  32. Chemical burn
  33. Choking
  34. Chronic pancreatitis
  35. Cincinnati Stroke Scale
  36. Clinical depression
  37. Cord prolapse
  38. Decompression sickness
  39. Dental emergency
  40. Diabetic coma
  41. Diabetic ketoacidosis
  42. Distributive shock
  43. Drowning
  44. Drug overdose
  45. Eclampsia
  46. Ectopic pregnancy
  47. Electric shock
  48. Emergency medical services
  49. Emergency medical technician
  50. Emergency medicine
  51. Emergency room
  52. Emergency telephone number
  53. Epiglottitis
  54. Epilepsia partialis continua
  55. Frostbite
  56. Gastrointestinal perforation
  57. Gynecologic hemorrhage
  58. Heat syncope
  59. HELLP syndrome
  60. Hereditary pancreatitis
  61. Hospital
  62. Hydrocephalus
  63. Hypercapnia
  64. Hyperemesis gravidarum
  65. Hyperkalemia
  66. Hypertensive emergency
  67. Hyperthermia
  68. Hypoglycemia
  69. Hypothermia
  70. Hypovolemia
  71. Internal bleeding
  72. Ketoacidosis
  73. Lactic acidosis
  74. Lethal dose
  75. List of medical emergencies
  76. Malaria
  77. Malignant hypertension
  78. Medical emergency
  79. Meningitis
  80. Neuroglycopenia
  81. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
  82. Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma
  83. Obstetrical hemorrhage
  84. Outdoor Emergency Care
  85. Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection
  86. Paralytic shellfish poisoning
  87. Paramedic
  88. Paraphimosis
  89. Peritonitis
  90. Physical trauma
  91. Placenta accreta
  92. Pneumothorax
  93. Positional asphyxia
  94. Pre-eclampsia
  95. Priapism
  96. Psychotic depression
  97. Respiratory arrest
  98. Respiratory failure
  99. Retinal detachment
  100. Revised Trauma Score
  101. Sepsis
  102. Septic arthritis
  103. Septic shock
  104. Sexual assault
  105. Shock
  106. Simple triage and rapid treatment
  107. Soy allergy
  108. Spinal cord compression
  109. Status epilepticus
  110. Stroke
  111. Temporal arteritis
  112. Testicular torsion
  113. Toxic epidermal necrolysis
  114. Toxidrome
  115. Triage
  116. Triage tag
  117. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
  118. Uterine rupture
  119. Ventricular fibrillation
  120. Walking wounded
  121. Watershed stroke
  122. Wilderness first aid
  123. Wound
 



THE BOOK OF MEDICAL EMERGENCIES
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hospital

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Hospital

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick.
A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. German engraving from 1682.
A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. German engraving from 1682.

A hospital is an institution for health care provided by physicians, surgeons, nurses, and other professionals.

Terminology

During the Middle Ages the hospital could serve other functions, such as almshouse for the poor, or hostel for pilgrims. The name comes from Latin hospes (host), which is also the root for the English words hotel, hostel, and hospitality. The modern word hotel derives from the French word hostel, which featured a silent s, which was eventually removed from the word; French for hospital is hôpital.

Some patients just come for diagnosis and/or therapy and then leave (outpatients); while others are admitted and stay overnight or for several weeks or months (inpatients). Hospitals are usually distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients.

Grammar of the word differs slightly depending on the dialect. In the U.S., hospital usually requires an article; in Britain and elsewhere, the word is normally used without an article when it is the object of a preposition and when referring to a patient ("in/to the hospital" vs. "in/to hospital"); in Canada, both usages are found.

Types

General hospitals

A hospital run by the National Health Service in the United Kingdom.
A hospital run by the National Health Service in the United Kingdom.
A hospital run by the Department of Veterans Affairs in the United States.
A hospital run by the Department of Veterans Affairs in the United States.

The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, (in the UK known as a District General Hospital) which is set up to deal with many kinds of disease and injury, and typically has an emergency ward/A&E department to deal with immediate threats to health and the capacity to dispatch emergency medical services. A general hospital is typically the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care and long-term care; and specialized facilities for surgery, plastic surgery, childbirth, bioassay laboratories, and so forth. Larger cities may have many different hospitals of varying sizes and facilities.

Very large hospitals are often called Medical Centers in the US and usually conduct operations in virtually every field of modern medicine.

Most hospitals in the UK are run by the National Health Service.

Specialized hospitals

Types of specialized hospitals include trauma centers, children's hospitals, seniors' (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric problems (see psychiatric hospital), pulmonary diseases, and so forth.

A hospital may be a single building or a campus. Some hospitals are affiliated with universities for medical research and the training of medical personnel. Within the United States, many hospitals are for-profit, while elsewhere in the world most are non-profit.

Clinics

A medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic, and is often run by a government agency for health services or a private partnership of physicians (in nations where private practice is allowed). Clinics generally provide only outpatient services.

Other facilities

Many hospitals have hospital volunteer programs where people (usually students and senior citizens) can volunteer and provide various ancillary services.

Most cities (especially in the U.S.) have laws that require hospitals to have alternative backup power generators, in case of a blackout. Additionally they may be placed on special high priority segments of the public works (utilities) infrastructure to insure continuity of care during a state of emergency.

History

Early history of hospitals

In ancient cultures, religion and medicine were linked. The earliest known institutions aiming to provide cure were Egyptian temples. Greek temples dedicated to the healer-god Asclepius might admit the sick, who would wait for guidance from the god in a dream. The Romans adopted his worship. Under his Roman name Æsculapius, he was provided with a temple (291 BC) on an island in the Tiber in Rome, where similar rites were performed.[1]

Early hospitals in Asia

The Sinhalese (Sri Lankans) are perhaps responsible for introducing the concept of dedicated hospitals to the world. According to the Mahavamsa, the ancient chronicle of Sinhalese royalty written in the 6th century A.D., King Pandukabhaya (4th century BC) had lying-in-homes and hospitals (Sivikasotthi-Sala) built in various parts of the country. This is the earliest documentary evidence we have of institutions specifically dedicated to the care of the sick anywhere in the world.[2] Mihintale Hospital is perhaps the oldest in the world.[3]

Institutions created specifically to care for the ill also appeared early in India. King Ashoka founded 18 hospitals c. 230 BC. There were physicians and nursing staff, and the expense was borne by the royal treasury.[4] State-supported hospitals later appeared in China during the first millennium A.D.

The first teaching hospital, however, where students were authorized to methodically practice on patients under the supervision of physicians as part of their education, was the Academy of Gundishapur in the Persian Empire. One expert has argued that "to a very large extent, the credit for the whole hospital system must be given to Persia". [5]

Hospitals in the Roman Empire

The Romans created valetudinaria for the care of sick slaves, gladiators and soldiers around 100 BC. The adoption of Christianity as the state religion of the empire drove an expansion of the provision of care, but not just for the sick. The First Council of Nicaea in 325 A.D. urged the Church to provide for the poor, sick, widows and strangers. It ordered the construction of a hospital in every cathedral town. Among the earliest were those built by the physician Saint Sampson in Constantinople and by Basil, bishop of Caesarea. The latter was attached to a monastery and provided lodgings for poor and travelers, as well as treating the sick and infirm. There was a separate section for lepers.[6]

Hospitals in medieval Europe

Medieval hospitals in Europe followed a similar pattern. They were religious communities, with care provided by monks and nuns. (An old French term for hospital is hôtel-Dieu, "hostel of God.") Some were attached to monasteries; others were independent and had their own endowments, usually of property, which provided income for their support. Some hospitals were multi-function while others were founded for specific purposes such as leper hospitals, or as refuges for the poor or for pilgrims: not all cared for the sick.

Hospitals in the medieval Islamic world

Meanwhile Muslim hospitals developed a high standard of care between the eighth and twelfth centuries A.D. Hospitals built in Baghdad in the ninth and tenth centuries employed up to twenty-five staff physicians and had separate wards for different conditions.

Hospitals in the modern era

In Europe the medieval concept of Christian care evolved during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries into a secular one, but it was in the eighteenth century that the modern hospital began to appear, serving only medical needs and staffed with physicians and surgeons. The Charité (founded in Berlin in 1710) is an early example.

Hospicio Cabañas was the largest hospital in colonial America.
Hospicio Cabañas was the largest hospital in colonial America.

Guy's Hospital was founded in London in 1724 from a bequest by wealthy merchant Thomas Guy. Other hospitals sprang up in London and other British cities over the century, many paid for by private subscriptions. In the British American colonies the Pennsylvania General Hospital was chartered in Philadelphia in 1751, after £2,000 from private subscription was matched by funds from the Assembly.[7]

When the Viennese General Hospital (Allgemeines Krankenhaus) opened in 1784 (instantly becoming the world's largest hospital), physicians acquired a new facility that gradually developed into the most important research center. During the 19th century, the Second Viennese Medical School emerged with the contributions of physicians such as Karl Rokitansky, Josef Skoda, Ferdinand von Hebra and Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis. Basic medical science expanded and specialization advanced. Furthermore, the first dermatology, eye, as well as ear, nose and throat clinics in the world were founded in Vienna - it was the birth of specialized medicine.

By the mid-nineteenth century most of Europe and the United States had established a variety of public and private hospital systems. In Continental Europe the new hospitals were generally built and run from public funds. In the UK the giant State-run National Health Service, founded in 1948 and one of the world's five largest employers, dominates the hospital sector.

In the United States the traditional hospital is a non-profit hospital, usually sponsored by a religious denomination. One of the earliest of these "almshouses" in what would become the United States was started by William Penn in Philadelphia in 1713. These hospitals are tax-exempt due to their charitable purpose, but provide only a minimum of charitable medical care. They are supplemented by large public hospitals in major cities and research hospitals often affiliated with a medical school. In the late twentieth century chains of for-profit hospitals arose. Today hospitals are considered to be also a reputation for being the modern "entrance" to life (reference to the high number of hospital births), and life's "exit" (reference to the numerous deaths in hosptials).

Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, and Other Systems

The surgical, special procedures, radiological, intensive care unit, and patient rooms typically have medical gases, emergency and normal electrical power, and heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems.

Electrical

The reliability of the electrical power systems that serve a hospital is important. In order to provide higher electrical reliability, the National Institutes of Health, NIH, requires that all secondary substations > 500 kVA at their Bethesda, MD campus be the spot network type. The spot network substations cost more than other arrangements.

Pneumatic Tube Conveying Systems

Pneumatic tube conveying systems are often used to move the actual paper prescriptions for medicines to the Pharmacies, and to move medicines, especially intra-venous, IV, bags to the patient care rooms. Tissue samples can be sent to the Laboratory. Medical notes can be transcribed, printed, and then transported via a Pneumatic Tube Conveying System.

As measured by the weight of the item be transferred, the 6” diameter tube systems have about 225% of the lifting and moving capacity of a 4” system. When the seals are new, the 4” tube carriers will move a 2+ pound IV bag. But when the seals on the tube carriers are worn, the tubes can stop moving in the piping, and require a trained technician to recover the tube carrier.

Notes

  1. ^ Roderick E. McGrew, Encyclopedia of Medical History (Macmillan 1985), pp.134-5.
  2. ^ Prof. Arjuna Aluvihare, "Rohal Kramaya Lovata Dhayadha Kale Sri Lankikayo" Vidhusara Science Magazine, Nov. 1993.
  3. ^ Heinz E Muller-Dietz, Historia Hospitalium (1975).
  4. ^ Roderick E. McGrew, Encyclopedia of Medical History (Macmillan 1985), p.135.
  5. ^ C. Elgood, A Medical History of Persia, (Cambridge Univ. Press), p. 173.
  6. ^ Roderick E. McGrew, Encyclopedia of Medical History (Macmillan 1985), p.135.
  7. ^ Roderick E. McGrew, Encyclopedia of Medical History (Macmillan 1985), p.139.

See also

Look up Hospital in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta
  • Field hospital
  • Sanatorium
  • Mihintale
  • French white plan
  • List of hospitals
  • Length of stay
  • Hospital information system
  • Nosocomial infection
  • Triage
  • Tertiary referral hospital
  • Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham Largest Hospital in the United Kingdom and largest teaching hospital in Europe

External links

  • Jean Manco, The Heritage of Mercy covers medieval hospitals in Britain.
  • Last Resort: Hospital Care in Canada — Illustrated Historical Essay
  • Gillette Children's Specialty Healthcare
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hospital"
 

 

 

 

 

 
CONDIZIONI DI USO DI QUESTO SITO
L'utente può utilizzare il nostro sito solo se comprende e accetta quanto segue:

  • Le risorse linguistiche gratuite presentate in questo sito si possono utilizzare esclusivamente per uso personale e non commerciale con tassativa esclusione di ogni condivisione comunque effettuata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. La riproduzione anche parziale è vietata senza autorizzazione scritta.
  • Il nome del sito EnglishGratis è esclusivamente un marchio e un nome di dominio internet che fa riferimento alla disponibilità sul sito di un numero molto elevato di risorse gratuite e non implica dunque alcuna promessa di gratuità relativamente a prodotti e servizi nostri o di terze parti pubblicizzati a mezzo banner e link, o contrassegnati chiaramente come prodotti a pagamento (anche ma non solo con la menzione "Annuncio pubblicitario"), o comunque menzionati nelle pagine del sito ma non disponibili sulle pagine pubbliche, non protette da password, del sito stesso.
  • La pubblicità di terze parti è in questo momento affidata al servizio Google AdSense che sceglie secondo automatismi di carattere algoritmico gli annunci di terze parti che compariranno sul nostro sito e sui quali non abbiamo alcun modo di influire. Non siamo quindi responsabili del contenuto di questi annunci e delle eventuali affermazioni o promesse che in essi vengono fatte!
  • Coloro che si iscrivono alla nostra newsletter (iscrizione caratterizzatalla da procedura double opt-in) accettano di ricevere saltuariamente delle comunicazioni di carattere informativo sulle novità del sito e, occasionalmente, delle offerte speciali relative a prodotti linguistici a pagamento sia nostri che di altre aziende. In ogni caso chiunque può disiscriversi semplicemente cliccando sulla scritta Cancella l'iscrizione che si trova in fondo alla newsletter, non è quindi necessario scriverci per chiedere esplicitamente la cancellazione dell'iscrizione.
  • L'utente, inoltre, accetta di tenere Casiraghi Jones Publishing SRL indenne da qualsiasi tipo di responsabilità per l'uso - ed eventuali conseguenze di esso - degli esercizi e delle informazioni linguistiche e grammaticali contenute sul siti. Le risposte grammaticali sono infatti improntate ad un criterio di praticità e pragmaticità più che ad una completezza ed esaustività che finirebbe per frastornare, per l'eccesso di informazione fornita, il nostro utente.

     

    ENGLISHGRATIS.COM è un sito di Casiraghi Jones Publishing SRL
    Piazzale Cadorna 10 - 20123 Milano - Italia
    Tel. 02-36.55.30.40 - email:
    Iscritta al Registro Imprese di MILANO - C.F. e PARTITA IVA: 11603360154
    Iscritta al R.E.A. di Milano n.1478561 • Capitale Sociale
    10.400 interamente versato

    Roberto Casiraghi                                                                                Crystal Jones