- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Accrisoft
  2. Active calendar
  3. ActiveState Komodo
  4. AdLogger
  5. Apache HTTP Server
  6. AutoContent
  7. BakeSale
  8. Bblocked
  9. BBlog
  10. BbPress
  11. Beehive Forum
  12. B2evolution
  13. Bluefish
  14. Chlorine Boards
  15. CMScout
  16. CMSimple
  17. CMS Made Simple
  18. Content Protector
  19. Coppermine Photo Gallery
  20. CRE Loaded
  21. Cutenews
  22. DB DataObject FormBuilder
  23. Divine
  24. Dokeos
  25. DotOrg
  26. Dragonfly CMS
  27. Dreamweaver
  28. Drupal
  29. Dynamic Web page
  30. E107
  31. Eclipse
  32. 25 Essential PHP Functions
  33. FusionBB
  34. Gallery Project
  35. Gedit
  36. Group-Office
  37. HawHaw
  38. IceBB
  39. 4images
  40. Introduction to PHP
  41. Introduction to PHP Learning Guide
  42. IonCube Ltd.
  43. JEdit
  44. Joomla
  45. LAMP
  46. Linux
  47. List of PHP editors
  48. List of PHP libraries
  49. Maguma
  50. Mambo
  51. MediaWiki
  52. MetaBB
  53. Midgard
  54. MiniBB
  55. Monkey Boards
  56. Moodle
  57. MySQL
  58. Ning
  59. Nucleus CMS
  60. Nuke-Evolution
  61. NuSphere Corporation
  62. OpenPHPNuke
  63. Orbit42-Base
  64. OsCommerce
  65. Paamayim Nekudotayim
  66. Phalanger
  67. Php
  68. PHP accelerator
  69. PhpBB
  70. PhpBB Reloaded
  71. PHP Constants
  72. PHPDoc
  73. PhpDocumentor
  74. PHPEdit
  75. PHP Excel Reader
  76. PHP Extension Community Library
  77. PhpGedView
  78. PHP-GTK
  79. PhpLDAPadmin
  80. PHP License
  81. Phplist
  82. PhpMyAdmin
  83. PhpMyVisites
  84. Phpns
  85. PHP-Nuke
  86. PhpPgAdmin
  87. PhpWiki
  88. PmWiki
  89. PostNuke
  90. PSPad
  91. PunBB
  92. PuzzleApps
  93. Quanta Plus
  94. Rasmus Lerdorf
  95. ReallySimpleCMS
  96. Refbase
  97. RGameScript Pro
  98. Santy
  99. SciTE
  100. Serendipity weblog
  101. Simple Machines Forum
  102. SimpleXML
  103. SiteFrame
  104. Smarty
  105. SquirrelMail
  106. Textpattern
  107. Thatware
  108. Think Tank Forums
  109. TikiWiki
  110. TorrentVolve
  111. TYPO3
  112. UBB.threads
  113. UltraEdit
  115. Variables in PHP
  116. VBulletin
  117. WakkaWiki
  118. Web Application Structure for PHP
  119. Webwm
  120. Wikindx
  121. WikkaWiki
  122. WordPress
  123. WordPress MU
  124. Xaraya
  125. XOOPS
  126. Zen Cart
  127. Zend Engine
  128. Zend Studio
  129. Zend Technologies
  130. Zentri
  131. ZPanel


This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Drupal is a free software modular content management framework, content management system and blogging engine which was originally written by Dries Buytaert as a bulletin board system. Today, it is used by many high-traffic websites, including The Onion, Spread Firefox (CivicSpace, see below), Ourmedia, KernelTrap, and the Defective by Design campaign. It is particularly popular for building online communities, and has the tag line "Community plumbing". Drupal is written in PHP. As of October 18, 2006, the current version is 4.7.4.

Meaning of Drupal

Drupal is an English transliteration of the Dutch word “druppel” which means “drop” (as in, “a drop of water”). The name was taken from the website (now defunct), whose code slowly evolved into Drupal. Dries actually wanted to call the site “dorp” (Dutch for “village”, referring to its community aspects), but made a typo when checking the domain name and thought it sounded better. The project was started in 2000.

Content Management System

Drupal has a basic layer, or core, which supports pluggable modules that enable additional behaviors. The modules available for Drupal provide a wide assortment of features, including e-commerce systems such as the Amazon Items module[1], work-flow, photo galleries, mailing list management, and CVS integration.

Drupal's modular design and well-documented, clean codebase make it easier for individuals with knowledge of PHP to write code for additional features. Drupal is often used to build sites that focus on user communities.


Drupal's taxonomy[2] or categorization system is especially customizable as it enables any content to be classified in a way entirely determined by the site administrator. This is one feature that sets Drupal apart from similar systems with its high degree of flexibility provided without the need for coding. Once set up the taxonomy module can “automatically classify new content”. The flip side to this advantage is that the configuration is more demanding. In some cases it may take more time to create well structured setup.

A more extreme example is the high degree of automation possible with the Actions and Workflow modules. This requires the two modules to be setup using features from both. Thankfully there are extensive support documentation and videos to help configure the Workflow and Actions modules[3] to achieve tasks such as sending out notices of new content.

Drupal achieves clean integration between the core and the modules via a system of hooks, or callbacks, to allow modules to insert functions into Drupal's path of execution. Drupal core provides protection against many of the usual security problems, like SQL injection.


Most themes for Drupal are written in the PHPTemplate engine[4] or the XTemplate engine[5]. Earlier templates used hard-coded PHP.

In earlier versions, Drupal's theming system has been criticised [6] as being less design-oriented and more complicated than the systems for Mambo and Plone. With the inclusion of the PHPTemplate and XTemplate engines, these criticisms are generally no longer valid.

Drupal examples

Some of the more specialized roles that Drupal has filled include company intranets, online classrooms, art communities, and project management. It has been used for applications including the following:

  • The Ann Arbor District Library[7] used Drupal in building an award-winning website[8] that includes a number of custom-added features, such as enabling individual library patrons to create their own personalized card catalogs.
  • A number of political campaigns, such as the Jack Carter for Senate campaign in Nevada, have created Drupal-based campaign websites.
  • CiviCRM, a contact relationship management system that integrates with Drupal, has made Drupal an attractive platform for nonprofit organizations such as Greenpeace UK. [9]
  • Drupal has also been used to create hyperlocal citizen journalism websites in towns such as Bluffton, South Carolina[10] and Watertown, Massachusetts[11].


Drupal requires the user installing the program to have the ability to assign genuine full access privileges to the database user-administrator, including such things as CREATE temporary tables and lock tables which are sometimes optioned-out of some hosting services control panels or phpMyAdmin installations. It also requires the hosting service allow the install script to execute full connection privileges to the database from the script when it is called in a browser window from the base URL, a provision which some hosting services deny on their shared hosting accounts.

Drupal has been considered by some[12] to have a somewhat steeper learning curve and a slightly more difficult installation procedure compared to some simple CMS programs or basic blogging tools such as WordPress. Drupal 5.0 will come with a web-based installer to answer these criticisms[13].


Drupal 4.2 [14] was the basis for DeanSpace, a content management system used to power many independent websites supporting the 2004 presidential campaign of Howard Dean. After the Dean campaign ended, the DeanSpace project grew into CivicSpace, a Drupal-based "grassroots organizing platform that empowers collective action inside communities and cohesively connects remote groups of supporters." CivicSpace[15] includes CiviCRM and other features useful on websites for nonprofit organizations and political campaigns.

There are several other customized Drupal distributions. Most are simply drupal repackaged with third party modules, but some also include modifications to the core. They include:

  • DrupalEd, for classroom and educational use.
  • DrupalART, aimed at artists and musicians using Drupal.
  • vbDrupal, Drupal integrated with vBulletin.


Drupal has been discussed in several books.

  • Drupal: Creating Blogs, Forums, Portals, And Community Websites by David Mercer
  • Building Online Communities With Drupal, phpBB, and WordPress by Robert T. Douglass, Mike Little, and Jared W. Smith
  • The revolution will not be televised: democracy, the internet, and the overthrow of everything by Joe Trippi
  • The power of many: how the living web is transforming politics, business, and everyday life by Christian Crumlish
  • We the media: grassroots journalism by the people, for the people by Dan Gillmor
  • Drupal. Community-Websites entwickeln und verwalten mit dem Open Source-CMS. (German) by Hagen Graf

A new book called Pro Drupal Development is due out in spring 2007.

Notable sites using Drupal

Notable websites using Drupal or one of its distributions include:

  • Ain't It Cool News
  • The Allerian Empire, a play-by-post collaborative fiction website (using vBDrupal)
  • Bureaucrash, a freedom activist network
  • Defective by Design, a political campaign by the Free Software Foundation
  • Ecademy, a social networking site (modified software)
  • Esperanto League for North America, which is on the cutting edge of Drupal use in the Esperanto community
  • mariposaHD, a high definition television program distributed over the Internet
  •, the band's official website.
  •, British MTV's site
  • KernelTrap, a computing news website
  • New Democratic Party, a social-democratic political party in Canada
  • The Onion, a satire magazine
  • Ourmedia, a community media archive
  • Rant Media, an Internet media outlet (Drupal is used for the community section)
  • Spread Firefox, a campaign to increase distribution of the Firefox web browser
  • TWiT, a technology podcast network
  • Chris Pirillo former TechTV host and internet entrepreneur.


  1. ^ Amazon Items drupal module
  2. ^ Taxonomy, Drupal's category management system
  3. ^ videos to help configure the Workflow and Actions modules
  4. ^ "PHPTemplate theme engine",
  5. ^ "XTemplate theme engine",
  6. ^ "How does Drupal compare to Mambo?" discussion thread,
  7. ^ Ann Arbor District Library's award-winning website
  8. ^ "American Library Association Awards Ann Arbor District Library Website Best of Show" (news release), June 13, 2006.
  9. ^ Greenpeace UK CMS Selection
  10. ^ Bluffton, South Carolina
  11. ^ Watertown, Massachusetts
  12. ^ Alister Lewis-Bowen et al., "Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site," IBM, July 11, 2006.
  13. ^ Drupal 5.0 beta 1 October 31, 2006. Accessed November 3, 2006.
  14. ^
  15. ^ CivicSpace, a significant contributor to the Drupal project

See also

  • List of content management systems

External links

  • Drupal website
  • Directory of websites using drupal
  • Drupal Theme Garden - gallery of visual designs available for Drupal
  • Documentation for developers
  • Polish Drupal Community
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