- Great Painters
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
- Concept Cars
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

- Education
- Masterpieces of English Literature
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
- Christmas Traditions
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables


  1. Aerobatics
  2. Aerobics
  3. Aeromodelling
  4. Aikido
  5. Air Racing
  6. Amateur wrestling
  7. American football
  8. Archery
  9. Artistic roller skating
  10. Badminton
  11. Ballooning
  12. Baseball
  13. Basketball
  14. Beach soccer
  15. Billiards
  16. Bobsleigh
  17. Bocce
  18. Bodybuilding
  19. Bowling
  20. Canoeing
  21. Cricket
  22. Croquet
  23. Cycling
  24. Cyclo-cross
  25. Darts
  26. Disabled sports
  27. Discus throw
  28. Diving
  29. Drag racing
  30. Eight ball
  31. Enduro
  32. Equestrianism
  33. Fandom
  34. Female sports
  35. Fencing
  36. Figure skating
  37. Football
  38. F1 Powerboat Racing
  39. Freestyle skiing
  40. Gliding
  41. Golf
  42. Grand Prix motorcycle racing
  43. Hammer throw
  44. Hang gliding
  45. High jump
  46. History of sport
  47. Human powered aircraft
  48. Hurdling
  49. Hydroplane racing
  50. Ice climbing
  51. Ice hockey
  52. Javelin throw
  53. Judo
  54. Ju-jitsu
  55. Jumping
  56. Karate
  57. Karting
  58. Kickboxing
  59. Kitesurfing
  60. Kung-fu
  61. List of professional sports leagues
  62. List of sports
  63. List of violent spectator incidents in sports
  64. Long-distance track event
  65. Long jump
  66. Marbles
  67. Middle distance track event
  68. Modern pentathlon
  69. Motocross
  70. Motorcycle sport
  71. Motorsports
  72. Mountain bicycling
  73. Mountaineering
  74. Multi-sport events
  75. Nationalism and sports
  76. National sport
  77. Olympic Games
  78. Parachuting
  79. Paragliding
  80. Parasailing
  81. Pelota
  82. Petanque
  83. Playboating
  84. Pole vault
  85. Polo
  86. Race walking
  87. Relay race
  88. Rink hockey
  89. Road bicycle racing
  90. Rock climbing
  91. Rowing
  92. Rugby football
  93. Rugby league
  94. Rugby Union
  95. Running
  96. Sailing
  97. Scuba diving
  98. Shooting sports
  99. Skateboarding
  100. Ski jumping
  101. Skittles
  102. Slalom canoeing
  103. Snooker
  104. Snowboarding
  105. Sport
  106. Sport in film
  107. Sports acrobatics
  108. Sports attendances
  109. Sports broadcasting
  110. Sports club
  111. Sports coaching
  112. Sports injuries
  113. Sports marketing
  114. Sprints
  115. Steeplechase
  116. Sumo
  117. Surfing
  118. Swimming
  119. Table football
  120. Table tennis
  121. Taekwondo
  122. Tai Chi Chuan
  123. Team handball
  124. Tennis
  125. Toboggan
  126. Track cycling
  127. Triathlon
  128. Triple jump
  129. Tug of war
  130. Underwater rugby
  131. Volleyball
  132. Water polo
  133. Water skiing
  134. Windsurfing


This article is from:

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: 

Slalom canoeing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Whitewater Slalom is a competitive sport where the aim is to navigate a decked canoe or kayak through a course of gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible. It is one of the two kayak and canoeing disciplines at the Summer Olympics, and is referred to by the IOC as "canoe/kayak slalom". The other Olympic canoeing discipline is canoe/kayak flatwater. There is also wildwater, a non-Olympic canoesport. Whitewater slalom racing started in Europe and in the 1940s, the International Canoe Federation was formed to govern the sport. The first World Championships was held in 1949 in Switzerland. Since then, they were held every two years. Foldboats were used back then. In the early 1960s boats were made of fiberglass, and nylon. Boats were heavy, usually over 30 pounds. With the advent of kevlar being used in the early 1970s, the widths of the boats being reduced by the I.C.F.,and the boats being reduced in volume to sneak the gates, and boats became much lighter and faster. From 1949 to 1977 all World Championships were held in Europe. The first World Championship held in North America was held at Jonquiere, in Quebec, Canada in 1979.


Each gate consists of two poles hanging from a wire strung across the river. There are 20- 30 numbered gates in a course and they are colored as either green (downstream) or red (upstream), indicating the direction they must be negotiated. Upstream gates are placed in eddies, where the water is flat or moving slightly upstream; the paddler makes the 'breakout' and paddles upstream through the gate. Some races even contain reverse gates, to be navigated backwards, which are marked with the letter 'R'. Slalom courses typically take between 80 to 300 seconds to complete. Each competitor has two runs on the course, and the final result is based either on the faster run (in smaller races) or the sum of the two runs (in National and Olympic competitions).

If the competitor's boat, paddle or body touches either pole of the gate, a time penalty of two seconds is added. If the competitor misses a gate completely, displaces it by more than 45 degrees, goes through the gate upside-down, or goes through it in the wrong order, a 50 second penalty is given.

There are four Olympic Medal events:

  • C-1 (canoe single) Men
  • C-2 (canoe double) Men
  • K-1 (kayak single) Men
  • K-1 (kayak single) Women

Development of Boats

In the 1960s and early 1970s, boats were made of heavy fiberglass and nylon. The boats were high volume and weighed over 30 pounds. In the early 1970s kevlar was used and the boats became lighter as well as the volume of the boats was being reduced almost every year as new designs were made. The I.C.F also reduced the width of the boats in the early 1970s. The gates were hung about 10 cm above the water. When racers began making lower volume boats to sneak underneath gates, the gates were raised in response to fears that new boats would be of such low volume as to create a hazard to the paddler. Their low volume sterns allow the boat to slice through the water in a quick turn, or 'pivot'.
Typically, new racing boats cost between $1,200 and $2,500 (or 650 onwards for the cheapest constructions in fibreglass). Usually boats are made with carbon fibre, kevlar, and fiberglass cloth, using epoxy or polyester resin to hold the layers together.


Slalom courses are usually on class 2 to class 4 whitewater. Some courses are technical, containing many rocks. Others are on stretches containing fewer rocks and larger waves and holes.

Slalom canoeing made its Olympic debut in 1972 in Augsburg, W. Germany. It was not seen again until 1992 in Seu d'Urgell as part of the Barcelona games. Since then, slalom paddling has been a regular at the Olympics. List of past Olympic locations:

  • 1972: Augsburg, W. Germany
  • 1992: La Seu d'Urgell, Spain
  • 1996: Ocoee River, U.S.A.
  • 2000: Penrith, Australia
  • 2004: Athens, Greece
  • 2008: Beijing, China
  • 2012: Broxbourne, England

External links

  • For more details on the International rules, see the pdf of the international slalom rules as stated by the International Canoe Federation website
  • USA Canoe and Kayak
  • Canoe Slalom UK
Retrieved from ""