- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Adobe Reader
  2. Adware
  3. Altavista
  4. AOL
  5. Apple Macintosh
  6. Application software
  7. Arrow key
  8. Artificial Intelligence
  9. ASCII
  10. Assembly language
  11. Automatic translation
  12. Avatar
  13. Babylon
  14. Bandwidth
  15. Bit
  16. BitTorrent
  17. Black hat
  18. Blog
  19. Bluetooth
  20. Bulletin board system
  21. Byte
  22. Cache memory
  23. Celeron
  24. Central processing unit
  25. Chat room
  26. Client
  27. Command line interface
  28. Compiler
  29. Computer
  30. Computer bus
  31. Computer card
  32. Computer display
  33. Computer file
  34. Computer games
  35. Computer graphics
  36. Computer hardware
  37. Computer keyboard
  38. Computer networking
  39. Computer printer
  40. Computer program
  41. Computer programmer
  42. Computer science
  43. Computer security
  44. Computer software
  45. Computer storage
  46. Computer system
  47. Computer terminal
  48. Computer virus
  49. Computing
  50. Conference call
  51. Context menu
  52. Creative commons
  53. Creative Commons License
  54. Creative Technology
  55. Cursor
  56. Data
  57. Database
  58. Data storage device
  59. Debuggers
  60. Demo
  61. Desktop computer
  62. Digital divide
  63. Discussion groups
  64. DNS server
  65. Domain name
  66. DOS
  67. Download
  68. Download manager
  69. DVD-ROM
  70. DVD-RW
  71. E-mail
  72. E-mail spam
  73. File Transfer Protocol
  74. Firewall
  75. Firmware
  76. Flash memory
  77. Floppy disk drive
  78. GNU
  79. GNU General Public License
  80. GNU Project
  81. Google
  82. Google AdWords
  83. Google bomb
  84. Graphics
  85. Graphics card
  86. Hacker
  87. Hacker culture
  88. Hard disk
  89. High-level programming language
  90. Home computer
  91. HTML
  92. Hyperlink
  93. IBM
  94. Image processing
  95. Image scanner
  96. Instant messaging
  97. Instruction
  98. Intel
  99. Intel Core 2
  100. Interface
  101. Internet
  102. Internet bot
  103. Internet Explorer
  104. Internet protocols
  105. Internet service provider
  106. Interoperability
  107. IP addresses
  108. IPod
  109. Joystick
  110. JPEG
  111. Keyword
  112. Laptop computer
  113. Linux
  114. Linux kernel
  115. Liquid crystal display
  116. List of file formats
  117. List of Google products
  118. Local area network
  119. Logitech
  120. Machine language
  121. Mac OS X
  122. Macromedia Flash
  123. Mainframe computer
  124. Malware
  125. Media center
  126. Media player
  127. Megabyte
  128. Microsoft
  129. Microsoft Windows
  130. Microsoft Word
  131. Mirror site
  132. Modem
  133. Motherboard
  134. Mouse
  135. Mouse pad
  136. Mozilla Firefox
  137. Mp3
  138. MPEG
  139. MPEG-4
  140. Multimedia
  141. Musical Instrument Digital Interface
  142. Netscape
  143. Network card
  144. News ticker
  145. Office suite
  146. Online auction
  147. Online chat
  148. Open Directory Project
  149. Open source
  150. Open source software
  151. Opera
  152. Operating system
  153. Optical character recognition
  154. Optical disc
  155. output
  156. PageRank
  157. Password
  158. Pay-per-click
  159. PC speaker
  160. Peer-to-peer
  161. Pentium
  162. Peripheral
  163. Personal computer
  164. Personal digital assistant
  165. Phishing
  166. Pirated software
  167. Podcasting
  168. Pointing device
  169. POP3
  170. Programming language
  171. QuickTime
  172. Random access memory
  173. Routers
  174. Safari
  175. Scalability
  176. Scrollbar
  177. Scrolling
  178. Scroll wheel
  179. Search engine
  180. Security cracking
  181. Server
  182. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
  183. Skype
  184. Social software
  185. Software bug
  186. Software cracker
  187. Software library
  188. Software utility
  189. Solaris Operating Environment
  190. Sound Blaster
  191. Soundcard
  192. Spam
  193. Spamdexing
  194. Spam in blogs
  195. Speech recognition
  196. Spoofing attack
  197. Spreadsheet
  198. Spyware
  199. Streaming media
  200. Supercomputer
  201. Tablet computer
  202. Telecommunications
  203. Text messaging
  204. Trackball
  205. Trojan horse
  206. TV card
  207. Unicode
  208. Uniform Resource Identifier
  209. Unix
  210. URL redirection
  211. USB flash drive
  212. USB port
  213. User interface
  214. Vlog
  215. Voice over IP
  216. Warez
  217. Wearable computer
  218. Web application
  219. Web banner
  220. Web browser
  221. Web crawler
  222. Web directories
  223. Web indexing
  224. Webmail
  225. Web page
  226. Website
  227. Wiki
  228. Wikipedia
  229. WIMP
  230. Windows CE
  231. Windows key
  232. Windows Media Player
  233. Windows Vista
  234. Word processor
  235. World Wide Web
  236. Worm
  237. XML
  238. X Window System
  239. Yahoo
  240. Zombie computer

This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 

Microsoft Windows

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary operating systems by Microsoft. They can run on several types of platforms such as servers, embedded devices and, most typically, on personal computers. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing trend of graphical user interfaces (GUI) popularized by the Macintosh. Microsoft Windows eventually came to dominate the world's personal computer market. At the 2004 IDC Directions conference, IDC Vice President Avneesh Saxena stated that Windows had approximately 90% of the client operating system market.[1]


See also: List of Microsoft Windows versions

The term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft (MS) operating system (OS) products. These products are generally categorized as follows:


16-bit operating environments

The box art of Windows 1.0, the first version Microsoft released to the public.
The box art of Windows 1.0, the first version Microsoft released to the public.

The early versions of Windows were often thought of as just graphical user interfaces or desktops, mostly because they were started from MS-DOS and used it for file system services. However even the earliest 16-bit Windows versions already assumed many typical operating system functions, notably having their own executable file format and providing their own device drivers (timer, graphics, printer, mouse, keyboard and sound) for applications. Unlike MS-DOS, Windows allowed users to execute multiple graphical applications at the same time, through cooperative multitasking. Finally, Windows implemented an elaborate, segment-based, software virtual memory scheme which allowed it to run applications larger than available memory: code segments and resources were swapped in and thrown away when memory became scarce, and data segments moved in memory when a given application had relinquished processor control, typically waiting for user input. Examples include Windows 1.0 (1985) and Windows 2.0 (1987) and its close relative Windows/286.

Hybrid 16/32-bit operating environments

Windows/386 introduced a 32-bit protected mode kernel and virtual machine monitor. For the duration of a Windows session, it created one or more virtual 8086 environments and provided device virtualization for the video card, keyboard, mouse, timer and interrupt controller inside each of them. The user-visible consequence was that it became possible to preemptively multitask multiple MS-DOS environments in separate windows (graphical applications required switching the window to full screen mode). Windows applications were still multi-tasked cooperatively inside one of such real-mode environments.

Windows 3.0 (1990) and Windows 3.1 (1992) improved the design, mostly thanks to virtual memory and loadable virtual device drivers (VxDs) which allowed them to share arbitrary devices between multitasked DOS windows. Because of this, Windows applications could now run in 16-bit protected mode (when Windows was running in Standard or 386 Enhanced Mode), which gave them access to several megabytes of memory and removed the obligation to participate in the software virtual memory scheme. They still ran inside the same address space, where the segmented memory provided a degree of protection, and multi-tasked cooperatively. For Windows 3.0, Microsoft also rewrote critical operations from C into assembly, making this release faster and less memory-hungry than its predecessors.

Hybrid 16/32-bit operating systems

The Windows logo that was used from 1992 through 1999.
The Windows logo that was used from 1992 through 1999.

With the introduction of 32-bit File Access in Windows for Workgroups 3.11, Windows could finally stop relying on DOS for file management. Leveraging this, Windows 95 introduced Long File Names, reducing the 8.3 DOS to the role of a boot loader. MS-DOS was now bundled with Windows; this notably made it (partially) aware of long file names when its utilities were run from within Windows, but angered the competition. The most important novelty was the possibility of running 32-bit multi-threaded preemptively multitasked graphical programs. However, the necessity of keeping compatibility with 16-bit programs meant the GUI components were still 16-bit only and not fully reentrant, which resulted in reduced performance and stability.

There were three releases of Windows 95 (the first in 1995, then subsequent bug-fix versions in 1996 and 1997, only released to OEMs, which added extra features such as FAT32 support). Microsoft's next OS was Windows 98; there were two versions of this (the first in 1998 and the second, named "Windows 98 Second Edition", in 1999). In 2000, Microsoft released Windows Me (Me standing for Millennium Edition), which used the same core as Windows 98 but adopted the visual appearance of Windows 2000, as well as a new feature called System Restore, allowing the user to set the computer's settings back to an earlier date. It was not a very well received implementation, and many user problems occurred. Windows Me was considered a stopgap to the day both product lines would be seamlessly merged. Microsoft left little time for Windows Me to become popular before announcing their next version of Windows which would be called Windows XP.


32-bit operating systems

The Windows logo that was used from late 1999 to 2001.
The Windows logo that was used from late 1999 to 2001.

This family of Windows systems was designed and marketed for higher-reliability business use, and was unencumbered by any Microsoft DOS heritage. The first release was Windows NT 3.1 (1993, numbered "3.1" to match the Windows version and to one-up OS/2 2.1, IBM's flagship OS codeveloped by Microsoft and Windows NT's main competitor at the time), which was followed by NT 3.5 (1994), NT 3.51 (1995), and NT 4.0 (1996); the latter implemented the Windows 95 user interface. Microsoft then moved to combine their consumer and business operating systems. Their first attempt, Windows 2000, failed to meet their goals, and was released as a business system. The home consumer edition of Windows 2000, codenamed "Windows Neptune", ceased development and Microsoft released Windows Me in its place. Eventually "Neptune" was merged into their new project, Whistler, which later became Windows XP. Since then, a new business system, Windows Server 2003, has expanded the top end of the range, and the forthcoming Windows Vista will complete it. Windows CE, Microsoft's offering in the mobile and embedded markets, is also a true 32-bit operating system that offers various services for all sub-operating workstations.


64-bit operating systems

Windows NT included support for several different platforms before the x86-based personal computer became dominant in the professional world. Versions of NT from 3.1 to 4.0 supported DEC Alpha and MIPS R4000, which were 64-bit processors, although the operating system treated them as 32-bit processors.

With the introduction of the IA-64 (Itanium) architecture, and later the AMD64/EM64T (or x64 in Microsoft terminology) architectures, Microsoft released new versions of its more contemporary operating systems to support them. The modern 64-bit Windows family comprises Windows XP 64-bit Edition for IA-64 systems, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition for AMD64/EM64T systems, and Windows Server 2003, in both IA-64 and x64 editions. The x64 versions of Windows XP Professional and Server 2003 were released on April 25, 2005, while the IA-64 versions were released at the same time as their mainstream x86 (32-bit) counterparts. Windows Vista will be the first end-user version of Windows that Microsoft plans to release simultaneously in 32-bit and x64 editions.


Main article: History of Microsoft Windows
A typical Windows 1.0 desktop.
A typical Windows 1.0 desktop.

Microsoft has taken two parallel routes in operating systems. One route has been the home user and the other has been the professional IT user. The dual route has generally led to the home versions with more "eye candy" and less functionality in networking and security, and professional versions with less "eye candy" and better networking and security.

The first independent version of Microsoft Windows, version 1.0, released in November 1985, lacked a degree of functionality and achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 did not provide a complete operating system; rather, it extended MS-DOS. Microsoft Windows version 2.0 was released in November, 1987 and was slightly more popular than its predecessor. Windows 2.03 (release date January 1988) had changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights.

A typical Windows 3.11 Workgroup desktop.
A typical Windows 3.11 Workgroup desktop.

Microsoft Windows version 3.0, released in 1990, was the first Microsoft Windows version to achieve broad commercial success, selling 2 million copies in the first six months. It featured improvements to the user interface and to multitasking capabilities. In August 1995, Microsoft released Windows 95, which made further changes to the user interface and was the first Windows version to utilize multitasking.

In July 1993, Microsoft released Windows NT based on a new kernel. NT was considered to be the professional OS. NT and the Windows non-professional line would later be fused together to create Windows XP.

The next in line was Microsoft Windows 98 released in June 1998. Substantially criticized for its slowness compared with Windows 95, many of its basic problems were later rectified with the release of Windows 98 Second Edition in 1999.

As part of its professional line, Microsoft released Windows 2000 in February 2000. The consumer version following Windows 98 was Windows Me (Windows Millennium Edition). Released in September 2000, Windows Me attempted to implement a number of new technologies for Microsoft: most notably publicized was "Universal Plug and Play." However, the OS was substantially criticized for its lack of compatibility and stability.[citation needed]

The Windows logo that was used from 2001 to 2006.
The Windows logo that was used from 2001 to 2006.

In October 2001, Microsoft released Windows XP, a version built on the Windows NT kernel that also retained the consumer-oriented usability of Windows 95 and its successors. This new version was widely praised in computer magazines.[1] It shipped in two distinct editions, "Home" and "Professional", the former lacking many of the superior security and networking features of the Professional edition. Additionally, the "Media Center" edition was released in 2003, with an emphasis on support for DVD and TV functionality including program recording and a remote control.

In April 2003, Windows Server 2003 was introduced, replacing the Windows 2000 line of server products with a number of new features and a strong focus on security; this was followed in December 2005 by Windows Server 2003 R2.

Windows Vista, the successor to Windows XP, is due to be released on January 30, 2007. It was released to business consumers on November 30, 2006. Windows Server 2003's successor will be Windows Server "Longhorn", and has a planned release date in the second half of 2007.



The Windows Security Center was introduced with Windows XP Service Pack 2.
The Windows Security Center was introduced with Windows XP Service Pack 2.

Security has been a hot topic with Windows for many years, and even Microsoft itself has been the victim of security breaches.[2] Due in some part to the widespread usage of Windows on personal computers, as well as a number of technical reasons there is reportedly a fivefold greater amount of malware for Windows than other operating systems such as GNU/Linux, Unix, Mac OS X, and FreeBSD[3]. Windows was originally designed for ease-of-use on a single-user PC without a network connection, and did not have security features built in from the outset[citation needed]. Windows NT and its successors are designed for security (including on a network) and multi-user PCs, but was not designed for Internet security in mind as much since, when it was first developed, the Internet was less important. Combined with occasionally flawed code (such as buffer overflows), Windows is a frequent target of worms and virus writers. Furthermore, until Windows Server 2003 most versions of even Windows NT were shipped with important security features disabled by default, and vulnerable (albeit useful) system services enabled by default. In June 2005, Bruce Schneier's Counterpane Internet Security reported that it had seen over 1,000 new viruses and worms in the previous six months.

Microsoft publicly admitted their ongoing security problems shortly after the turn of the century and now claims to regard security as their number one priority. The much-needed Automatic Update came first with Windows Me. As a result, Service Pack 2 for Windows XP, as well as Windows Server 2003, was installed by users more quickly than it otherwise might have been. Microsoft releases security patches through its Windows Update service approximately once a month (usually the second Tuesday of the month), although critical updates are made available at shorter intervals when necessary. In Windows 2000 (SP3 and later), Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, updates can be automatically downloaded and installed if the user selects to do so.

Windows Defender

On 6 January 2005, Microsoft released a beta version of Windows AntiSpyware, based upon the previously released Giant AntiSpyware. On 14 February 2006, Windows AntiSpyware became Windows Defender with the release of beta 2. Windows Defender is a freeware program designed to protect against spyware and other unwanted software. Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 users can freely download the program from Microsoft's web site, and Windows Defender ships as part of Windows Vista.[4]

Third-party analysis

A study conducted by Kevin Mitnick and marketing communications firm Avantgarde found that an unprotected and unpatched Windows XP system lasted only 4 minutes on the Internet before it was compromised. [5] The AOL National Cyber Security Alliance Online Safety Study of October 2004 determined that 80% of Windows users were infected by at least one spyware/adware product.[6] Much documentation is available describing how to increase the security of Microsoft Windows products. Typical suggestions include deploying Microsoft Windows behind a hardware or software firewall, running anti-virus and anti-spyware software, and installing patches as they become available through Windows Update.

Emulation software

Emulation allows the use of some Windows applications without using Microsoft Windows. These include:

  • Wine – (Wine Is Not an Emulator) an almost complete free software/open-source software implementation of the Windows API, allowing one to run most Windows applications on x86 Unix-based platforms, including GNU/Linux.
  • CrossOver Office – a commercially packaged Wine with licensed fonts. Its developers are regular contributors to Wine, and focus on Wine running officially supported applications.
  • Cedega (formerly known as WineX) – TransGaming Technologies' proprietary fork of Wine, which is designed specifically for running games written for Microsoft Windows under GNU/Linux.
  • ReactOS – open-source operating system, aimed to be compatible with existing Windows NT applications and drivers.
  • Project David – ambitious and controversial project to fully emulate Windows programs to run on other OSs.
  • Parallels Workstation - by Parallels, Inc.
  • Virtual PC - Virtual PC for Mac OS X is an emulation suite (discontinued as of 2006), and Virtual PC for Windows is a virtualization suite. The software was originally written by Connectix, and was subsequently acquired by Microsoft. Virtual PC for Mac emulates an x86-32 CPU, therefore can also support other OSs, but has specific support for Windows.
  • Darwine - this project intends to port and develop Wine as well as other supporting tools that will allow Darwin and Mac OS X users to run Microsoft Windows Applications, and to provide Win32 API compatibility at application source code level.

See also

Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Basic Computing Using Windows


  • Comparison of operating systems
  • List of operating systems
  • Comparison of Windows and Linux
  • Comparison of Windows and Mac OS X

Further reading

  • Architecture of the Windows NT operating system line
  • List of Microsoft Windows components
  • Microsoft Windows topics
  • Windows Explorer
  • Windows Genuine Advantage
  • Windows Media


  1. ^ IDC: Consolidation to Windows won't happen
  2. ^ Microsoft hacked again. Retrieved on 2006-05-24.
  3. ^ Antivirus company suggests home users switch to Macs. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  4. ^ Windows Vista: Features. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  5. ^ Automated "Bots" Overtake PCs Without Firewalls Within 4 Minutes
  6. ^ Safety Study (PDF)

External links


  • Microsoft's Official Windows Website
  • Windows history time line from Microsoft


  • Microsoft Development Network for programming Microsoft Windows
  • Windows API tutorial in C++
  • Programming Windows in Assembly Language

Reviews and evaluation

  • Paul Thurrott's SuperSite for Windows – a comprehensive evaluation of Microsoft's products and technologies
  • "Time to Live on the Network" – a security study by Kevin Mitnick and Avantgarde (PDF)
  • Windows XP: rough around the edges – an UI review of Windows XP
  • AOL/National Cyber Security Alliance Online Safety Study (October 2004) (PDF)

High Performance Computing

  • Windows HPC Portal


  • Windows history – a Windows history time line graph by Ιric Lιvιnez (detailed, continually updated)
  • GUIdebook: Windows Gallery – a website dedicated to preserving and showcasing graphical user interfaces
  • Windows 20th Birthday
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