From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cardiogenic shock is based upon an inadequate circulation of blood due to primary failure of the ventricles of the heart to function effectively.    
Since this is a category of shock there is insufficient perfusion of tissue (i.e. the heart) to meet the required demand for oxygen and nutrients. This leads to cell death from oxygen starvation, hypoxia. Because of this it may lead to cardiac arrest (or circulatory arrest) which is an acute cessation of cardiac pump function.
Cardiogenic shock is caused by the failure of the heart to pump effectively. It can be due to damage to the heart muscle, most often from a large myocardial infarction. Other causes include arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, cardiac valve problems, ventricular outflow obstruction (i.e. aortic valve stenosis, aortic dissection, systolic anterior motion (SAM) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), ventriculoseptal defects or medical error.       
Signs and symptoms
- Anxiety, restlessness, altered mental state due to decreased cerebral perfusion and subsequent hypoxia.
- Hypotension due to decrease in cardiac output.
- A rapid, weak, thready pulse due to decreased circulation combined with tachcardia.
- Cool, clammy, and mottled skin (cutis marmorata), due to vasoconstriction and subsequent hypoperfusion of the skin.
- Distended jugular veins due to increased jugular venous pressure.
- Oliguria (low urine output) due insufficient renal perfusion if condition persists.
- Rapid and deep respirations (hyperventilation) due to sympathetic nervous system stimulation and acidosis.
- Fatigue due to hyperventilation and hypoxia.
- Absent pulse in tachyarrhythmia.
An Electrocardiogram helps establishing the exact diagnosis and guides treatment, it may reveal:
- Cardiac arrhythmias
- Signs of cardiomyopathy
Echocardiography may show arrhythmia, signs of PED, ventricular septal rupture (VSR), an obstructed outflow tract or cardiomyopathy.
The Swan-ganz catheter or Pulmonary artery catheter may assist in the diagnosis by providing information on the hemodynamics.
In case of suspected cardiomyopathy a biopsy of heart muscle may be needed to make a definite diagnosis.
In cardiogenic shock: depending on the type of myocardal infarction one can infuse fluids or in shock refractory to infusing fluids inotropica. In case of cardiac arrhythmia several anti-arrhythmic agents may be administered, i.e. adenosine, verapamil, amiodarone, β-blocker. Positive inotropic agents, which enhance the heart's pumping capabilities, are used to improve the contractility and correct the hypotension. Should that not suffice an intra-aortic balloon pump (which reduces workload for the heart, and improves perfusion of the coronary arteries) can be considered or a left ventricular assist device (which augments the pump-function of the heart).   
- Intra-aortic balloon pump
- Ventricular assist device
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- ^ a b c The ICU Book by Paul Marino MD, PhD, Second Edition (1997), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 0-683-05565-8
- ^ a b c Fundamental Critical Care Support, A standardized curriculum of Critical Care by the Society of Critical Care Medicine
- ^ a b c Textbooks of Internal Medicine
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- Cecil Textbook of Medicine by Lee Goldman, Dennis Ausiello, 22nd Edtion (2003), W.B. Saunders Company, ISBN 0-7216-9652-X
- The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Edited by David A. Warrell, Timothy M. Cox and John D. Firth with Edward J. Benz, Fourth Edition (2003), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-262922-0
- ^ a b Shock: An Overview PDF by Michael L. Cheatham, MD, Ernest F.J. Block, MD, Howard G. Smith, MD, John T. Promes, MD, Surgical Critical Care Service, Department of Surgical Education, Orlando Regional Medical Center Orlando, Florida
- ^ Cardiogenic shock Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care of The Chinese University of Hong Kong
- ^ Introduction to management of shock for junior ICU trainees and medical students Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care of The Chinese University of Hong Kong
- Irwin, R.S., Rippe, J.M., Curley, F.J., Heard, S.O. (1997) Procedures and Techniques in Intensive Care Medicine (3rd edition). Boston: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.
- Marino, P. (1997) The ICU Book. (2nd edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.
- Cardiogenic Shock by eMedicine