New Page 1




Selettore risorse   



                                         IL Metodo  |  Grammatica  |  RISPOSTE GRAMMATICALI  |  Multiblog  |  INSEGNARE AGLI ADULTI  |  INSEGNARE AI BAMBINI  |  AudioBooks  |  RISORSE SFiziosE  |  Articoli  |  Tips  | testi pAralleli  |  VIDEO SOTTOTITOLATI
                                                                                         ESERCIZI :   Serie 1 - 2 - 3  - 4 - 5  SERVIZI:   Pronunciatore di inglese - Dizionario - Convertitore IPA/UK - IPA/US - Convertitore di valute in lire ed euro                                              




- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Atom
  2. Audioblogging
  3. Blog Carnival
  4. Blogcast
  5. Blog feed
  6. Blog fiction
  8. Bloggies
  9. Blogosphere
  10. Blogroll
  11. Blog software
  12. Citizen journalism
  13. Collaborative blog
  14. Community Server
  15. Content Management System
  16. Corporate blog
  17. Dooce
  18. Edublog
  19. Electronic literature
  20. Escribitionist
  21. Facebook
  22. Flaming
  23. Forum moderator
  24. Fotolog
  25. GNU General Public License
  26. Google bomb
  27. Google Reader
  28. Inauthentic Text
  29. International Weblogger's Day
  30. Internet Troll
  31. Linkback
  32. Link rot
  33. List of blogging terms
  34. LiveJournal
  35. Massively distributed collaboration
  36. Micropatronage
  37. Moblog
  38. Moderation system
  39. Movable Type
  40. MySpace
  41. MySQL
  42. News aggregator
  43. Online diary
  44. OPML
  45. PageRank
  46. Permalink
  47. Personal journal
  48. Photoblog
  49. Pingback
  50. Ping-server
  51. Podcasting
  52. Political blog
  53. Project blog
  54. Rating community
  55. Reputation management
  56. Reputation system
  57. RSS
  58. Social media
  59. Spam blog
  60. Spamdexing
  61. Spam in blogs
  62. Sping
  63. Technorati
  64. TrackBack
  65. User generated content
  66. Virtual Community
  67. Vlog
  68. Weblog
  69. Windows Live Spaces
  71. Wordpress
  72. Yahoo 360°
  73. YouTube



L'utente può utilizzare il nostro sito solo se comprende e accetta quanto segue:

  • Le risorse linguistiche gratuite presentate in questo sito si possono utilizzare esclusivamente per uso personale e non commerciale con tassativa esclusione di ogni condivisione comunque effettuata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. La riproduzione anche parziale è vietata senza autorizzazione scritta.
  • Il nome del sito EnglishGratis è esclusivamente un marchio e un nome di dominio internet che fa riferimento alla disponibilità sul sito di un numero molto elevato di risorse gratuite e non implica dunque alcuna promessa di gratuità relativamente a prodotti e servizi nostri o di terze parti pubblicizzati a mezzo banner e link, o contrassegnati chiaramente come prodotti a pagamento (anche ma non solo con la menzione "Annuncio pubblicitario"), o comunque menzionati nelle pagine del sito ma non disponibili sulle pagine pubbliche, non protette da password, del sito stesso.
  • La pubblicità di terze parti è in questo momento affidata al servizio Google AdSense che sceglie secondo automatismi di carattere algoritmico gli annunci di terze parti che compariranno sul nostro sito e sui quali non abbiamo alcun modo di influire. Non siamo quindi responsabili del contenuto di questi annunci e delle eventuali affermazioni o promesse che in essi vengono fatte!
  • L'utente, inoltre, accetta di tenerci indenni da qualsiasi tipo di responsabilità per l'uso - ed eventuali conseguenze di esso - degli esercizi e delle informazioni linguistiche e grammaticali contenute sul siti. Le risposte grammaticali sono infatti improntate ad un criterio di praticità e pragmaticità più che ad una completezza ed esaustività che finirebbe per frastornare, per l'eccesso di informazione fornita, il nostro utente. La segnalazione di eventuali errori è gradita e darà luogo ad una immediata rettifica.


    ENGLISHGRATIS.COM è un sito personale di
    Roberto Casiraghi e Crystal Jones
    email: robertocasiraghi at iol punto it

    Roberto Casiraghi           
    INFORMATIVA SULLA PRIVACY              Crystal Jones

    Siti amici:  Lonweb Daisy Stories English4Life Scuolitalia
    Sito segnalato da INGLESE.IT


This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 

Atom (standard)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The name Atom applies to a pair of related standards. The Atom Syndication Format is an XML language used for web feeds, while the Atom Publishing Protocol (APP for short) is a simple HTTP-based protocol for creating and updating Web resources.

Web feeds allow software programs to check for updates published on a web site. To provide a web feed, a site owner may use specialized software (such as a content management system) that publishes a list (or "feed") of recent articles or content in a standardized, machine-readable format. The feed can then be downloaded by web sites that syndicate content from the feed, or by feed reader programs that allow Internet users to subscribe to feeds and view their content.

A feed contains entries, which may be headlines, full-text articles, excerpts, summaries, and/or links to content on a web site, along with various metadata.

The development of Atom was motivated by the existence of many incompatible versions of the RSS syndication format, all of which had shortcomings, and the poor interoperability [1] of XML-RPC-based publishing protocols. The Atom syndication format was published as an IETF "proposed standard" in RFC 4287. The Atom Publishing Protocol is still in draft form.


Web feeds are used by the weblog community to share the latest entries' headlines or their full text, and even attached multimedia files. (See podcasting, vodcasting, broadcasting, screencasting, Vloging, and MP3 blogs.) These providers allow other websites to incorporate the weblog's "syndicated" headline or headline-and-short-summary feeds under various usage agreements. Atom and other web syndication formats are now used for many purposes, including journalism, marketing, bug-reports, or any other activity involving periodic updates or publications. Atom also provides a standardized way to export an entire blog, or parts of it, for backup or for importing into other blogging systems.

A program known as a feed reader or aggregator can check webpages on behalf of a user and display any updated articles that it finds. It is common to find web feeds on major Web sites, as well as many smaller ones. Some websites let people choose between RSS or Atom formatted web feeds; others offer only RSS or only Atom. In particular, many blog and wiki sites offer their web feeds in the Atom format.

Client-side readers and aggregators may be designed as standalone programs or as extensions to existing programs like web browsers. Browsers are moving toward integrated feed reader functions, such as Safari RSS, Web Browser for S60, Opera, Firefox and Internet Explorer. Such programs are available for various operating systems.

Web-based feed readers and news aggregators require no software installation and make the user's "feeds" available on any computer with Web access. Some aggregators syndicate (combine) web feeds into new feeds, e.g., taking all football related items from several sports feeds and providing a new football feed. There are also search engines for content published via web feeds, including Technorati and Blogdigger.

On Web pages, web feeds (Atom or RSS) are typically linked the word "Subscribe" or with the unofficial web feed logo ().

Atom Compared to RSS 2.0

The main motivation for the development of Atom was dissatisfaction with RSS [2]. Among other things, there are multiple incompatible and widely adopted versions of RSS. The intention was to ease the difficulty of developing applications with web syndication feeds.

A brief description of the ways Atom 1.0 seeks to differentiate itself from RSS 2.0 follows [3], [4]:

  • RSS 2.0 may contain either plain text or escaped HTML as a payload, with no way to indicate which of the two is provided. Atom in contrast uses an explicitly labeled (i.e. typed) "entry" (payload) container. It allows for a wider variety of payload types including plain text, escaped HTML, XHTML, XML, Base64-encoded binary, and references to external content such as documents, video and audio streams, and so forth.
  • RSS 2.0 has a "description" element which can contain either a full entry or just a description. Atom has separate “summary” and “content” elements. Atom thus allows the inclusion of non-textual content that can be described by the summary.
  • Atom standardizes autodiscovery in contrast to the many non-standard variants used with RSS 2.0.
  • Atom is defined within an XML namespace whereas RSS 2.0 is not.
  • Atom specifies use of the XML's built-in xml:base for relative URIs. RSS 2.0 does not have a means of differentiating between relative and non-relative URIs.
  • Atom uses XML's built-in xml:lang attribute as opposed to RSS 2.0's use of its own "language" element.
  • In Atom, it is mandatory that each entry have a globally unique ID, which is important for reliable updating of entries.
  • Atom 1.0 allows standalone Atom Entry documents whereas with RSS 2.0 only full feed documents are supported.
  • Atom specifies that dates be in the format described in RFC 3339 (which is a subset of ISO 8601). The date format in RSS 2.0 was underspecified and has led to many different formats being used.
  • Atom 1.0 has IANA-registered MIME-type. RSS 2.0 feeds are often sent as application/rss+xml, although it is not a registered MIME-type.
  • Atom 1.0 includes an XML schema. RSS 2.0 does not.
  • Atom is an open and evolvable standard developed through the IETF standardization process. RSS 2.0 is not standardized by any standards body. Furthermore according to its copyright it may not be modified.
  • Atom 1.0 elements can be used as extensions to other XML vocabularies, including RSS 2.0 as illustrated in a weblog post by Tim Bray entitled "Atomic RSS".
  • Atom 1.0 describes how feeds and entries may be digitally signed using the XML Digital Signature specification such that entries can be copied across multiple Feed Documents without breaking the signature.

Despite the emergence of Atom as an IETF Proposed Standard and the decision by major companies such as Google to embrace Atom, use of the older and more widely known RSS 1.0 and RSS 2.0 formats has continued.

  • Many sites choose to publish their feeds in only a single format. For example CNN, the New York Times, and the BBC offer their web feeds only in RSS 2.0 format.
  • News articles about web syndication feeds have increasingly used the term "RSS" to refer generically to any of the several variants of the RSS format such as RSS 2.0 and RSS 1.0 as well as the Atom format. (For example, "There's a Popular New Code for Deals: RSS" (NYT January 29, 2006))
  • RSS 2.0 support for enclosures led directly to the development of podcasting. While many podcasting applications, such as iTunes, support the use of Atom 1.0, RSS 2.0 remains the preferred format [5].
  • Each of the various web syndication feed formats has attracted large groups of supporters who remain satisfied by the specification and capabilities of their respective formats.

Development History


Before the creation of Atom the primary method of web content syndication was the RSS family of formats.

Members of the community who felt there were significant deficiencies with this family of formats were unable to make changes directly to RSS 2.0 because it was not an open standard. RSS 2.0 was copyrighted by Harvard University and in the official specification document it stated that it was purposely frozen: "no significant changes can be made and it is intended that future work be done under a different name". [6]

Initial Work

In June 2003, Sam Ruby set up a wiki to discuss what makes "a well-formed log entry". This initial posting acted as a rallying point. [7] People quickly started using the wiki to discuss a new syndication format to address the shortcomings of RSS. It also became clear that the new format could also form the basis of a more robust replacement for blog editing protocols such as Blogger API and LiveJournal XML-RPC Client/Server Protocol.

The project aimed to develop a web syndication format that was: [8]

  • "100% vendor neutral,"
  • "implemented by everybody,"
  • "freely extensible by anybody, and"
  • "cleanly and thoroughly specified."

In short order, a project road map was built. The effort quickly attracted more than 150 supporters including David Sifry of Technorati, Mena Trott of Six Apart, Brad Fitzpatrick of LiveJournal, Jason Shellen of Blogger, Jeremy Zawodny of Yahoo, Timothy Appnel of the O'Reilly Network, Glenn Otis Brown of Creative Commons and Lawrence Lessig. Other notables supporting Atom include Mark Pilgrim, Tim Bray, Aaron Swartz, Joi Ito, and Jack Park. [9] Also, Dave Winer, the key figure behind RSS 2.0, gave tentative support to the Atom endeavor (which at the time was called Echo.)[10]

After this point, discussion became chaotic, due to the lack of a decision-making process. The project also lacked a name, tentatively using "Pie," "Echo," and "Necho" before settling on Atom. After releasing a project snapshot known as Atom 0.2 in early July 2003, discussion was shifted off the wiki.

Atom 0.3 and Adoption by Google

The discussion then moved to a newly set up mailing list. The next and final snapshot during this phase was Atom 0.3, released in December 2003. This version gained widespread adoption in syndication tools, and in particular it was added to several Google-related services, such as Blogger, Google News, and Gmail. Google's Data APIs (Beta) GData are based on Atom 1.0 and RSS 2.0.

Atom 1.0 and IETF Standardization

In 2004, discussions began about moving the project to a standards body such as the World Wide Web Consortium or the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The group eventually chose the IETF and the Atompub working group was formally set up in June 2004, finally giving the project a charter and process. The Atompub working group is co-chaired by Tim Bray (the co-editor of the XML specification) and Paul Hoffman. Initial development was focused on the syndication format.

The final draft of Atom 1.0 was published in July 2005 and was accepted by the IETF as a "proposed standard" in August of 2005. Work then continued on the further development of the publishing protocol and various extensions to the syndication format.

The Atom Syndication Format was issued as a proposed "internet official protocol standard" in IETF RFC 4287 in December 2005. [11] The co-editors of RFC 4287 were Mark Nottingham and Robert Sayre.

Example of an Atom 1.0 Feed

An example of a document in the Atom Syndication Format:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?><feed xmlns=""> <title>Example Feed</title> <subtitle>A subtitle.</subtitle> <link href=""/> <updated>2003-12-13T18:30:02Z</updated> <author>   <name>John Doe</name>   <email></email> </author> <id>urn:uuid:60a76c80-d399-11d9-b91C-0003939e0af6</id> <entry>   <title>Atom-Powered Robots Run Amok</title>   <link href=""/>   <id>urn:uuid:1225c695-cfb8-4ebb-aaaa-80da344efa6a</id>   <updated>2003-12-13T18:30:02Z</updated>   <summary>Some text.</summary> </entry></feed>

See also

  • Sam Ruby
  • Tim Bray
  • Dave Winer
  • XML
  • XSPF
  • Web syndication
  • Syndication format family tree
  • List of content syndication markup languages
  • Podcasting

External links

  • Atom standard
    • RFC 4287 - The formal standard
    • An HTML version of RFC 4287
    • Comparison of RSS and Atom Web Feed Formats
    • The Atom API - column by Mark Pilgrim
    • Getting to know the Atom Publishing Protocol - IBM Developer Works article by James Snell
  • Atom advocacy / evangelism:
    • - An unofficial website following the Atom project
    • Planet Atom - A fusion of atom-related news
    • Atom Syndication Format - Introduction - Overview
  • Atom history & motivation
    • Anatomy of a Well Formed Log Entry - the weblog post that started it all
    • Why we need Echo (June 2003) - Motivation and goals of the Atom project
  • Atom working group links
    • Atom Wiki - The main place for work on Atom.
    • Atom Protocol Mailing List - WG discussion of the publishing protocol
    • Atom Syntax Mailing List - WG discussion of the syndication format
    • IETF Atom Publishing Format and Protocol working group (atompub)
  • Atom Extension Standards
    • IANA Registry of Link-Relations - Official registry of atom:link element "rel" attribute values
    • RFC 4685 - Atom Threading Extensions
    • hAtom - a microformat for marking up standard HTML such that an Atom feed can be derived from it.
Retrieved from ""