- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Adobe Reader
  2. Adware
  3. Altavista
  4. AOL
  5. Apple Macintosh
  6. Application software
  7. Arrow key
  8. Artificial Intelligence
  9. ASCII
  10. Assembly language
  11. Automatic translation
  12. Avatar
  13. Babylon
  14. Bandwidth
  15. Bit
  16. BitTorrent
  17. Black hat
  18. Blog
  19. Bluetooth
  20. Bulletin board system
  21. Byte
  22. Cache memory
  23. Celeron
  24. Central processing unit
  25. Chat room
  26. Client
  27. Command line interface
  28. Compiler
  29. Computer
  30. Computer bus
  31. Computer card
  32. Computer display
  33. Computer file
  34. Computer games
  35. Computer graphics
  36. Computer hardware
  37. Computer keyboard
  38. Computer networking
  39. Computer printer
  40. Computer program
  41. Computer programmer
  42. Computer science
  43. Computer security
  44. Computer software
  45. Computer storage
  46. Computer system
  47. Computer terminal
  48. Computer virus
  49. Computing
  50. Conference call
  51. Context menu
  52. Creative commons
  53. Creative Commons License
  54. Creative Technology
  55. Cursor
  56. Data
  57. Database
  58. Data storage device
  59. Debuggers
  60. Demo
  61. Desktop computer
  62. Digital divide
  63. Discussion groups
  64. DNS server
  65. Domain name
  66. DOS
  67. Download
  68. Download manager
  69. DVD-ROM
  70. DVD-RW
  71. E-mail
  72. E-mail spam
  73. File Transfer Protocol
  74. Firewall
  75. Firmware
  76. Flash memory
  77. Floppy disk drive
  78. GNU
  79. GNU General Public License
  80. GNU Project
  81. Google
  82. Google AdWords
  83. Google bomb
  84. Graphics
  85. Graphics card
  86. Hacker
  87. Hacker culture
  88. Hard disk
  89. High-level programming language
  90. Home computer
  91. HTML
  92. Hyperlink
  93. IBM
  94. Image processing
  95. Image scanner
  96. Instant messaging
  97. Instruction
  98. Intel
  99. Intel Core 2
  100. Interface
  101. Internet
  102. Internet bot
  103. Internet Explorer
  104. Internet protocols
  105. Internet service provider
  106. Interoperability
  107. IP addresses
  108. IPod
  109. Joystick
  110. JPEG
  111. Keyword
  112. Laptop computer
  113. Linux
  114. Linux kernel
  115. Liquid crystal display
  116. List of file formats
  117. List of Google products
  118. Local area network
  119. Logitech
  120. Machine language
  121. Mac OS X
  122. Macromedia Flash
  123. Mainframe computer
  124. Malware
  125. Media center
  126. Media player
  127. Megabyte
  128. Microsoft
  129. Microsoft Windows
  130. Microsoft Word
  131. Mirror site
  132. Modem
  133. Motherboard
  134. Mouse
  135. Mouse pad
  136. Mozilla Firefox
  137. Mp3
  138. MPEG
  139. MPEG-4
  140. Multimedia
  141. Musical Instrument Digital Interface
  142. Netscape
  143. Network card
  144. News ticker
  145. Office suite
  146. Online auction
  147. Online chat
  148. Open Directory Project
  149. Open source
  150. Open source software
  151. Opera
  152. Operating system
  153. Optical character recognition
  154. Optical disc
  155. output
  156. PageRank
  157. Password
  158. Pay-per-click
  159. PC speaker
  160. Peer-to-peer
  161. Pentium
  162. Peripheral
  163. Personal computer
  164. Personal digital assistant
  165. Phishing
  166. Pirated software
  167. Podcasting
  168. Pointing device
  169. POP3
  170. Programming language
  171. QuickTime
  172. Random access memory
  173. Routers
  174. Safari
  175. Scalability
  176. Scrollbar
  177. Scrolling
  178. Scroll wheel
  179. Search engine
  180. Security cracking
  181. Server
  182. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
  183. Skype
  184. Social software
  185. Software bug
  186. Software cracker
  187. Software library
  188. Software utility
  189. Solaris Operating Environment
  190. Sound Blaster
  191. Soundcard
  192. Spam
  193. Spamdexing
  194. Spam in blogs
  195. Speech recognition
  196. Spoofing attack
  197. Spreadsheet
  198. Spyware
  199. Streaming media
  200. Supercomputer
  201. Tablet computer
  202. Telecommunications
  203. Text messaging
  204. Trackball
  205. Trojan horse
  206. TV card
  207. Unicode
  208. Uniform Resource Identifier
  209. Unix
  210. URL redirection
  211. USB flash drive
  212. USB port
  213. User interface
  214. Vlog
  215. Voice over IP
  216. Warez
  217. Wearable computer
  218. Web application
  219. Web banner
  220. Web browser
  221. Web crawler
  222. Web directories
  223. Web indexing
  224. Webmail
  225. Web page
  226. Website
  227. Wiki
  228. Wikipedia
  229. WIMP
  230. Windows CE
  231. Windows key
  232. Windows Media Player
  233. Windows Vista
  234. Word processor
  235. World Wide Web
  236. Worm
  237. XML
  238. X Window System
  239. Yahoo
  240. Zombie computer

This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 

Hacker culture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The hacker culture is the voluntary subculture established between and around hackers. There are two mainstream subcultures within the larger hacker subculture. Early hacker culture was highlighted in the book Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution by Steven Levy.

Two subcultures

The academic hacker subculture developed in the 1960s among hackers working on early minicomputers in academic computer science environments, especially at MIT. After 1969 it fused with the technical culture of the pioneers of the Internet, after 1980 with the culture of Unix, and after 1987 with elements of the early microcomputer hobbyists. Since the mid-1990s, it has been largely coincident with what is now called the free software movement.

While some claim origins related to radio amateurs in 1920s (in the context of phreaking), the hobby and network hacker subculture primarily developed in the 1960s. It is often implicated with 2600: The Hacker Quarterly and the alt.2600 newsgroup. There are also relations to hobbyist home computing of the early 80s; however, contrary to the academic hacker subculture, such links are mostly by way of commercial computer and video games, software cracking and later the demoscene.

There are overlaps in ideas and members of both subcultures. The main break between them is most often traced to the 1983 mass media coverage of hackers which failed to distinguish between the two aspects of the wider subculture. Since that time, members of the first subculture have a tendency to look down and disassociate from these overlaps. They often refer disparagingly to people in the second subculture as crackers, and often refuse to accept any definition of hacker that encompasses such activities (see the Hacker definition controversy). The second subculture on the other hand tends not to distinguish between the two subcultures as harshly, instead acknowledging that they have much in common including many members, political and social ideologies, and a love of learning about technology. They have more a tendency to categorize people into script kiddies and black hat (for which two groups the second subculture reserves the term cracker), grey hat and white hat hackers. They also sometimes refer to the first subculture as conservative hackers; however, this term is rarely used or taken seriously outside of the influence of the second hacker subculture.

Academic hacking


Before communications between computers and computer users was as networked as it is now, there were multiple independent and parallel hacker subcultures, often unaware or only partially aware of each others' existence. All of these had certain important traits in common:

  • placing a high value on freedom of inquiry; hostility to secrecy
  • information-sharing as both an ideal and a practical strategy
  • upholding the right to fork
  • emphasis on rationality
  • distaste for authority
  • playfulness, taking the serious humorously and their humor seriously

These sorts of subcultures were commonly found at academic settings such as college campuses. The MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon University were particularly well-known hotbeds of early hacker culture. They evolved in parallel, and largely unconsciously, until the Internet and other developments such as the rise of the free software movement drew together a critically large population and encouraged the spread of a conscious, common, and systematic ethos. Symptomatic of this evolution was an increasing adoption of common slang and a shared view of history, similar to the way in which other occupational groups have professionalized themselves but without the formal credentialling process characteristic of most professional groups.

Over time, the academic hacker subculture has tended to become more conscious, more cohesive, and better organized. The most important consciousness-raising moments have included the composition of the first Jargon File in 1973, the promulgation of the GNU Manifesto in 1985, and the publication of The Cathedral and the Bazaar in 1997. Correlated with this has been the gradual election of a set of shared culture heroes: Bill Joy, Donald Knuth, Dennis Ritchie, Alan Kay, Ken Thompson, Richard M. Stallman, Linus Torvalds, and Larry Wall, among others.

The concentration of academic hacker subculture has paralleled and partly been driven by the commoditization of computer and networking technology, and has in turn accelerated that process. In 1975, hackerdom was scattered across several different families of operating systems and disparate networks; today it is largely a Unix and TCP/IP phenomenon, and is concentrated around various open-source operating systems.

Artifacts and customs

The academic hacker subculture is defined by shared work and play focused around central artifacts. Some of these artifacts are very large; the Internet itself, the World Wide Web, the GNU project, and the Linux operating system are all hacker creations, works of which the subculture considers itself primary custodian.

Since 1990, the academic hacker subculture has developed a rich range of symbols that serve as recognition symbols and reinforce its group identity. Tux, the Linux penguin, the BSD Daemon, and the Perl Camel stand out as examples. More recently, the use of the glider structure from Conway's Game of Life as a general Hacker Emblem has been proposed by Eric S. Raymond. All of these routinely adorn T-shirts, mugs, and other paraphernalia.

Notably, the academic hacker subculture appears to have exactly one annual ceremonial day—April Fool's. There is a long tradition of perpetrating elaborate jokes, hoaxes, pranks and fake websites on this date. This is so well established that hackers look forward every year to the publication of the annual joke RFC, and one is invariably produced.


The Jargon File has had a special role in acculturating hackers since its origins in the early 1970s. Many textbooks and some literary works shaped the academic hacker subculture, among the most influential are:

  • Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution
  • Hackers & Painters
  • Gödel, Escher, Bach
  • The Art of Computer Programming
  • Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools
  • Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs
  • The C Programming Language
  • The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
  • The Tao of Programming
  • Illuminatus!
  • Principia Discordia
  • The Mythical Man-Month
  • The Soul of a New Machine
  • The Cuckoo's Egg
  • The Unix System

Hobby and network hacking

The hobby and network hacker subculture is focused around the computer games industry and the exploitation of computer security. It is often referred to as the computer underground. According to its adherents, it centers around the idea of creative and extraordinary computer usage. Their main points of interest in practice are circumvention of access restriction measures in any thinkable manner and exceptional computer programming, the latter having lead to the partly separate demo scene. As such it consists largely of computer security hackers. Proponents claim to be motivated by artistic and political ends, but are often unconcerned about the use of criminal means to achieve them.


Main article: Timeline of hacker history

The hobby and networking scene has historical roots in the early phone phreaks of the 1970s and the microcomputer BBS scene of the 1980s. It has a close relation to the 2600: The Hacker Quarterly.

Artifacts and customs

Contrary to the academic hacker subculture, hobby and networking hackers have no inherently close connection to the academic world. They have a tendency to work anonymously and in private. It is common among them to use aliases for the purpose of concealing identity, rather than revealing their real names. This practice is uncommon within and even frowned upon by the academic hacker subculture. Members of the hobby and network hacking scene are often being stereotypically described as crackers by the academic hacker subculture, yet see themselves as hackers and even try include academic hackers in what they see as one wider hacker culture, a view harshly rejected by the academic hacker subculture itself. Instead of a hacker–cracker dichotomy, they give more emphasis to a spectrum of different categories, such as white hat, grey hat, black hat and script kiddie. In contrast to the academic hackers, they usually reserve the term cracker to refer to black hat hackers, or more generally hackers with unlawful intentions.

The hobby and network hacking subculture is supported by regular gatherings, so called cons. These have drawn more and more people every year including SummerCon (Summer), DEF CON, HoHoCon (Christmas), PumpCon (Halloween), H.O.P.E. (Hackers on Planet Earth) and HEU (Hacking at the End of the Universe). They have helped expand the definition and solidify the importance of the hobby and network hacker subculture. In Germany, members of the subculture are organized mainly around the Chaos Computer Club.

The subculture has given birth to what its members consider to be novel forms of art, most notably ascii art. It has also produced its own slang and various forms of unusual alphabet use, for example leetspeak. Both things are usually seen as an especially silly aspect by the academic hacker subculture. In part due to this, the slangs of the two subcultures differ substantially. Political attitude usually includes views for freedom of information, freedom of speech, a right for anonymity and most have a strong opposition against copyright, especially digital rights management. Writing programs and performing other activities to support these views is referred to as hacktivism by the subculture. Some go as far as seeing illegal computer cracking ethically justified for this goal; the most common form is website defacement.


Hackers from the hobby and network hacking subculture often show an adherence to fictional cyberpunk and cyberculture literature and movies. Widely recognized works include:

  • Hackers (short stories)
  • The Hacker Crackdown
  • sprawl trilogy
  • WarGames
  • The Matrix

Absorption of fictional pseudonymes, symbols, values and metaphors from these fictional works are very common. A non-fictional document many members of the subculture identify with is the Hacker's Manifesto.

External links

  • Ethical Hacking Blog
  • Hacker WarGames
  • A Brief History of Hackerdom - more depth on the history of hackerdom
  • How To Become a Hacker, by Eric S. Raymond, an adherent to the academic hacker subculture.
  • Voices in My Head - MindVox: The Overture by Patrick Kroupa
  • Hacking in 17 easy steps, by Doug Mclean, an adherent to the hobby and networking hacker subculture
  • Hacker culture(s)
  • Defining Hacking Culture and Its Potential as Resistance
  • White Hat, Black Hat, Grey Hat links
  • Original Jargon File

See also

  • Hackathon
  • Hacker ethic
  • Hack value
  • Cyberculture
  • Free software movement
  • Open source movement
  • Quantum bogodynamics
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