New Page 1




Selettore risorse   



                                         IL Metodo  |  Grammatica  |  RISPOSTE GRAMMATICALI  |  Multiblog  |  INSEGNARE AGLI ADULTI  |  INSEGNARE AI BAMBINI  |  AudioBooks  |  RISORSE SFiziosE  |  Articoli  |  Tips  | testi pAralleli  |  VIDEO SOTTOTITOLATI
                                                                                         ESERCIZI :   Serie 1 - 2 - 3  - 4 - 5  SERVIZI:   Pronunciatore di inglese - Dizionario - Convertitore IPA/UK - IPA/US - Convertitore di valute in lire ed euro                                              




- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Atom
  2. Audioblogging
  3. Blog Carnival
  4. Blogcast
  5. Blog feed
  6. Blog fiction
  8. Bloggies
  9. Blogosphere
  10. Blogroll
  11. Blog software
  12. Citizen journalism
  13. Collaborative blog
  14. Community Server
  15. Content Management System
  16. Corporate blog
  17. Dooce
  18. Edublog
  19. Electronic literature
  20. Escribitionist
  21. Facebook
  22. Flaming
  23. Forum moderator
  24. Fotolog
  25. GNU General Public License
  26. Google bomb
  27. Google Reader
  28. Inauthentic Text
  29. International Weblogger's Day
  30. Internet Troll
  31. Linkback
  32. Link rot
  33. List of blogging terms
  34. LiveJournal
  35. Massively distributed collaboration
  36. Micropatronage
  37. Moblog
  38. Moderation system
  39. Movable Type
  40. MySpace
  41. MySQL
  42. News aggregator
  43. Online diary
  44. OPML
  45. PageRank
  46. Permalink
  47. Personal journal
  48. Photoblog
  49. Pingback
  50. Ping-server
  51. Podcasting
  52. Political blog
  53. Project blog
  54. Rating community
  55. Reputation management
  56. Reputation system
  57. RSS
  58. Social media
  59. Spam blog
  60. Spamdexing
  61. Spam in blogs
  62. Sping
  63. Technorati
  64. TrackBack
  65. User generated content
  66. Virtual Community
  67. Vlog
  68. Weblog
  69. Windows Live Spaces
  71. Wordpress
  72. Yahoo 360°
  73. YouTube



L'utente può utilizzare il nostro sito solo se comprende e accetta quanto segue:

  • Le risorse linguistiche gratuite presentate in questo sito si possono utilizzare esclusivamente per uso personale e non commerciale con tassativa esclusione di ogni condivisione comunque effettuata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. La riproduzione anche parziale è vietata senza autorizzazione scritta.
  • Il nome del sito EnglishGratis è esclusivamente un marchio e un nome di dominio internet che fa riferimento alla disponibilità sul sito di un numero molto elevato di risorse gratuite e non implica dunque alcuna promessa di gratuità relativamente a prodotti e servizi nostri o di terze parti pubblicizzati a mezzo banner e link, o contrassegnati chiaramente come prodotti a pagamento (anche ma non solo con la menzione "Annuncio pubblicitario"), o comunque menzionati nelle pagine del sito ma non disponibili sulle pagine pubbliche, non protette da password, del sito stesso.
  • La pubblicità di terze parti è in questo momento affidata al servizio Google AdSense che sceglie secondo automatismi di carattere algoritmico gli annunci di terze parti che compariranno sul nostro sito e sui quali non abbiamo alcun modo di influire. Non siamo quindi responsabili del contenuto di questi annunci e delle eventuali affermazioni o promesse che in essi vengono fatte!
  • L'utente, inoltre, accetta di tenerci indenni da qualsiasi tipo di responsabilità per l'uso - ed eventuali conseguenze di esso - degli esercizi e delle informazioni linguistiche e grammaticali contenute sul siti. Le risposte grammaticali sono infatti improntate ad un criterio di praticità e pragmaticità più che ad una completezza ed esaustività che finirebbe per frastornare, per l'eccesso di informazione fornita, il nostro utente. La segnalazione di eventuali errori è gradita e darà luogo ad una immediata rettifica.


    ENGLISHGRATIS.COM è un sito personale di
    Roberto Casiraghi e Crystal Jones
    email: robertocasiraghi at iol punto it

    Roberto Casiraghi           
    INFORMATIVA SULLA PRIVACY              Crystal Jones

    Siti amici:  Lonweb Daisy Stories English4Life Scuolitalia
    Sito segnalato da INGLESE.IT


This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 

Google bomb

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A Google bomb (also referred to as a 'link bomb') is Internet slang for a certain kind of attempt to influence the ranking of a given page in results returned by the Google search engine, often with humorous or political intentions.[1] Because of the way that Google's algorithm works, a page will be ranked higher if the sites that link to that page use consistent anchor text. A Google bomb is created if a large number of sites link to the page in this manner. Google bomb is used both as a verb and a noun. The phrase "Google bombing" was introduced to the New Oxford American Dictionary in May 2005.[2] Google bombing is closely related to spamdexing, the practice of deliberately modifying HTML pages to increase the chance of their being placed close to the beginning of search engine results, or to influence the category to which the page is assigned in a misleading or dishonest manner.

The term Googlewashing was coined in 2003 to describe the use of media manipulation to change the perception of a term, or push out competition from search engine results pages (SERPs).[3]


The first Google bombs were probably accidental. Users would discover that a particular search term would bring up an interesting result, leading many to believe that Google's results could be manipulated intentionally. The first Google bomb known about by a significant number of people was the one that caused the search term "more evil than satan himself" to bring up the Microsoft homepage as the top result. Numerous people have made claims to having been responsible for the Microsoft Google bomb, though none have been verified.[4]

In September of 2000 the first Google bomb with a verifiable creator was created by Hugedisk Men's Magazine, a now-defunct online humor magazine, when it linked the text "dumb motherfucker" to a site selling George W. Bush-related merchandise. A Google search for this term would return the pro-Bush online store as its top result.[5] Hugedisk had also unsuccessfully attempted to Google bomb an equally derogatory term to bring up an Al Gore-related site. After a fair amount of publicity the George W. Bush-related merchandise site retained lawyers who sent a cease and desist letter to Hugedisk and that was the end of the first verifiable Google bomb.[6]

In April 6, 2001 in an article in the online zine Adam Mathes is credited with coining the term "Google Bombing." In the article Mathes details his connection of the search term "talentless hack" to the website of his friend Andy Pressman by recruiting fellow webloggers to link to his friend's page with the desired term.[7]

Life cycle of a bomb

Google bombs often end their life by becoming too popular or well known: they typically end up being mentioned in multiple well-regarded websites, which themselves then knock the bomb off the top spot.

In addition, all major search engines make use of link analysis and thus can be impacted: a search for "miserable failure" or "failure" on September 29, 2006 brought up the official George W. Bush biography number one on Google, Yahoo! and MSN and number two on On June 2, 2005, Yooter reported that George Bush is now ranked first for the keyword 'miserable', 'failure' and 'miserable failure' in both Google and Yahoo!. And on September 16, 2005, Marissa Mayer wrote on Google Blog about the practice of Google bombing and the word "failure." (See Google's response below). Other large political figures have been targeted for Google bombs: on January 6, 2006, Yooter reported that Tony Blair is now indexed in the U.S. and UK versions of Google for the keyword 'liar'.

The BBC, reporting on Google bombs in 2002, actually used the headline "Google Hit By Link Bombers"[8], acknowledging to some degree the idea of "link bombing." In 2004, the Search Engine Watch site suggested that the term should be "link bombing" because of the impact beyond Google, and continues to use that term as it is considered more accurate.[9]

Other effects

In some cases, the phenomenon has produced competing attempts to use the same search term as a Google bomb. As a result, the first result at any given time varies, but the targeted sites will occupy all the top slots using a normal search instead of "I'm feeling lucky". Notable instances of this include "failure" and "miserable failure". The primary target has been the Bush biography mentioned above.

Other search engines use similar techniques to rank results, so Yahoo!, AltaVista, and HotBot are also affected by Google bombs. A search of "miserable failure" or "failure" on the aforementioned search engines produces the biography of George W. Bush listed at the White House site as the first link on the list. Only a few search engines, such as, Google, MetaCrawler and ProFusion, do not produce the same first links as the rest of the search engines. MetaCrawler and ProFusion are metasearch engines which use multiple search engines.

Google's response

Google defends its search algorithm as generally effective and an accurate reflection of opinion on the Internet. They further state that, though some may be offended by the links which appear as the result of Google bombs, that Google has little or no control over the practice and will not individually edit search results due to the fact that a bomb may have occurred.

Marissa Mayer, Director of Consumer Web Products for Google, wrote on the official Google Blog in September 2005:[10]

We don't condone the practice of Google bombing, or any other action that seeks to affect the integrity of our search results, but we're also reluctant to alter our results by hand in order to prevent such items from showing up. Pranks like this may be distracting to some, but they don't affect the overall quality of our search service, whose objectivity, as always, remains the core of our mission.

On January 25th, 2007 Google announced on its official Google Webmaster Central blog that they now have "an algorithm that minimizes the impact of many Googlebombs sic."[11] The algorithm change had an immediate effect, dropping the well-known "miserable failure" link to the White House off the front page. Instead, the page contained mainly pages which discuss the miserable failure bomb.[12]. A related Google bomb was the No.1 ranking held by Tony Blair's website for the term "liar". As of February 7, the bomb had disappeared.



In May 2004, the websites Dark Blue and SearchGuild teamed up to create what they termed the "SEO Challenge" to Google bomb the phrase "nigritude ultramarine".

The contest sparked controversy around the Internet, as some groups worried that search engine optimization (SEO) companies would abuse the techniques used in the competition to alter queries more relevant to the average user. This fear was offset by the belief that Google would alter their algorithm based on the methods used by the Google bombers.

In September 2004, another SEO contest was created. This time, the objective was to get the top result for the phrase "seraphim proudleduck". A large sum of money was offered to the winner, but the competition turned out to be a hoax.

In .net magazine, Issue 134, March 2005, a contest was created among five professional web site developers to make their site the number one listed site for the made-up phrase "crystalline incandescence".

Political activism

Main article: Political Google bombs

Some of the most famous Google bombs are also expressions of political opinion (e.g. "liar" leading to Tony Blair or "miserable failure", or even simply "failure" leading to the White House's biography of George W. Bush). In general, one of the keys to Google's popularity has been its ability to capture what ordinary web citizens believe to be important via the information provided in webpage links. However, Google is reluctant to stop organized or commercial exploitation of their algorithms.

One extremely successful, long-lasting and widespread link bomb has been the linking of the term "Scientology" to Operation Clambake. In this case, the index rating clearly emerges from both the individual decisions of pagewriters and reporters and an organized effort led by Operation Clambake itself. The Church of Scientology has also sometimes been accused of an attempt at Google bombing for making a large number of websites linking terms "Scientology" and "L. Ron Hubbard" to each other.[13]

In 2003, Steven Lerner, creator of Albino Blacksheep, created a parody webpage entitled "French Military Victories." When typed into Google, the first result leads to a page that resembles Google, which reads, "Your search - french military victories - did not match any documents. Did you mean french military defeats?" The page proved to be quite popular, as it received over 50,000 hits within 18 hours of its release. Links near the top of the page lead to a simplified list of French military history. The page is still first in results for "french military victories."[14]

In 2004, Jewish writer and activist Daniel Sieradski urged visitors to his blog to link to the Wikipedia article for "Jew" in response to findings that a search for "Jew" returned the anti-Semitic website Jew Watch at the top of the results. The campaign met with mixed success, temporarily displacing the site from the top result but not removing it from the top rankings altogether.[15]

Another campaign was organized by columnist Dan Savage after former US Senator Rick Santorum made several controversial statements regarding homosexuality. The Google bombing was part of Savage's campaign to start using the word "santorum" for a sexual term, and propelled the website created for that purpose to a high result for "santorum".[16]

In France, groups opposing the DADVSI copyright bill, proposed by minister Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, mounted a Google bombing campaign linking ministre blanchisseur ("laundering minister") to an article recalling Donnedieu de Vabres' conviction for money laundering. The campaign was so efficient that, as of 2006, merely searching for ministre ("minister") or blanchisseur ("launderer") brings up a news report of his conviction as one of the first results.[17]

In the 2006 US midterm elections, many left-leaning bloggers, led by, banded together to propel neutral or negative articles about many Republican House candidates to the top of Google searches for their names.[1] Right-wing bloggers also responded similarly.[18]

In 2004, after the controversy that erupted in the Philippines over the allegations that President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo had cheated in the elections, the phrase "pekeng pangulo" ("fake president") was linked to her official website.

In late 2006, many sites from Argentina linked to the president of the neighboring Uruguay, Tabaré Vázquez, as saying "Seré traidor, pero pagan bien" ("I might be a traitor, but their pay is good") after the Uruguayan president changed his position on the cellulose and woodpulp mills that were to be built in Uruguay. [19][citation needed]

In November 2006, a local environmental group on Saipan, Beautify CNMI!, decried the high PageRank of, a site critical of Saipan's social and political life, and the fact that anyone who searched with the keyword "Saipan" could find the website in the top-ten search result positions. The group published a plan to counter the website's ranking through a campaign of linkspamming via Googlebombing and text anchoring.[20] [21][22] In January 2007, Google announced they altered their search engine algorithm to significantly minimize the effectiveness of the technique.[23]

Commercial bombing

Main article: spamdexing

Some website operators have adapted Google bombing techniques to do spamdexing. This activity is commonly thought to be unscrupulous among internet users.[citation needed] This includes, among other techniques, posting of links to a site in an Internet forum along with phrases the promoter hopes to associate with the site (see Spam in blogs). Unlike conventional message board spam, the object is not to attract readers to the site directly, but to increase the site's ranking under those search terms. Promoters using this technique frequently target forums with low reader traffic, in hopes that it will fly under the moderators' radar. Wikis in particular are often the target of this kind of page rank vandalism, as all of the pages are freely editable.

Another technique is for the owner of an Internet domain name to set up the domain's DNS entry so that all subdomains are directed to the same server. The operator then sets up the server so that page requests generate a page full of desired Google search terms, each linking to a subdomain of the same site, with the same title as the subdomain in the requested URL. Frequently the subdomain matches the linked phrase, with spaces replaced by underscores or hyphens. Since Google treats subdomains as distinct sites, the effect of a large number of subdomains linking to each other is a boost to the PageRank of those subdomains and of any other site they link to.

On 2 February 2005, many have noticed changes in the Google algorithm that largely affects, among other things, Google bombs: only roughly 10% of the Google bombs worked as of 15 February 2005. This is largely due to Google refactoring its valuation of PageRank.[24]

Quixtar's bomb

Quixtar, a multi-level marketing company, has been accused by its critics of using its large network of websites to move sites critical of Quixtar lower in search engine rankings. A Quixtar IBO reports that a Quixtar leader advocated the practice in a meeting of Quixtar IBO's. Quixtar denies wrongdoing and states that its practices are in accordance with search engine rules.[25]

One weblog has engaged in anti-Quixtar google bombing, and openly advocates the practice.[26]


On January 25, 2007, Google announced that it would adjust its search algorithm in an attempt to minimize the results of Googlebombing. Now, searches for google-bombed keywords such as "miserable failure" turn up news articles describing the googlebomb rather than the googlebomb itself.[27] This appears to have minimised the impact of many well-known Google Bombs, although some (such as 'french military victories') appear to be little affected.

See also

  • Google juice
  • Googlewhack
  • Spamdexing
  • Link doping
  • 302 Google Jacking
  • Political Google bombs


  1. ^ a b Zeller, Tom Jr.. "A New Campaign Tactic: Manipulating Google Data", The New York Times (Late Edition (East Coast)), 26 October 2006, p. A.20. (Note: payment required, weblink goes to abstract.)
  2. ^ Price, Gary (May 16, 2005). Google and Google Bombing Now Included New Oxford American Dictionary. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved on 2007-01-29..
  3. ^ Orlowski, Andrew. "Anti-war slogan coined, repurposed and Googlewashed … in 42 days.", The Register, April 3, 2003. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  4. ^ Sullivan, Danny (March 18, 2002). Google Bombs Aren't So Scary. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved on 2007-01-29.
  5. ^ Manjoo, Fahrad. "Google Link is Bush League", Wired News, January 25, 2001. Retrieved on 2007-01-26.
  6. ^ Calore, Michael; Scott Gilbertson (January 26, 2001). Remembering the First Google Bomb. Wired News. Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  7. ^ Mathes, Adam (April 6, 2001). Filler Friday: Google Bombing.
  8. ^ "Google Hit By Link Bombers", BBC, 13 March 2002.
  9. ^ Yooter SEO blog
  10. ^ Article from Marissa Mayer on Google's official blog regarding Google bombing
  11. ^
  12. ^ Sullivan, Danny. (26 January 2007). Google Kills Bush's Miserable Failure Search & Other Google Bombs.. Search Engine Land. Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  13. ^ Report on Scientology's activities with Google.
  14. ^ Dalton, Richard J., Jr.. "Internet Parody Hands French Military a Defeat", Newsday, 13 March 2003, p. A.27. Retrieved on 2007-02-04. (payment required, link goes to abstract)
  15. ^ CNet article discussing the Google bomb.
  16. ^
  17. ^ French Web page describing "laundering minister" Google bomb.
  18. ^
  19. ^ Gualeguaychú: levantan un muro en la ruta a Uruguay. Clarín (4 November 2006). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  20. ^ Emmanuel T. Erediano (May 21, 2006). Beautify CNMI! to counter ‘Saipan Sucks’ Web site (HTML). Marianas Variety. Retrieved on 2006-11-23.
  21. ^ Bo Hill (Nov. 28, 2006). CNMI: Campaigners say Saipan doesn't suck (streaming audio ASX file). ABC Radio Australia. Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
  22. ^ Angelo Villagomez (May 24, 2006). Let's Do Something About Saipan Sucks! (HTML). Angelo Villagomez. Retrieved on 2006-11-23. Entry is also available at [1]. Villagomez is Restoration Chairman of Beautify CNMI! [2]
  23. ^ Jacqui Cheng (Jan. 26, 2007). Google defuses Googlebombs (HTML). News. ARS Technica. Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  24. ^ Google Answers explanation of algorithm changes.
  25. ^ Glaser, Mark. "Companies subvert search results to squelch criticism." June 1, 2005. USC Annenberg Online Journalism Review. Accessed December 1, 2006.
  26. ^ The Amway/Quixtar Google Bomb project
  27. ^ A quick word about Googlebombs by Matt Cutts of the Official Google Webmaster Central Blog, posted January 25, 2007.

External links

  • Deconstructing Google Bombs

News articles

  • Google hit by link bombers - BBC News, March 13, 2002
  • Top of the Heap - Business 2.0, July 2002 - Ego bombing
  • Engineering Google Results to Make a Point - NY Times, January 22, 2004
  • Student trying to 'bomb' Kerry - Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 16, 2004
  • Dropping 'Google-bombs' - San Diego Union-Tribune, June 14, 2004
  • The war on the web: Anthony Cox describes how his spoof error page turned into a 'Google bomb' for weapons of mass destruction. - The Guardian, July 10, 2003
Retrieved from ""