- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Adobe Reader
  2. Adware
  3. Altavista
  4. AOL
  5. Apple Macintosh
  6. Application software
  7. Arrow key
  8. Artificial Intelligence
  9. ASCII
  10. Assembly language
  11. Automatic translation
  12. Avatar
  13. Babylon
  14. Bandwidth
  15. Bit
  16. BitTorrent
  17. Black hat
  18. Blog
  19. Bluetooth
  20. Bulletin board system
  21. Byte
  22. Cache memory
  23. Celeron
  24. Central processing unit
  25. Chat room
  26. Client
  27. Command line interface
  28. Compiler
  29. Computer
  30. Computer bus
  31. Computer card
  32. Computer display
  33. Computer file
  34. Computer games
  35. Computer graphics
  36. Computer hardware
  37. Computer keyboard
  38. Computer networking
  39. Computer printer
  40. Computer program
  41. Computer programmer
  42. Computer science
  43. Computer security
  44. Computer software
  45. Computer storage
  46. Computer system
  47. Computer terminal
  48. Computer virus
  49. Computing
  50. Conference call
  51. Context menu
  52. Creative commons
  53. Creative Commons License
  54. Creative Technology
  55. Cursor
  56. Data
  57. Database
  58. Data storage device
  59. Debuggers
  60. Demo
  61. Desktop computer
  62. Digital divide
  63. Discussion groups
  64. DNS server
  65. Domain name
  66. DOS
  67. Download
  68. Download manager
  69. DVD-ROM
  70. DVD-RW
  71. E-mail
  72. E-mail spam
  73. File Transfer Protocol
  74. Firewall
  75. Firmware
  76. Flash memory
  77. Floppy disk drive
  78. GNU
  79. GNU General Public License
  80. GNU Project
  81. Google
  82. Google AdWords
  83. Google bomb
  84. Graphics
  85. Graphics card
  86. Hacker
  87. Hacker culture
  88. Hard disk
  89. High-level programming language
  90. Home computer
  91. HTML
  92. Hyperlink
  93. IBM
  94. Image processing
  95. Image scanner
  96. Instant messaging
  97. Instruction
  98. Intel
  99. Intel Core 2
  100. Interface
  101. Internet
  102. Internet bot
  103. Internet Explorer
  104. Internet protocols
  105. Internet service provider
  106. Interoperability
  107. IP addresses
  108. IPod
  109. Joystick
  110. JPEG
  111. Keyword
  112. Laptop computer
  113. Linux
  114. Linux kernel
  115. Liquid crystal display
  116. List of file formats
  117. List of Google products
  118. Local area network
  119. Logitech
  120. Machine language
  121. Mac OS X
  122. Macromedia Flash
  123. Mainframe computer
  124. Malware
  125. Media center
  126. Media player
  127. Megabyte
  128. Microsoft
  129. Microsoft Windows
  130. Microsoft Word
  131. Mirror site
  132. Modem
  133. Motherboard
  134. Mouse
  135. Mouse pad
  136. Mozilla Firefox
  137. Mp3
  138. MPEG
  139. MPEG-4
  140. Multimedia
  141. Musical Instrument Digital Interface
  142. Netscape
  143. Network card
  144. News ticker
  145. Office suite
  146. Online auction
  147. Online chat
  148. Open Directory Project
  149. Open source
  150. Open source software
  151. Opera
  152. Operating system
  153. Optical character recognition
  154. Optical disc
  155. output
  156. PageRank
  157. Password
  158. Pay-per-click
  159. PC speaker
  160. Peer-to-peer
  161. Pentium
  162. Peripheral
  163. Personal computer
  164. Personal digital assistant
  165. Phishing
  166. Pirated software
  167. Podcasting
  168. Pointing device
  169. POP3
  170. Programming language
  171. QuickTime
  172. Random access memory
  173. Routers
  174. Safari
  175. Scalability
  176. Scrollbar
  177. Scrolling
  178. Scroll wheel
  179. Search engine
  180. Security cracking
  181. Server
  182. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
  183. Skype
  184. Social software
  185. Software bug
  186. Software cracker
  187. Software library
  188. Software utility
  189. Solaris Operating Environment
  190. Sound Blaster
  191. Soundcard
  192. Spam
  193. Spamdexing
  194. Spam in blogs
  195. Speech recognition
  196. Spoofing attack
  197. Spreadsheet
  198. Spyware
  199. Streaming media
  200. Supercomputer
  201. Tablet computer
  202. Telecommunications
  203. Text messaging
  204. Trackball
  205. Trojan horse
  206. TV card
  207. Unicode
  208. Uniform Resource Identifier
  209. Unix
  210. URL redirection
  211. USB flash drive
  212. USB port
  213. User interface
  214. Vlog
  215. Voice over IP
  216. Warez
  217. Wearable computer
  218. Web application
  219. Web banner
  220. Web browser
  221. Web crawler
  222. Web directories
  223. Web indexing
  224. Webmail
  225. Web page
  226. Website
  227. Wiki
  228. Wikipedia
  229. WIMP
  230. Windows CE
  231. Windows key
  232. Windows Media Player
  233. Windows Vista
  234. Word processor
  235. World Wide Web
  236. Worm
  237. XML
  238. X Window System
  239. Yahoo
  240. Zombie computer

This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A motherboard, also known as a mainboard, system board, or logic boards on Apple computers, and sometimes abbreviated as mobo (generally credited to the magazine Maximum PC) is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer.

An old Octek Jaguar V mainboard with an AMD 386DX-40 processor.
An old Octek Jaguar V mainboard with an AMD 386DX-40 processor.

A typical computer is built with the microprocessor, main memory, and other basic components on the motherboard. Other components of the computer such as external storage, control circuits for video display and sound, and peripheral devices are typically attached to the motherboard via ribbon cables, other cables, and power connectors.

Historically, a computer was built in a case or Mainframe with a series of wired together connectors called a backplane into which the cpu, memory and I/O on separate cards was plugged. With the arrival of the microprocessor, it became more cost-effective to place the backplane connectors, processor and glue logic onto a single 'mother' board, and have the video, memory and I/O on 'child' cards - hence the terms 'Motherboard' and Daughterboard.

One of the first popular microcomputers to feature this design was the Apple 2 computer, which had a motherboard and 8 expansion slots.

There is more information about IBM-compatible personal computers in PC motherboard.


Form factors

For general technical information about non-PC computer and workstation architectures, see List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU, SPARC, and MIPS architecture.

Motherboards are available in a variety of form factors, which usually correspond to a variety of case sizes. The following is a summary of some of the more popular PC motherboard sizes available:

A Motherboard Heatsink
A Motherboard Heatsink
  • PC/XT - the original open motherboard standard created by IBM for the first home computer, the IBM-PC. It created a large number of clone motherboards due to its open standard and therefore became the de facto standard.
  • AT form factor (Advanced Technology) - the first form factor to gain wide acceptance, successor to PC/XT. Also known as Full AT, it was popular during the 386 era. Now obsolete, it is superseded by ATX.
  • Baby AT - IBM's successor to the AT motherboard, it was functionally equivalent to the AT but gained popularity due to its significantly smaller physical size. It usually comes without AGP port.
  • ATX - the evolution of the Baby AT form factor, it is now the most popular form factor available today.
  • ETX, used in embedded systems and single board computers.
  • Mini-ATX - essentially the same as the ATX layout, but again, with a smaller footprint.
  • microATX - again, a miniaturization of the ATX layout. It is commonly used in the larger cube-style cases such as the Antec ARIA.
  • FlexATX - a subset of microATX allowing more flexible motherboard design, component positioning and shape.
  • LPX - based on a design by Western Digital, it allows for smaller cases based on the ATX motherboard by arranging the expansion cards in a riser (an expansion card in itself, attaching to the side of the motherboard - image). This design allows the cards to rest parallel to the motherboard as opposed to perpendicular to it. The LPX motherboard is generally only used by large
Power switch and SATA connectors.
Power switch and SATA connectors.
Motherboards for sale at retail. Edmonton
Motherboards for sale at retail. Edmonton

OEM manufacturers.

  • Mini LPX - a smaller subset of the LPX specification.
  • NLX - a low-profile motherboard, again incorporating a riser, designed in order to keep up with market trends. NLX never gained much popularity.
  • BTX (Balanced Technology Extended) - a newer standard proposed by Intel as an eventual successor to ATX.
  • microBTX and picoBTX - smaller subsets of the BTX standard.
  • Mini-ITX - VIA's highly integrated small form factor motherboard, designed for uses including thin clients and set-top boxes.
  • WTX (Workstation Technology Extended) - a large motherboard (more so than ATX) designed for use with high-power workstations (usually featuring multiple processors or hard drives.

While most desktop computers use one of these motherboard form factors, laptop (notebook) computers generally use highly integrated, customized and miniaturized motherboards designed by the manufacturers. This is one of the reasons that notebook computers are difficult to upgrade and expensive to repair - often the failure of one integrated component requires the replacement of the entire motherboard, which is also more expensive than a regular motherboard due to the large number of integrated components in it.

See also

  • BIOS
  • Chipset
  • Front side bus
  • List of manufacturers
  • Offboard
  • PCI
  • PCI Express
  • Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP)

External links

  • NVIDIA nForce Motherboards
  • Find and select motherboards for Intel Processors
  • PC Technology Guide: Motherboards
  • What is a motherboard?
  • Identifying the make and model of your motherboard
  • Motherboard reviews
  • Lots of motherboards evaluated here
  • Extensive motherboard reviews articles
  • Various motherboard models and tools
  • Motherboard Forums
  • The Making of a Motherboard: ECS Factory Tour
  • The Making of a Motherboard: Gigabyte Factory Tour
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