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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
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ART
- Great Painters
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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Act of parliament
  2. Administrative law
  3. Adversarial system
  4. Affidavit
  5. Allegation
  6. Alternative dispute resolution
  7. Arbitration
  8. Arrest warrant
  9. Attorney
  10. Attorney General
  11. Bail
  12. Barrister
  13. Burdens of proof
  14. Capital punishment
  15. Civil code
  16. Civil law
  17. Common law
  18. Complaint
  19. Conciliation
  20. Constitutional law
  21. Consumer Protection
  22. Contract
  23. Conviction
  24. Corporate manslaughter
  25. Court
  26. Court of Appeal of England and Wales
  27. Crime
  28. Criminal jurisdiction
  29. Criminal law
  30. Criminal procedure
  31. Cross-examination
  32. Crown attorney
  33. Crown Court
  34. Defendant
  35. Dispute resolution
  36. English law
  37. Evidence
  38. Extradition
  39. Felony
  40. Grand jury
  41. Habeas corpus
  42. Hearsay in English Law
  43. High Court judge
  44. Indictable offence
  45. Indictment
  46. Inquisitorial system
  47. Intellectual property
  48. Judge
  49. Judgment
  50. Judicial economy
  51. Judicial remedy
  52. Jurisdictions
  53. Jurisprudence
  54. Jurist
  55. Jury
  56. Jury trial
  57. Justice
  58. Law
  59. Law of obligations
  60. Law of the United States
  61. Lawsuit
  62. Legal profession
  63. Magistrate
  64. Mediation
  65. Miscarriage of justice
  66. Napoleonic Code
  67. Negotiation
  68. Notary public
  69. Old Bailey
  70. Online Dispute Resolution
  71. Plaintiff
  72. Pleading
  73. Power of attorney
  74. Practice of law
  75. Probable cause
  76. Property law
  77. Prosecutor
  78. Public international law
  79. Public law
  80. Right to silence
  81. Roman law
  82. Scientific evidence
  83. Search warrant
  84. Seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution
  85. Solicitors
  86. Statute
  87. Statute of limitations
  88. Supreme Court of the United States
  89. Testimony
  90. Tort
  91. Torture
  92. Trial by ordeal
  93. Trusts
  94. Verdict
 



FUNDAMENTALS OF LAW
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_dispute_resolution

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Alternative dispute resolution

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Alternative dispute resolution or ADR refers to dispute resolution processes and techniques that fall outside of the government judicial process. Despite historic resistance to ADR by both parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, usually mediation, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute.

ADR is generally classified into at least three subtypes: negotiation, mediation, and arbitration. (Sometimes a fourth type, conciliation, is included as well, but for present purposes it can be regarded as a form of mediation. See conciliation for further details.) The salient features of each type are as follows:

  • In negotiation, participation is voluntary and there is no third party who facilitates the resolution process or imposes a resolution.
  • In mediation, there is a third party, a mediator, who facilitates the resolution process (and may even suggest a resolution, typically known as a "mediator's proposal"), but does not impose a resolution on the parties. In some countries (for example, the United Kingdom), ADR is synonymous with what is generally referred to as mediation in other countries.
  • In arbitration, participation is typically voluntary, and there is a third party who, as a private judge, imposes a resolution. Arbitrations often occur because parties to contracts agree that any future dispute concerning the agreement will be resolved by arbitration. This is known as a 'Scott Avery Clause'. In recent years, the enforceability of arbitration clauses, particularly in the context of consumer agreements (e.g., credit card agreements), has drawn scrutiny from courts. Although parties may appeal arbitration outcomes to courts, such appeals face an exacting standard of review.

"Alternative" dispute resolution is usually considered to be alternative to litigation. It also can be used as a colloquialism for allowing a dispute to drop or as an alternative to violence.

ADR can increasingly be conducted online or by using technology. This branch of dispute resolution is known as Online Dispute Resolution or ODR. It should be noted, however, that ODR services can be provided by government entities, and as such may form part of the litigation process. Moreover, they can be provided on a global scale, where no effective domestic remedies are available to disputing parties, as in the case of the UDRP and domain name disputes. In this respect, ODR might not satisfy the "alternative" element of ADR.

ADR in India

Alternative dispute resolution in India is not new and it was in existence even under the previous Arbitration Act, 1940. The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 has been enacted to accommodate the harmonisation mandates of UNCITRAL Model. To streamline the Indian legal system the traditional civil law known as Code of Civil Procedure, (CPC) 1908 has also been amended and section 89 has been introduced. Section 89 (1) of CPC provides an option for the settlement of disputes outside the court. It provides that where it appears to the court that there exist elements, which may be acceptable to the parties, the court may formulate the terms of a possible settlement and refer the same for arbitration, conciliation, mediation or judicial settlement.

See also

  • Arbitration
  • Conflict resolution research
  • Dispute Resolution
  • Ombudsman
  • Online Dispute Resolution
  • Mediation

Additional Resources

  • CUNY Dispute Resolution Consortium at John Jay College of Criminal Justice- 'The Dispute Resolution Headquarters in New York City'

The City University of New York Dispute Resolution Consortium (CUNY DRC) serves as an intellectual home to dispute-resolution faculty, staff and students at the City University of New York and to the diverse dispute-resolution community in New York City. At the United States' largest urban university system, the CUNY DRC has become a focal point for furthering academic and applied conflict resolution work in one of the world's most diverse cities. The CUNY DRC conducts research and innovative program development, has co-organized countless conferences, sponsored training programs, resolved a wide range of intractable conflicts, published research working papers and a newsletter. It also maintains an extensive database of those interested in dispute resolution in New York City, a website with resources for dispute resolvers in New York City and since 9/11, the CUNY DRC assumed a leadership role for dispute-resolvers in New York City by establishing an extensive electronic mailing list, sponsoring monthly breakfast meetings, conducting research on responses to catastrophes, and managing a public awareness initiative to further the work of dispute resolvers.

References

  • The culture of ADR in India

External links

  • Peacemakers Trust, Definitions in the Field of Dispute Resolution and Conflict Transformation
  • Arbitrator.com: provides information and links to ADR seminars, classes, conventions, publications, etc.
  • https://www.TheMediationRoom.com provides:-

a) information on mediation b) an online platform for use by mediators wishing to offer online mediation c) walk through demonstrations of live real time roleplay online mediations d) a distance training course in online mediation e) a facility for the public to request an online mediation

  • http://www.gama.com GAMA, Global Arbitration Mediation Association, provides forms, information and searchable data bases of arbitrators and mediators at www.gama.com, www.mediation.com and www.arbitration.com.
  • OnlineMediation.Freehomepage.com- Online Mediation: Your Path to Solutions
  • http://www.adndrc.org Asian Domain Name Dispute Resolution Centre
  • http://www.propertydisputeresolution.com Dispute Resolution Wiki, Program Schedule
  • http://www.adr.org American Arbitration Association
  • http://www.hkiac.org Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre
  • http://www.jamsadr.com JAMS
  • ADR&ODR in India
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_dispute_resolution"

 

 

 


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