From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Computer networking is the scientific and engineering discipline concerned with communication between computer systems. Such communicating computer systems constitute a computer network and these networks generally involve at least two devices capable of being networked with at least one usually being a computer. The devices can be separated by a few meters (e.g. via Bluetooth) or thousands of kilometers (e.g. via the Internet). Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, and sometimes of computer science, information technology and computer engineering. Computer networks rely heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines.
Before the advent of computer networks that were based upon some type of telecommunications system, communication between calculation machines and early computers was performed by human users by carrying instructions between them.
In September 1940 George Stibitz used a teletype machine to send instructions for a problem set from his Model K at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and received results back by the same means. Linking output systems like teletypes to computers was an interest at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) when, in 1962, J.C.R. Licklider was hired and developed a working group he called the "Intergalactic Network", a precursor to the ARPANet.
In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at MIT, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer (DEC's PDP-8) to route and manage telephone connections.
Throughout the 1960s Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently conceptualized and developed network systems which used datagrams or packets that could be used in a packet switched network between computer systems.
In 1969 the University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford), University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected as the beginning of the ARPANet network using 50 kbit/s circuits.
Computer networks, and the technologies needed to connect and communicate through and between them, continue to drive computer hardware, software, and peripherals industries. This expansion is mirrored by growth in the numbers and types of users of networks from the researcher to the home user.
Today, computer networks are a requirement of modern communication. The scope of communication has increased significantly in the past decade and this boom in communications might not have been possible without the advancements in computer networks.
See the List of suggested topics for computer networking research.
- Computer network
- Local area network
- Network topology
- Minimum spanning tree
- Active Networking
- Ambient network
- Larry Peterson, "Computer Networks" (ISBN 1-55860-832-X).
- Andrew S. Tanenbaum, "Computer Networks" (ISBN 0-13-349945-6).
- Important publications in computer networks
- Vinton G. Cerf "Computer Networking: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century"
- Easy Network Concepts (Linux kernel specific)
- Computer Networks and Protocol (Research document, 2006)
- Computer Networking Glossary
- Networking at the Open Directory Project