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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Acute abdomen
  2. Acute coronary syndrome
  3. Acute pancreatitis
  4. Acute renal failure
  5. Agonal respiration
  6. Air embolism
  7. Ambulance
  8. Amnesic shellfish poisoning
  9. Anaphylaxis
  10. Angioedema
  11. Aortic dissection
  12. Appendicitis
  13. Artificial respiration
  14. Asphyxia
  15. Asystole
  16. Autonomic dysreflexia
  17. Bacterial meningitis
  18. Barotrauma
  19. Blast injury
  20. Bleeding
  21. Bowel obstruction
  22. Burn
  23. Carbon monoxide poisoning
  24. Cardiac arrest
  25. Cardiac arrhythmia
  26. Cardiac tamponade
  27. Cardiogenic shock
  28. Cardiopulmonary arrest
  29. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  30. Catamenial pneumothorax
  31. Cerebral hemorrhage
  32. Chemical burn
  33. Choking
  34. Chronic pancreatitis
  35. Cincinnati Stroke Scale
  36. Clinical depression
  37. Cord prolapse
  38. Decompression sickness
  39. Dental emergency
  40. Diabetic coma
  41. Diabetic ketoacidosis
  42. Distributive shock
  43. Drowning
  44. Drug overdose
  45. Eclampsia
  46. Ectopic pregnancy
  47. Electric shock
  48. Emergency medical services
  49. Emergency medical technician
  50. Emergency medicine
  51. Emergency room
  52. Emergency telephone number
  53. Epiglottitis
  54. Epilepsia partialis continua
  55. Frostbite
  56. Gastrointestinal perforation
  57. Gynecologic hemorrhage
  58. Heat syncope
  59. HELLP syndrome
  60. Hereditary pancreatitis
  61. Hospital
  62. Hydrocephalus
  63. Hypercapnia
  64. Hyperemesis gravidarum
  65. Hyperkalemia
  66. Hypertensive emergency
  67. Hyperthermia
  68. Hypoglycemia
  69. Hypothermia
  70. Hypovolemia
  71. Internal bleeding
  72. Ketoacidosis
  73. Lactic acidosis
  74. Lethal dose
  75. List of medical emergencies
  76. Malaria
  77. Malignant hypertension
  78. Medical emergency
  79. Meningitis
  80. Neuroglycopenia
  81. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
  82. Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma
  83. Obstetrical hemorrhage
  84. Outdoor Emergency Care
  85. Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection
  86. Paralytic shellfish poisoning
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  89. Peritonitis
  90. Physical trauma
  91. Placenta accreta
  92. Pneumothorax
  93. Positional asphyxia
  94. Pre-eclampsia
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  96. Psychotic depression
  97. Respiratory arrest
  98. Respiratory failure
  99. Retinal detachment
  100. Revised Trauma Score
  101. Sepsis
  102. Septic arthritis
  103. Septic shock
  104. Sexual assault
  105. Shock
  106. Simple triage and rapid treatment
  107. Soy allergy
  108. Spinal cord compression
  109. Status epilepticus
  110. Stroke
  111. Temporal arteritis
  112. Testicular torsion
  113. Toxic epidermal necrolysis
  114. Toxidrome
  115. Triage
  116. Triage tag
  117. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
  118. Uterine rupture
  119. Ventricular fibrillation
  120. Walking wounded
  121. Watershed stroke
  122. Wilderness first aid
  123. Wound
 



THE BOOK OF MEDICAL EMERGENCIES
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acute_renal_failure

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Acute renal failure

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Acute renal failure (ARF) is a rapid loss of renal function due to damage to the kidneys, resulting in retention of nitrogenous (urea and creatinine) and non-nitrogenous waste products that are normally excreted by the kidney. Depending on the severity and duration of the renal dysfunction, this accumulation is accompanied by metabolic disturbances, such as metabolic acidosis (acidification of the blood) and hyperkalaemia (elevated potassium levels), changes in body fluid balance, and effects on many other organ systems. It can be characterised by oliguria or anuria (decrease or cessation of urine production), although nonoliguric ARF may occur. It is a serious disease and treated as a medical emergency.

Causes

Renal failure, whether chronic or acute, is usually categorised (as in the flowchart below) according to pre-renal, renal and post-renal causes.

  • Pre-renal (causes in the blood supply):
    • hypotension (decreased blood supply), usually from shock or dehydration and fluid loss.
    • hepatorenal syndrome in which renal perfusion is compromised in liver failure
    • vascular problems, such as atheroembolic disease and renal vein thrombosis (which can occur as a complication of the nephrotic syndrome)
  • Renal (damage to the kidney itself):
    • infection usually sepsis (systemic inflammation due to infection),rarely of the kidney itself, termed pyelonephritis
    • toxins or medication (e.g. some NSAIDs, aminoglycoside antibiotics, iodinated contrast, lithium)
    • rhabdomyolysis (breakdown of muscle tissue) - the resultant release of myoglobin in the blood affects the kidney; it can be caused by injury (especially crush injury and extensive blunt trauma), statins, MDMA (ecstasy) and some other drugs
    • hemolysis (breakdown of red blood cells) - the hemoglobin damages the tubules; it may be caused by various conditions such as sickle-cell disease, and lupus erythematosus
    • multiple myeloma, either due to hypercalcemia or "cast nephropathy" (multiple myeloma can also cause chronic renal failure by a different mechanism)
    • Acute glomerulonephritis which may due to a variety of causes, such as anti glomerular basement membrane disease/Goodpasture's syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis or acute lupus nephritis with systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Post-renal (obstructive causes in the urinary tract) due to:
    • medication interfering with normal bladder emptying.
    • benign prostatic hypertrophy or prostate cancer.
    • kidney stones.
    • due to abdominal malignancy (e.g. ovarian cancer, colorectal cancer).
    • obstructed urinary catheter.

Researchers also report finding a significant association between smoking, heavy alcohol intake and chronic kidney disease.

Diagnosis

Renal failure is generally diagnosed either when creatinine or blood urea nitrogen tests are markedly elevated in an ill patient, especially when oliguria is present. Previous measurements of renal function may offer comparison, which is especially important if a patient is known to have chronic renal failure as well. If the cause is not apparent, a large amount of blood tests and examination of a urine specimen is typically performed to elucidate the cause of acute renal failure, medical ultrasonography of the renal tract is essential to rule out obstruction of the urinary tract.

Consensus criteria[1][2] for the diagnosis of ARF are:

  • Risk: serum creatinine increased 1.5 times OR urine production of <0.5 ml/kg body weight for 6 hours
  • Injury: creatinine 2.0 times OR urine production <0.5 ml/kg for 12 h
  • Failure: creatinine 3.0 times OR creatinine >355 μmol/l (with a rise of >44) or urine output below 0.3 ml/kg for 24 h
  • Loss: persistent ARF or more than four weeks complete loss of kidney function

Kidney biopsy may be performed in the setting of acute renal failure, to provide a definitive diagnosis and sometimes an idea of the prognosis, unless the cause is clear and appropriate screening investigations are reassuringly negative.

Treatment

Acute renal failure may be reversible if treated promptly and appropriately. The main interventions are monitoring fluid intake and output as closely as possible; insertion of a urinary catheter is useful for monitoring urine output as well as relieving possible bladder outlet obstruction, such as with an enlarged prostate. In the absence of fluid overload, administering intravenous fluids is typically the first step to improve renal function. Fluid administration may be monitored with the use of a central venous catheter to avoid over or under replacement of fluid. If the cause is obstruction of the urinary tract, relief of the obstruction (with a nephrostomy or urinary catheter) may be necessary. Metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia, the two most serious biochemical manifestations of acute renal failure, may require medical treatment with sodium bicarbonate administration and antihyperkalemic measures, unless dialysis is required.

Should hypotension prove a persistent problem in the fluid replete patient, dopamine or other inotropes may be given to improve cardiac output and renal perfusion. A Swan-Ganz catheter may be used, to measure pulmonary artery occlusion pressure to provide a guide to left atrial pressure (and thus left heart function) as a target for inotropic support.

Lack of improvement with fluid resuscitation, therapy-resistant hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis or fluid overload may necessitate artificial support in the form of dialysis or hemofiltration. Depending on the cause, a proportion of patients will never regain full renal function, thus having end stage renal failure requiring lifelong dialysis or a kidney transplant.

History

Before the advancement of modern medicine acute renal failure might be referred to as uremic poisoning. Uremia was the term used to describe the contamination of the blood with urine. Starting around 1847 this term was used to describe reduced urine output, now known as oliguria, that was thought to be caused by the urine mixing with the blood instead of being voided through the urethra.

Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis (ATN) was recognised in the 1940s in the United Kingdom, where crush victims during the Battle of Britain developed patchy necrosis of renal tubules, leading to a sudden decrease in renal function.[3] During the Korean and Vietnam wars, the incidence of ARF decreased due to better acute management and intravenous infusion of fluids.[4]

See also

  • Chronic renal failure
  • Hepatorenal syndrome
  • Dialysis

References

  1. ^ Bellomo R, Ronco C, Kellum JA, Mehta RL, Palevsky P; Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative workgroup. Acute renal failure - definition, outcome measures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs: the Second International Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Group. Crit Care. 2004 Aug;8(4):R204-12. Epub 2004 May 24. PMID 15312219 Full Text. Criteria for ARF (Figure).
  2. ^ Lameire N, Van Biesen W, Vanholder R. Acute renal failure. Lancet 2005;365:417-30. PMID 15680458.
  3. ^ Bywaters EG, Beall D. Crush injuries with impairment of renal function. Br Med J 1941;1:427-32. Reprinted in J Am Soc Nephrol 1998;9:322-32. PMID 9527411.
  4. ^ Schrier RW, Wang W, Polle B, Mitra A. Acute renal failure: definitions, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and therapy. J Clin Invest 2004;114:5-14. PMID 15232604. Full text.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acute_renal_failure"

 

 

 

 

 
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